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the nest through a hole in its floor. Some of the Mr Young superintended, under an officer of engineers, men were weeks before they could reach the top, while the compilation and calculations for the publication it was the duty of Sergeant Steel and others to ascend of the grand triangulation of the United Kingdom, it, and carry on the work in the most tempestuous and the arcs of the meridian connected with it. In weather and in the darkest nights. The oscillations addition to these scientific duties, he had charge of of the structure were frequently very violent; but the an official correspondence, and the management of observer, cool and fearless, continued to complete his large public accounts, the magnitude of which may arcs, and to record the movements of the stars. In be judged by the fact, that in four years alone more one of the storms which broke over Norwich, an than L.100,000 passed through his hands-L.50,000 at architect paid the sergeant a visit; but the vibration least in personal payments, and the remainder in issues of the nest appeared so alarming to him, that, through through him, to other persons rendering their accounts his representation, a peremptory order was given to to him for examination. This brief abstract affords abandon the station, by removing the instrument and sufficient evidence of the extent and responsibility of his scaffolding from the spire. At Beachy Head, the duties, which, Colonel Hall reported, "could only bave sergeant spent a winter season, where he was exposed been performed, in the highly efficient manner in which to cold the bitterest he had ever experienced. This they had been, by the possession on his part of great was in March 1845; and at midnight, when the tem- mathematical knowledge and aptitude for applied perature was 25 degrees below freezing-point, he did sciences.” In some respects to compensate him for not forsake his work, but continued to observe the his services, he had, when a non-commissioned officer, elongations of the pole-star, protected only by the been awarded the highest military rewards and allow: canvas sides of his frail observatory. In moving from ances that the regulations permitted—namely, 4s. & place to place, he acquired much skill and facility in day and an annuity of L.10 a year and a silver medal. the construction of scaffolding and stages; and some These, with his sergeant-major's pay, made his annual of these fabrics, from his own designs, have only, allowances reach about L.170 a year, exclusive of his perhaps, been excelled by the interesting works of regimental advantages of excellent quarters, fuel, and Sergeant Beaton. Soon after this, Sergeant Steel was clothing. Even this, the ultimate stretch of military employed during periods of five years in carrying on a reward, was wholly incommensurate with his acquire. series of astronomical observations with Airy's zenith ments and deserts; and to retain his services in the sector for the determination of the latitude of various department, it became necessary that a special course trigonometrical stations used in the Ordnance survey should be taken to better his station in the corps. of the British isles. Out of the twenty-six sector This was successful; and by the cordial and generous stations, he visited seventeen, at fifteen of which he advocacy of Sir John Burgoyne, a commission was took the whole of the observations, with the exception obtained for him to the rank of quarter-master, by of a few at Balta, and about one-half at Southampton, which he is placed, in a pecuniary view, in a position which were made by Corporal William Jenkins. The above the chief civil gentlemen on the survey, and on record of his observations, comprising about 700 quarto a par nearly with the lieutenants of engineers employed pages of closely printed matter, attests both his industry on it.' under difficulties and his talents. In this honourable Who would think of romance in connection with service, he displayed a quickness of perception, an the subject of triangulation ? And yet, what between accuracy in the manipulation of his instrument, and a living upon mountain-tops and on high scaffoldsskill and dexterity in the taking and registration of his airy perches, difficult of erection, and never visited observations, that place him in an enviable light even without the sense of insecurity—the surveying sapper among scientific men. The most important work with is constantly in the way of adventures. Mr Connolly which the name of Sergeant Steel is popularly asso- says, in writing of Sergeant James Beaton: "Throughciated, is the triangulation of London for the Sewers' out his survey-career of more than twenty-three years, Commissioners. He it was who designed the beautiful his adventures and vicissitudes on mountain-duty, in scaffolding around and above the ball and cross of St observing, in scaffold-building, in travels by land and Paul's, and who for four months carried on his duties sea, exposed in camp to frost and snow, to violent in the observatory, cradled above the cross, with so winds, storms, and deluging tempests, belong almost much spirit and zeal, notwithstanding at times its to the romance of science. This is true not only alarming oscillations. In that period, he made between with respect to the arduous and trying services of 8000 and 10,000 observations, and, on the completion Sergeant Beaton, but to many others who, like him, of the service, superintended the removal of the scaf- have been allotted to the laborious duty of the great folding, which was found to be an operation even more triangulation.' difficult and hazardous than its erection. Another important work superintended by him, was the re

UNDER THE LIMES. measurement of the base-line on Salisbury Plain by means of the compensation-apparatus, which he conducted with his accustomed fidelity. This is the Mr As there I stood beneath the flowering limes, Steel who, in 1855, furnished the British Association Whose golden blossoms waved above my head with 850 determinations of latitudes and theodolite A fragrant orchester, where hymns were said observations from Arthur's Seat, with the view of In musical intonements and rich chimes determining the attraction of that mountain.

By myriad bees—I saw, as distant climes Quarter-master William Young is also a man of Are visible in dreams, a lady laid marked ability. 'For fifteen years, he superintended Upon the opposite bank, where black yews made a large force of computers and others, employed in A darkness that benighted sun and aircarrying out the various calculations for the principal, Strange contrast with the brightness round me cast ! secondary, and minor triangulation, the preparation of But oh! the beauty of that face divine, diagrams, the calculations of latitudes, longitudes, and

Where rose and lily did such tints combine meridional bearings, also the computation of distances

As my tree-odour and sunshine surpassed ! and positions for the hydrographical office, to enable

So brightly shone her clouds of golden hair the Admiralty to project the nautical surveys of the

That-spite of all the shade-there was no shadow there! coast of the United Kingdom. With these scientific duties was connected the computation of trigono- Printed and Published by, W. and R. CHAMBERS, 47 Patermetrical and meridional and parallel distances for the

noster Row, LONDON, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGH. Also

sold by WILLIAM ROBERTSON, 25 Upper Sackville Street, DUBLIN, surveys and large plans of towns. ... For some years and all Booksellers.

BY THE LATE

MAJOR CALDER CAMPBELL.

POPULAR

LITERATUR EN
Science and rt s.

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS.

No. 186.

SATURDAY, JULY 25, 1857.

PRICE 11d.

next carriage closed in his face by a gentleman;' TRAVELLING COMPANIONS.

how the man kept looking at his crushed bleeding I CERTAINLY do meet with odd people on my travels, finger, and muttering savagely: 'He'd none ha done though these are neither numerous nor extensive. I it, if I'd had a good coat on my back!' Even among have never passed the bounds of-speaking Hibernicé these it was interesting to watch the care with which -my three native countries; yet within England, three or four of them guarded each a branch of white Scotland, and Ireland I have met with characters sloe-blossom, to brighten some wretched London enough to set up a modern Sentimental Journey; and attic—the train was going to London; and it was heard little bits of histories, full of nature, feeling, or more than interesting-even touching, if it had not humour, that would furnish studies for the greatest been so lamentable in its indications—to see the blank novel-writer of the day. Most of these I have gaze of sullen wonder with which the man with the lighted upon in railway-carriages-places fruitful in hurt finger stared at me when I asked the simple civil episodes to one who generally travels second-class and question, in the commonly civil tone which we Englishı alone.

are apt to think it lowers our dignity to use to any Yes, in this slowly deteriorating world, we may well but our equals, “if he disliked having the window begin to fear that clothes and purses do not confer open ?' He made not the smallest reply-he only that unquestionable respectability which it is generally stared. Poor fellow! I wonder whether, in lavishing supposed they do; else why, in spite of silk gowns, abuse on the boorishness of the Britisha peasant, it ever unexceptionable broadcloth, and no lunch in a basket, crosses the superior British mind to try the novel as an ingenious avoidance of Wolverton, Swindon, system of teaching inferiors politeness by example ? York, &c., can first-class never trust itself to itself, But I am wandering from the companions who but must stare in mute investigation of its own amused and occupied me during a day's journey last merits and position till within a county or so of its week, and who unconsciously suggested this article. terminus, when repentance and satisfied gentility Honest folk! I daresay it never struck their simple come quite too late? Now, second-class, whose only imaginations that they were decided characters, or passport is its face, and only safe-conduct its civil that 'a chiel' in the corner was 'takin' notes' of behaviour, has no such qualms, but plunges at once their various peculiarities. in medias res, settles itself to the evident duties of It was a double carriage, meant for sixteen, and humanity in transitu, and reaps corresponding benefits. nearly full. Various comings and goings took place

Nature certainly meant me for a second-class the first hour, which I scarcely observed, till finally passenger. I cannot help taking a vivid interest in waking up out of thought, and feeling that one must everything and everybody around me. Convinced that take an interest in something, my mind centered itself

in the other compartment on a row of black curls, The proper study of mankind is man,

slightly marked with gray, under a sailor-like sort of or woman, as it happens, I suffer no little impediments cap, and above a very nautical pair of shoulders. to daunt me, and succumb to none of those slight Shortly, an unmistakably nautical voice, seasoned annoyances, which are grave evils to persons of sensi- with a slight foreign, or, as I afterwards discovered, tive organisation. To be sure, it was an inconvenience Jersey accent, made itself heard through the clatter to be thrust into the carriage with those two young of tongues at their end of the carriage and the couples, married that morning, and bound for Australia quiet silence of ours. — We were three women in next day, especially when the one husband, half-seas black, myself, and a gentleman, who looked like a over, would balance sleepily between the corner and clergyman. his wife's shoulder, and the other wife chattered the The black curls shook, and the brawny hands most coquettish nonsense to the other husband. Still, gesticulated more and more, in the enthusiasm of in each of the opposite partners, I could trace a quiet description to some passenger opposite. Shortly I sturdy seriousness, which led me to moralise on the saw that the whole compartment, and even those in future fate of all four, and even to see a wise mean our own who could hear, were absorbed in attending ing in the dispensation of matrimony, morally as well to our maritime friend. as physically, coupling opposite faults and opposite • When I was becalmed off the Isle of France'virtues. Also, on that terrible incursion of the Goths, When I commanded the So-and-so, trading with the in the shape of six big labourers, accompanied by the West Indies '-'When we ran ashore off the coast of unmistakable fustian odour, all brutish and stupid, and Guinea'—these and similar phrases reached us-small the only “'cute' one fierce with his wrong in having the fragments of conversation, and casual allusions to

stray corners in every quarter of the globe, which at he does; and for sense and fondness he's just as once arrest_the attention and admiration of us good as a child. Then, in answer to a question-with islanders. Truly, if we have a weakness, it is for a momentary shadow over the round face— No, sir; those who traffic upon the deep waters.

The sea

we have got no children.' Poor Red-bonnet! perhaps captain was, I saw, fast becoming the hero of the otherwise she would not have put a musket into the carriage.

back' of an unlucky blackamoor, who must once have I could only see his black curls; but I was amused been mother's son to somebody. by the face opposite to him-'fat, fair, and forty'- Human nature is weak, especially female nature. thoroughly English, and set off in thoroughly English It can resist an attack of pirates much easier than the taste by yellow flowers inside a bright-red bonnet : petty vanity of telling the story afterwards, with every bourgeoise to the core. She might have never trod addition possible, for the entertainment of a railway. beyond the safe pavement of some snug provincial carriage. In ours, the masculine tongue stopped town, save when once—for she wore a bracelet that I entirely-reposed on the glory of adventures passed felt sure was bought at the Crystal Palace-dragged through-or only now and then dropped a gruff word, up to London to bring down to admiring neighbours in true man-fashion, as if when a thing was once done, her report of its wonders. A comfortable, jolly, impas- it was a great bother' afterwards to be obliged to sive face, which listened with a sort of patronising talk about it. smile, I thought, to the wonders of the deep, as Not so the better-half. The captain's wife chattered detailed by the sailor. I never was more astonished on, at the rate of nine knots an hour; till the three in my life than when, in a pause of the anecdote-it decent bodies in black, who sat by me, cast doubtful was some attack at sea-Mrs Red-bonnet observed in looks at one another, and up to the carriage roof, in the the quietest drawl:

mild pharisaical style of thankful self-gratulation; and Yes, they thought the bursting o’ that cannon even the pale young clergyman turned his quiet head would ha' killed him; but I just laid him down on a half over the compartment, listening with an air halftable in the cabin, and I plastered his face all over shocked, half-compassionate, to these apocryphal tales with wadding, and cut two holes for his eyes, and he of slave-stealing off the African coast, and accidental got well somehow. There beant no partic'lar scar butcheries on the Chinese seas, told with as much left-eh? You see?' Appealing to the carriage coolness as if the offending Malays had been Cochin generally, as a mild recognition of her personal pro- China fowls. perty in the aforesaid black curls and broad shoulders, I had noticed the parson's head before. It was one of which nodded acquiescence.

those that you will frequently find in English country “Ay, ay-they'd have finished me, more than once, pulpits—pale, fair-haired, with features so delicately but for her there.'

cut, and woman-like, in short, that you instinctively Her’ smiled; and in the aforesaid meek drawl think, “That man must be very like his mother.' Yet continued: “Yes, we'd some bad business in that there was great firmness in it—the sort of firmness nigger trade. Do you remember the blackie that was you never see but in fair people-mild, and not aggresnigh killing you asleep in the cabin ?-only I happened sive, yet capable of resistance to the death. The brow, to come in, and stuck a sword into him. I helped to square and high, and made higher still by a slight throw the other three black rascals overboard; I was baldness, seemed to occupy two-thirds of the head. a strong woman then.'.

Intellect, power of work, patience, perseverance-even And the lazy blue eyes drooped, and the fat cheeks a certain sweet kindliness, were all there and somesmiled, in amiable deprecation; while the whole thing else, which, alas ! you too often see in English carriage looked with amazed curiosity at this middle-country clergymen: a narrowness, a placid assertion aged matronly Thalestris that we had got among us. of infallible right-the only possible right being that

*Ay, ay-my wife's right,' said the sea-captain, which the assertor held-a still, cold, uninvestigating, who thereupon subsided a little, and left his better satisfied air, to which belief had only one phase, and half to give tongue, which she did pretty freely, telling that was the particular phase in which its defender in that languid dolorous voice the most unaccountable saw it. The Thirty-nine Articles were written in his stories of niggers running away-So I just thought face-everything beside them or beyond them being I'd put a musket to his back'-of niggers trying to heretical or impossible. assassinate her, when her husband lay sick-but I At least, this was the impression he gave me; if a just had a horsewhip in my hand, and I gave it him false one, and the reverend unknown should read this till he howled for mercy: you must get the upper paper, I here humbly demand his pardon. For he hand of these blackies, or they'll get the upper hand was true to his profession, which was more than of you.' Or else tales of shipwrecks, disasters, illnesses I was; for I confess to an involuntary smile when, of the captain-But oh, bless you, the crew always shooting her arrow abroad, it might be at random, or minded me; they knew I could command the ship it might not, Mrs Red-bonnet thus broke out: almost as well as him.' All of which the captain lazily “Yes, it's all very fine to talk about savages; for confirmed with his gruff 'Ay, ay;' he evidently had my part, I should like to tell the people at home a bit long ceased to consider his wife as at all a remark- of what I know about the missionaries that teach 'em. able personage.

Lor' bless ye! I wouldn't give a penny to a missionaryNot so her present audience. More than one smile box! I've seen 'em abroad. They're all a take-in. arose of amused incredulity-but always, I noticed, They just learn a few little black boys their letters, behind the black head and its curls. And fat and rosy and then they go up country and enj'y themselves. as the face was, I could trace a certain cold hardness I knows their ways! Of all the humbugs on earth, in the blue eyes, a squareness of jaw, and merciless there's not a bigger humbug than a missionary.' rigidity of mouth, which made me feel that-comfort- More than one pair of eyes glanced towards the able as she looked-on the whole I had rather not clergyman. He sat motionless, his thin lips drawn have been one of the .rascally niggers' who offended almost into a straight line; a pale red came into his Mrs Red-bonnet.

cheek, and faded away again; but he never said a Various turns her conversation took, from these word. raw- head - and - bloody - bones' anecdotes — some of *Ay,' added the Jersey captain, with a loud seawhich I really, for the sake of womanhood, had laugh, innocent enough, for his back was to the rather not put down-to little episodes in the domestic clergyman, whom, I do not suppose, he had ever history of a poll-parrot, whom I took out of the seen—but the poor fellows mean no harm ; it is only nest, and now he speaks three languages—I declare in the way of business. One of them did say to me,

when I asked of him what he went out for: "Captain," of her lay a pocket-book, and two or three letters; on says he, “what do you sail your ship for?” “Money," the other, open, the waiting-room Bible, in which she says I.” “That's it,” says he; “so do I.” And, by seemed to have been reading. Hastily she shut it, and George, it's the same with all them poor missionary started up. fellows; they only do it for the money.'

No, there was no need for that. I did the only The clergyman started—bis brow was knitted, his thing possible under the circumstances-quitted the thin sallow hands tightened on one another; yet still room as quickly as I came into it. Whether I ever he kept silence. His soul evidently writhed within saw the lady again-how much I felt, or pondered, or him at these slanders cast on his cloth; but he did guessed of the pang which only those who have endured not speak a word. He was not born for a Martin can understand-I do not intend to say; let it remain Luther, a Renwick, a John Knox-he could ‘keep between her and me: I shall not put her in print.' the faith,' but he could not fight for it. He could If she chance to take up this paper, perhaps she will sit still, with those blue eyes flashing indignant fire, remember. I will only chronicle this one fact, which those delicate lips curled with scornful disgust at was to me a curious comment on the odd people' of the coarseness of the attacks levelled at his creed- my journey—on the heathen' captain and his wife, nay, at any creed, in the presence of one of its vowed the silent, wrathful clergyman, the humbug' missionprofessors; but it never occurred to him to turn and ary and all-how I found her, with her unknown story say a quiet word-not in defence of the Faith, for betrayed in every line of her poor face, sitting quiet it needed none, but in protestation against the blind, in the solitary waiting-room, with her hand on the ignorant injustice which could condemn a whole open Bible. brotherhood for the folly or wickedness of one. It never seemed to cross his mind to say to these poor people-of whom I heard my neighbour whispering,

THE NOBLE SCIENCE OF BLAZON. horrified, "What heathens!'--that the shortcomings of That 'the noble science of blazon’ should still maina thousand priests are as powerless to desecrate real tain itself in spite of the utilitarians, is a strong Christianity, as the poor fool who burrows away from example of the tenacity of associations once generally daylight in a cave, to annihilate the light of the sun. established. The bearing of heraldic arms, when the

But passive as he was, there was something in his arms they represent were really borne by knight and earnest ascetic face which gave a tacit condemnation squire, was the distinctive mark of gentility; none to Mrs Red-bonnet. Gradually her onslaughts ceased, being permitted to assume them who was not entitled for nobody seconded them; and after the first, nobody to them by his rank. And so enduring is a notion even smiled. Something of that involuntary respect which has once rooted itself in the mind of a people, for the clergy,' wliich lies firm and safe at the bottom that even now, though centuries have elapsed since of the Saxon heart- especially in the provinces - the armour of chivalry was consigned to the museums imposed general silence; and the woman, who was of the curious, no one who lays claim to gentility would not a bad sort of woman after all, I think, turned her like to be supposed deficient in his due attributes of course of conversation, and went on a more legitimate helmet, crest, shield, and motto. tack.

How we ourselves view this question, we shall not I did not listen to it; my mind was pondering over at present say. The wealthy cotton-spioner may the pale young priest, and how strange it is that Truth, still aspire, an it likes him, 'to write himself down of itself so pure and strong, the very strongest thing armigero,' and sue out his liveries and arms at the in the whole world, should often be treated by its Heralds’ College: our business is with the heraldic professors as if it were too brittle to bear handling, devices of the past, and not with those ingenious too tender to let the least breath of air blow upon it, imitations which the multiplication of persons desirous too frail to stand the smallest contamination from of bearing arms has kept the invention of heralds on without. Good God! I thought, if people would only the stretch to supply for emblazonment on the panels believe enough in their own faith to trust it to itself of carriages and the covers of side-dishes. -and to Thee !

It has been long a matter of dispute amongst antiWe reached the terminus; and, as usual, all the quaries from what period the adoption of armorial fellow-passengers, like Macbeth's witches, made bearings is to be dated. Some of the more zealous themselves air.' Mrs Red-bonnet, the captain, the illustrators of the Arte of Armorye would carry it back clergyman, myself, and the three meek dummies in to the heroic ages, because Achilles and Æneas are black-severally parted; in all human probability, represented to have borne some device upon their never to meet again in this world. Peace go with shields. By more than one writer the hierogly plis of them! I am their debtor for a few harmless medita- the heralds are deduced from those of ancient Egypt; tions; and if they see themselves in this article, it while others, more rationally, see their origin in the will do them no harm-perhaps a little good.

symbols borne by commanders of all ages on their I stopped at the terminus-one of the principal banners, or impressed by sovereigns and states upon English ports--our great southern sea-gate, as it were. their coins. Our own Sir George Mackenzie attributes The salt smell blew across me, and the dim tops of their invention to the patriarch Jacob; Professor far-away masts rose over the houses ; indicating the Robison, and after him Gwillim, to Alexander the quay, which is the grand rendezvous of partings and Great. But the Treatise on Armourye, of the learned meetings between England and her colonies–England prioress of Sopewell, the Lady Juliana Berners, in the and half the known world.

Boke of St Albans, as it is our most ancient, is also Having to stay two hours, I went into the waiting- perhaps the most curious disquisition on the subject. room. There-starting up as I entered was a lady: It discusses the questions of how gentylmen began, I never shall forget her face !

and how the law of armys was first ordaynt;' and, in Young, though not in first youth ; sweet, so inex- the fashion of the old chronicles, commencing with the pressibly sweet, that you forgot to notice whether it fall of the angels, and proceeding through that of man was beautiful; nay, it shamed you from looking at and the deluge, it makes out our Saviour to be 'a it at all; for there were the red swollen eyelids—the gentylman on his moder's side;' and goes on to shew, hot spots, one on each cheek, while the rest of the face, by the lynage of coote armuris, how gentylmen are though composed, was dead white. Yes, this is, as I to be known from ungentylmen.' Mixed up with said, the great sea-gate, the place of meetings and all this mass of pedantry and absurdity in the books partings-memorable, year by year, to hundreds and on hieraldry, there are, as usual, a few grains of truth ihousands. She was sitting at the table-on one side and reason. No doubt, in the earliest ages, kings and

name,

military chieftains bore distinguishing devices on their kind, the insignia of the Hays; the first of which standards and their coins - sometimes, perhaps, on it is said, obtained his arms when, with his two their shields and helmets. But the general use of sons, having rallied the Scottish army to the defeat such devices, and their hereditary transmission, are of a horde of Danes at the battle of Luncarty in 942, practices that unquestionably arose only in the age they were brought to the king with their shields all of feudalism and chivalry; and it is not difficult to covered with blood. The legend says the father was a account for their adoption. The essence of the feudal ploughman, and fought with the yoke of his plough; system was the obligation to military suit and service whence the crest of the Hays has remained to this day of those who held lands under the lord or suzerain. a rustic bearing a plough-yoke in his hand. Each knight was bound for his 'fee' to bring into the The scallop-shells, bezants, Saracen’s lieads, cresfield, when called on by his lord, a certain number of cents, and crosses in all their varieties, smack strongly men-at-arms. An army, therefore, was necessarily of the Crusades, in which they were doubtless first composed of a great number of separate companies, adopted. The animals with which so many coats are each obeying the orders only of its knightly leader, charged, were probably assumed as emblematical of and fighting under his banner or pennon. It became the possession of their respective qualities. The expedient, consequently, to vary to a very great extent magnanimous lion, king of beasts,' was of course & the symbols displayed on these standards; and it is general favourite; and every device that ingenuity obvious how equally necessary it was that the person could suggest, was soon adopted to vary his mode of of the leader himself, who often fought with the visor appearance, so that the same bearing should not be of his helmet down, so that his features could not be repeated in any two instances. He is 'tricked' of all recognised, should be distinguished by the blazoning colours, and in every attitude-rampant, passant, of conspicuous colours on his shield, and some well- statant, seyant, combatant, guardant, reguardant; and known badge on his lielm. The symbols or bearings' again, by duplication, statant-guardant, passant-re. thus introduced on banner, shield, crest, or surcoat, as guardant, &c. He is cut up into demi-lions, or reduced rallying-points in the battle-field, became permanently to a lioncel. He is 'collared,'.crowned,' fettered,' or associated with the noble deeds that were performed armed' with every known implement of violence; his under their cognizance. The sons of those wlio had head and limbs, and even his tail, are severed and won bright honour'on such occasions, would tliere- displayed in every imaginable position; and, lastly, the fore naturally wish to bear the badges which their unlucky beast is debruisé, dehaché, or, "coupéd in all fathers' prowess had distinguished; and the inheritance parts' to adorn the coat of the Maitlands. of arms was thus an unavoidable consequence of their Next to the lion, in general esteem, ranks, perhaps, general assumption.

the leopard, two of which are supposed to have been The practice having in this manner introduced borne on the shield of William the Conqueror. The itself almost as a matter of necessity, the sovereigns stag, the boar, the eagle, the falcon, the greyhound, in chief must have soon found it desirable to regulate the bull, and the horse, run very close in the rivalry it on some fixed principles. It is very doubtful, how- of favour. The choice of beasts of chase is probably ever, by whom this was first attempted. The statement derived from the predilection of their first bearers of Menestrier, a French writer of considerable eminence for the sport; indeed, there always seems to have in the fifteenth century, is most probably correct. He existed a close connection between heraldry and the traces the institution to Henry the Falconer, who was chase. The Boke of St Albans, already mentioned, raised to the imperial throne of the west in 920, and is treats of hawkyng, huntyng, and armourye;' and said to have applied bimself diligently to the regula- Henry the Falconer has been noticed as the probable tion and encouragement of tournaments. But the founder of the science of blazon itself. The technical earliest well-authenticated instances of the adoption description by lieralds of some of these bearings, sounds of armorial bearings on shields belong to the twelfth not a little whimsical to the uninitiated; as where century, as those of Richard Fitzhugh, Earl of Chester, mention is made of two greylounds respecting each and Geoffry Magnaville, Earl of Essex. The shields other,' a ' peacock affronté,' a 'buck's head attired on the Bayeux tapestry-the work, as our readers proper,' &c. know, of the wife of William the Conqueror-exhibit Some charges are evidently chosen as a sort of not only crosses of different shapes and colours, but a hieroglyph of the family name; such are the roach sort of dragon. At the period of the first Crusade, it borne by Roche, primroses by Primrose, the crow by was certainly customary to ornament shields very Corbet, three whales by Whalley, pikes by Lucy, highly. Robert of Aix, who was himself present, arrows by Archer, bows by Bowes, the elephant by describes the shields of the European knights as Oliphant, three right arms mailed and gauntleted by

resplendent with gold, gems, and colours ;' and it has Armstrong, bulls' heads by Gore, with many other been plausibly suggested that the vast concourse of instances. Not only have the earth, seas, and air been warriors from all countries on this occasion must have ransacked for heraldic figures, but the heavens likenecessitated the use of a great variety of distinctive wise and the regions of fable. Chaloner bears three blazonings, and probably introduced what became cherubim ; suns, crescents, and stars shine on many a subsequently a general practice.

shield ; griffins, cockatrices, wiverns, dragons, harpies, Many heraldic badges and devices were no doubt mermaids, phænixes, and unicorns, display their pororiginally assumed as distinctive decorations at tour- tentous attributes, and were probably assumed, like the naments; but the greater number took their rise from Gorgon's head of old, for the purpose of petrifying an incidents on the field of battle-such as the bloody antagonist. Stephen of Blois bore a centaur on his heads and hands, the battle-axes and swords, gauntlets, coat. The arms of the Duchy of Milan are a crowned arrows, turrets, and so forth, with which so many serpent swallowing an infant, which is said to have shields are charged. The 'simple ordinaries,' as they been adopted by Otho, first Count of Milan, when, on are called—the bar, the bend, the cross, &c.— were his way to the Holy Land with Godfrey of Bouillon, probably, at their origin, but stripes of blood or paint he slew the great giant Volux,' who wore this terrific struck on the field of victory across a plain shield by crest upon his helmet. Bishops, on the other hand, its bearer or his approving leader, as a memento of appropriately inscribe keys, crosiers, mitres, bibles, the action in which he had distinguished himself. lambs, and angels on their coats. The bearing of Some bearings are celebrated by tradition as having the Bishop of Chichester is odd enough-namely, “a been granted in this manner; others are known to Presbyter John sitting on a tombstone ; in his left hand have been assumed by the choice of their wearers. a mound, his right extended ; a linen mitre on his We may instance, as an early example of the first head, in his mouth a sword.' The command or capture

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