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one for 14,207; and in 1852, it had risen to one for taking into account the proportion of the two sexes 9340. In 1838 and 1839, England had one suicide in domestic service, that particular ratio is singufor every 15,900 inhabitants; France, one for every larly elevated. There are very few suicides among 12,489. Between London and Paris, for the same the unfortunates, though these largely people both years, the difference is yet more remarkable, the the prisons and the madhouses. At the Salpêtrière figures being, for London, one in 8250; and for Paris, Asylum, out of 264 women confined there in one one in 2221. This is surely a sufficiently distinct year, 33 were of this class; while in a period contradiction to the generally received opinion ! of seventeen years, only 53 had committed suicide.
The north of France is the most prolific in suicides; There are also very few among life-convicts-only 6* nearly half of the whole number belongs to the north, in twenty-one years out of the large population of the which has increased its own ratio by one-third. The bagnes; but several among short-time prisoners and north has one in 6483; the east, one in 13,855; the the simply accused.' On the whole, sad as it is to south, one in 20,457. The department of the Seine, confess, and anomalous as it seems at first sight, which includes Paris, has risen with frightful rapidity; suicide increases with education and civilisation. The but Paris and Marseille, and all large centres, are the savage rarely, if ever, takes his own life; the sensitive, foci of suicides to a very striking extent. Russia highly organised, and highly educated man of literature stands the lowest of European states in the scale-her and science ends his days by the pistol or the cord. suicides being only one in 49,182; while Prussia has The means employed for suicide are generally one in 14,404; Austria, one in 20,900; New York, hanging in youth, firearms and poison in maturity, one in 7797; Boston, one in 12,500; Baltimore, one hanging in old age. Women rarely use firearms: they in 13,650; and Philadelphia, one in 11,873.
prefer hanging, drowning, poison, and-in France Climate has not much to do with the matter. In asphyxiation by charcoal. But it is strange to read latitude from 42° to 54', the proportion is one in the statistical tables, and to see how every year the 38,882; from 54° to 64", one in 56,577. Yet the last same proportion is maintained between the methodsfigures include Moscow and St Petersburg, and repre- how many, out of a given number, are sure to use sent a much more rigorous, damp, uncertain, and hanging, how many drowning, how many poison, firejoyless climate than the first. Certainly, the low arms, and so on-all calculated with as much certainty condition of civilisation between these latitudes influ- as the height of the tides or algebraic quantities. ences the statistics to the full as much as any other The causes assigned by M. Lisle are singular: assigned or assignable cause; but that mere tempera- mental alienation stands first in number; physical ture and climate have little to do with the question, suffering next; then domestic troubles, debt, poverty, is proved by the average number of suicides occurring habitual intoxication—a cause which, we fear, holds a in the different months of the year in France; which higher rank than the sixth in England-misconduct, are highest in the sunniest, brightest, and most enjoy- disgust at life, love-disappointment. These come able seasons. We cannot refrain from giving the table in their order, and have by far the largest influence entire; it opens a view so very different from the of any ascribed. But other causes are given. Thus, one popularly received. The list is the average of eight suicides are ascribed to "rivalry in trade; seventeen years' computation.
seventy-seven, to 'disgust at a certain social position;' For January, the mean number of these seventeen twenty-six (all men), to "sorrow at exile ;' the same years gives 3761; for February, 3529; for March, number, of whom nineteen are men, to jealousy 4423; for April, 4872 ; May, 5436; June, 5722; July, between brothers and sisters;' eighty, to idleness, four 5517; August, 4652; September, 3959 ; October, 3845 ; only of these being women; seventy-seven, to sorrow November, 3282; December, 3227. With this list in at leaving a certain place or master; with others as his hand, what will the Frenchman say now to the subtle and as strange. But the two most prominent irrefutable influence of our fogs and miasma ?
causes are mental alienation and disease. In age, the rate increases gradually from under In the chapter on mental hallucinations are quoted sixteen up to forty, when it slowly decreases to eighty the following striking instances of involuntary suicide : and upwards. The mass occurs in middle age; but A man, thinking to open the door of his apartment, there has been recently a noticeable increase of suicides opens the window, and flings himself into the street, by children—which are now sevenfold what they were believing that he is descending the staircase. Another thirty years ago for children under sixteen years of thinks himself on the ground floor, and jumps out of age, twelve times as many for youths from sixteen to his window on the fifth story. A third, attempting a twenty.
rudeness to a woman who escapes him, flings himself One youth,' says Esquirol, "leaves a writing before into the hall from the third story, leaping over the killing himself, in which he bitterly blames his parents banisters of the well staircase, in order to intercept for the education they have given him; another the woman rushing down the stairs. A fourth hears blasphemes God and society; a third kills himself a heavenly voice whisper to him : “My son, come seat “ because he has not enough air to breathe with ease;" thyself by my side, and straightway throws himself two young men of letters, at the age of twenty-one out of his window, breaking his leg; when raised, he each, suffocate themselves with charcoal, because a expresses the greatest astonishment at his fall, and theatrical piece which they had composed together has above all, at his fracture. A youth, haunted by a not succeeded; a child of thirteen hangs himself, and mysterious dread of punishment for certain imaginary leaves a document beginning: “I bequeath my soul to crimes, resolves to starve himself to death. Taken to Rousseau, and my body to the earth;" one of twelve the hospital, and there treated as a sick man—which, hangs himself for rage at being only the twelfth in a in fact, he soon becomes-fed by mechanical means, school exercise, where he expected a better place; and and carefully watched, he recovers sufficiently to be another, of thirteen, hangs himself in a cell where he allowed to travel. But he scarcely arrives at Marseille was unjustly confined.' What a painful mass of ill- when his sufferings return, and, in spite of all that is regulated passion, and misdirected life, lies in those done for his relief, he dies of starvation, self-imposed, few sad lines i
at the end of a few days. A boot-maker of Venice, In sex, the general proportion is 1 woman to 3:35 men Matteo Lovat, after having horribly mutilated, crucified in towns, and I to 4:36 in the country; and the most himself, 'in obedience to the will of God, which had fatal times of life to the female sex are from fourteen been revealed to him. Taken to the madhouse of to twenty, and from forty to fifty. Women-servants are more in relative proportion than men-servants; * Writers on criminal statistics in France givo a higher the absolute numbers being almost the same; but number.
San Servolo, he starved himself to death. Not that himself as he would have treated an ordinary patient. religious mania or suicides are so frequent in France His friend, too, prescribed for him; but the black cow as with us; our comparative list of causes would with her threatening horns still remained by his side. shew very different results in other particulars, but Unable to bear the distress of her presence any longer, more especially in this.
he committed suicide, to the utter amazement of all On the 11th of December 1847, a poorly dressed who knew only his quiet, useful, intellectual, and man was taken out of the river, near the bridge of St noble life. A like case was that of a lawyer, a man Cloud. In his pocket was the following letter: Hunger of singular perception and justness of observation ; and want of a home force me to commit suicide. For eminently a lawyer, with all the logical acumen and the last four years and a half I have lodged at the critical sharpness of his class. He was haunted by Rue Guérin-Boisseau, 32, with my wife and my little an immense black cat which never left him; after a daughter, who is nearly nine years old. Being behind-time, the cat changed into a sheriff's officer, in full hand in my rent, they have refused me my key.- official costume, who always preceded him, especially Philippe Toussaint. This poor fellow was a public up stairs when going to any ball or fête, making as scribe, noted in his neighbourhood for his honesty, though about to announce him to the company. This industry, punctuality, and resignation to his hard lot. went on for some years, when came a period of total
A few years ago, a poor boy in the hospital of cessation. The poor lawyer was in the seventh heaven; Bicêtre, confined among the lunatics, had been arrested he believed that he had conquered his enemy; when at the moment when about to throw himself into the one day opening his eyes, he saw a loathsome hideous Seine. Though perfectly sane, he was in such extreme skeleton standing where the sheriff's officer had of poverty as to be grateful and glad for an asylum, been. From this last and worst visitation there was even in a madhouse and under strict restraint. Left no escape, and the poor wretch died, incapable of an orphan at a very early age, he was given into the supporting such a weight of misery in his life. care of a friend of his father, who so ill-treated him, Suicide is fatally hereditary. Gall knew a family of that, unable to support his cruelties, he ran away to which the grandmother, sister, and mother all killed Paris. In a few days, he was penniless; and being themselves; and the son and daughter of the last without resources, was taken up as a vagabond, and followed in the same terrible track. Another family of condemned to six months' imprisonment. Over- seven brothers, all well off and in good positions, comwhelmed with grief and shame, he fell dangerously mitted suicide one after the other in the space of forty ill, his illness being so long and severe that, when the years. Two brothers, twins, both in the army, and time of his release canie, he had earned only six francs. both happy and prosperous, committed suicide within (French prisoners are allowed to amass a reserve fund, a few days of each other; and two of their sisters were to be given them on their release.) As this sum only only prevented by force from doing the same thing. lasted a few days, P-was again brought before the A rich merchant, passionate and tyrannical, had six police magistrates for vagabondage ; but this time, the children, whom he sent away from home, well promagistrate, pitying his sad fate, gave him only one vided for, as soon as their education was completed. month of imprisonment. There at La Force, he met The youngest son, when twenty-six years old, threw with the temptations usually besetting the young and himself from the roof of the house; the second brother uncorrupted from the old and hardened jail-birds ; died of obstinate abstinence the year following; the but though unfortunate, he was honest, and refused year following that, another brother had a fit of madto be tempted into evil ways. As there was no separ- ness, in which, however, he was prevented from accomation, either by night or day, and no discipline of plishing the suicide he attempted ; a fourth brother, a any kind in French prisons a few years ago-little physician, who foresaw and felt powerless against liis enough of either even now!--the unhappy lad had fate, killed himself; two or three years after, a sister an awful probation to go through. The scorn, and the became mad, and attempted suicide; and some years scoff, and the butt of the whole reckless set all day, he after that, the last brother, who was at the head of a was not left in peace even at night; so that a month large business, and who had been kept from the same or two longer of that pandemonium must either have horrible fate only by his wife's cares and tenderness, killed or broken him. When released, seeing himself finished, like the rest, by self-murder. Thus, of the again without resources, help, or prospects, having whole family, only two escaped suicide, and those two nothing but crime or the prison again between him were confessedly mad, and therefore protected against and starvation, he resolved on suicide, as the only way themselves. out of his miseries. Again he was arrested, just in But what is called 'hereditary tendency' is often a time to prevent that self-murder; and this time was mere matter of imitation, or of fancied hereditary locked up as a madman, on the plea that suicide must necessity; indeed, imitation is the cause of more include mental alienation.
crimes, suicides, and even madness, than any other A physician of high standing, good fortune, appar- one faculty of human nature. The following is an ently good health, and domestic happiness, one day was instance: found self-murdered in his own room. All his pre- A lady, aged thirty-five, was taken to the hospital parations had been made with the utmost calmness in a state of melancholy mania. She was married, and deliberation; he had himself written out his will and the mother of children; but she was afflicted with a short time before, had regulated his affairs, and the constant feeling of a necessity to commit suicide; provided for his only son, to whom he was tenderly this feeling having been induced by the fact, that attached. There was no sign of mania or of unreflecting her father and uncle had both done the same, and haste in his act; it was a quiet, deliberate, self-pos- that she was therefore doomed by "hereditary predissessed, and self-conscious deed, which no one could call position. With this feeling, she wrote a letter to her madness or imbecility; but for which no one could mother announcing her intention, and then rushed into assign a reason, till an intimate friend of his, a physician the river hard by. She was immediately rescued, and whom he had consulted, told how he had been tor- from that night became melancholy and monomanmented by an ocular hallucination, which never left iacal, with the incessant impulse to self-destruction. him, and which destroyed his happiness and peace of At last her mother decided on the revelation of lier mind. Wherever he went-in the street, in the draw lifelong secret ; her daughter was not the child of her ing-room, by the bedside of his patients, before the husband, but of a man in whose family was not the altar-wherever he might be, he always saw a huge shadow of suicidal tendency. The lady had an black cow threatening him with her horns. He was interview with her real father, and from that hour quite aware of the nature of the deception, and treated recovered both her sanity and her health, never again to be tormented with the desire of self-destruction, City authorities were compelled to prohibit the pracon the plea of a false hereditary predisposition. So tice. Rumours of approaching ascents were always in much for imitation and fancy,
circulation. Intrepid .air-voyagers' were constantly A priest, opening a letter, swallowed the wafer, about to ascend, first at Kensington, then at Greenwithout thinking of what he was doing. * Take wich, and afterwards from Whitehall Gardens; but care,' said a friend, laugliing; ‘you have sealed up somehow or other, either the gas or the courage of the your inside!' The poor man took the jest seri- artist was sure to ooze out at the last moment, and ously, went home, and killed himself by starvation; the event never came off. believing that he had positively sealed up his Among those who were greatly interested in the intestines, and that it was superfluous, and would experiments at Paris was Vincent Lunardi, a young be painful to eat.
Italian attached to the Neapolitan embassy. He We conclude this paper by a summary of results had dabbled a little in aërostatics with Zambeccari, which it will be well worth the reader's while to and had conceived an ardent ambition to be the remember: 1. That suicides are on the increase first navigator of the English atmosphere.' His generally, but specially in France ; 2. That the scientific acquirements do not appear to have been suicides in France greatly outnumber those of any very extensive, and his variations from the track of other country in the world; 3. That they are not the French discoverers were few and questionable. always attributable to mental affections, nor yet to It was said by his enemies, that he was more of physical sufferings, though suicides from these causes the showman than the savant,' and it is probable constitute a special branch of medical science; 4. that notoriety ratlier than science was the object That they are in ratio with the increase of civilisation of his courtship; but at anyrate, we cannot refuse and the diffusion of a certain kind of education - him the credit of being the pioneer in an enterprise that kind which taxes the intellect too heavily while requiring skill and courage in no small degree. Sir leaving the physical nature uncared for ; 5. That they Joseph Banks, the president of the Royal Society, spring from moral and social causes chiefly—of course and Dr Fordyce, the eminent chemist, were among always excepting special disease—and are therefore those who interested themselves in his work, and to be dealt with and destroyed by a healthier system to them he was indebted in a great measure for its of public education and sounder views of social life. successful issue. Early in July, Lunardi informed The extreme development of the nervous system, to the public that he was constructing a balloon in which the loss of muscular power and physical harmony he intended to ascend from the gardens of Chelsea generally, has tended to the increase of suicides; the Hospital. “The gallery, oars, and wings,' said the over-cultivation, too, of the intellectual faculties in the advertisement, 'are already made, and to be seen at young has been another fertile source of the same evil. the Lyceum in Exeter Change, Strand, where the The best and truest checks, therefore, to be given to balloon is now making, and will be finished in about this sad practice are—the returning to a more natural a fortnight.' At the same time, in order to defray and more healthful system in the nursery, the school- his expenses, which had been heavy, he issued tickets room, and the forum, so that children and youths may of admission to the ascent at a guinea and half-ano longer die from over-excited intellects, nor men cut guinea each. Before the end of the month, however, short their days from social weariness or artificially he had the mortification of seeing a rival candidate induced disease.
enter the field. A Frenchman, named Moret, had also
completed a balloon, and fixed the trial for the 12th of THE FIRST AËRIAL VOYAGE IN ENGLAND. drew together a vast concourse of people, who patiently
August, the day before Lunardi's. His announcements During the whole of the year 1784, the good people of watched the preparations from one till four o'clock; London were greatly agitated upon the novel subject and when every effort was seen to fail, and the balloon of balloons. Reports of Montgolfier's doings across the at last sunk into the fire which ought to have expanded channel had raised the curiosity of our wonder-loving it, the mob, conceiving the whole affair an imposture, grandfathers to the highest pitch; and amid all the broke into the enclosure, tore up the apparatus, and din of the great Westminster election, and the rest of destroyed a great amount of property in the neighthe political turmoil of that eventful year, we find the bourhood. Lunardi chuckled finely over this cataspopular mind constantly recurring to the topic with troplie; but his triumph was short, for the governor of an excitement which is scarcely intelligible to a gener- Chelsea Hospital, fearing a repetition of the riot on the ation familiar with the mightier glories of steam and morrow, immediately wrote to countermand his perthe telegraph. The new-born science of aërostation mission for the use of the gardens; and so his ascent had not then achieved its barren honours, and become had to be indefinitely postponed. It was in vain that the costly pastime of our day. No invention, perhaps, he solicited private proprietors: the risk of a failure in the history of man had opened to the imagination —and in that case, the certainty of the mob-prevented 80 many brilliant promises. The papers were filled all negotiation. At length, after many wearisome with curious speculations upon the uses to which delays, he obtained leave from the Artillery Company the newly applied principle might be put. Bisliop to ascend from their ground in Moorfields; but he Wilkins's favourite theory of a voyage to the moon was compelled to find sureties for any damage that was seriously revived by more than one enthusiast. might happen to the property; and even with these Others, less sanguine, were content to congratulate precautions, so great was the prejudice against him, themselves upon the great discoveries in astronomy that the permission was only carried in the council by which must necessarily result from a nearer view of the casting-vote of Sir Watkin Lewis, the colonel. The the planets; while the more practical anticipated a day was fixed for the 15th of September; but at the time when aërial navigation would supersede the last moment another difficulty arose. The unprincipled commerce of the seas, and drive the flying wagons proprietor of the Lyceum, who had made a good thing from the Great North Road. Ballooning became quite of the exhibition, was unwilling to lose his chief attraca fashionable mania. Little balloons of painted silk, tion; and taking advantage of Lunardi's ignorance in all kinds of gay and quaint devices, floated about of English law, positively refused to allow the balloon in boudoirs; and questions concerning the varieties of to be removed till he was secured a share in the inflammable airs' and the elasticity of vapours present, and all future advantages to be derived from formed subjects of drawing-room discussion. Experi- it. Such monstrous extortion was of course resisted. ments with fire-balloons upon Montgolfier's principle Sir Sampson Wriglit, the presiding magistrate at were so common, and caused so many fires, that the Bow Street, ordered it to be forcibly wrested from his
possession ; and after a desperate struggle between and after a moment's vibration, the cumbrous machine the police and the employés of the Lyceum, it was reclines heavily to mother-earth. A murmur of dissafely lodged in the artillery-ground the day before satisfaction runs through the assembly, and each man the ascent.
begins to feel himself duped. Already the sensitive Next morning, all London was on the move towards aëronaut hears his ascent pronounced' an imposition, Moorfields. By twelve o'clock, the large square, or and himself branded as a swindler. All is confusion rather parallelogram, which formed the fashionable and uproar, for the hoarse roar of the living sea withpromenade of old London, and is now occupied by out threatens havoc, and the courtiers are entreating Finsbury Circus and the adjacent streets, was one the prince to leave the ground. The displeasure mass of human beings. Every roof and window from hanging over us,' says Lunardi, 'would have been which a view could be obtained, was thronged with fatal, if in one moment Mr Biggin had not had the eager gazers. Along the front, and towering high heroism to relinquish, and I the resolution to go alone.' above the whole scene, were the gloomy buildings of A smaller car is hastily substituted, and, half-dead the old Bedlam, the wretched inmates of which were with his many anxieties, he rushes into it. There is allowed to be spectators, and exchange coarse ribaldry a warm farewell from his personal friends, for every with the mob beneath. The fact of this vicinage, and one looks upon his return as very problematical. The the resemblance between Lunardi and lunatic, had prince and all the company with one accord take off been the themes of innumerable puns and witticisms their hats; the ropes are cut, and with the boom of for days past; and the populace, appreciating the joke, the signal-gun, the first English balloon rises buoyantly with rough humour, were continually roaring out to into the air amid the frantic acclamations of nearly him to go inside. The enclosure is occupied by the 200,000 spectators, who only a moment before liad Artillery Company, under arms, and the subscribers been indulging in the loudest shouts of menace. who have paid for adniission; but the prevailing Insensible,' said the Morning Post of the next day, fears have prevented many from attending. In the must that heart be which did not feel itself anxious centre of the ground, warded on every side by strong and interested at that moment for the fate of him barriers, is the balloon, which differs in many respects who intrepidly stepped into his seat, and, Phaetonfrom the 'Great Nassaus' and 'Royal Alberts' of our like, seized the reins which were to guide the chariot time. It is about 32 feet in height, and 102 in of the sun.' circumference, and is composed of alternate strips of At the distance of about twenty yards, it descended blue and red silk, strongly incased in net-work. The towards the ground; but, continues the reporter in gallery, or car, is a thick wooden box, suspended from the same style, 'roused by ambition and spirit of the balloon by forty-five ropes, and decorated on either philosophical researches, Mr Lunardi rebuked its fear, side with two large leathern wings-a pet invention of and gave swiftness to its airy flight.' In the account Lunardi's—which he imagines will enable him to steer of his trip, which Lunardi published soon after, he his course through the new regions he is about to visit. enters at length into his sensations. “I saw,' he says, Almost all the men of mark in politics or literature all London beneath me like an enormous bee-live, then in town were grouped around it, including among but the industry of it was suspended. All the moving others the Prince of Wales, Fox, Sheridan, Burke, Sir mass seemed to have no object but myself; and the Joshua Reynolds, and Sir Joseph Banks. Rogers the transition from the suspicion and contempt of the poet was also there ; and his recently published Table- preceding hour, to the affectionate transport, admiratalk records an incident of the scene. Fox, growing tion, and glory of the present, was not without its impatient at the delay, put his hand to his watch and effect on my mind.' found another hand upon it, which he immediately He tells us that the critics are wrong in holding seized. My friend,' said he to the owner of the terror to be an ingredient in every sublime sensation, strange hand, 'you have chosen an occupation which for he was never freer from apprehension in liis life, will some day be your ruin.' 'Oh, Mr Fox,' was the and speaks in ecstasies of the motion, compared with reply, 'pray forgive me, and let me go; I have a wife which the broom-sticks of the witches, Ariosto’s and six children starving at home.' Fox, always flying-horse, and even Milton's sunbeam conveying the tender-hearted, slipped a guinea into his hand, and angel to the eartlı, have all an idea of effort, difficulty, then released it. At the conclusion of the show, Fox and restraint.' At half-past three he descended in a was proceeding to look what time it was. Good cornfield near South Mimms in Hertfordshire, where God !' said he, my watch is gone.' Yes,' said his he landed a cat that he had brought with him, and brother, General Fox, “I know it is. I saw your friend again reascended. He contrived to bring himself down take it.' 'Saw him take it, and made no attempt to by working with his oars, and had therefore expended stop him!' was the indignant response. “Really,' said none of his gas. After an hour's further journey, General Fox, you and he appeared to be on such good during which he wrote and threw down several letters terms, that I did not choose to interfere.'
to his friends, he finally lowered himself over a It is now half past one, and Dr Fordyce is still meadow in the parish of Stondon, near Ware. engaged in filling the balloon with inflammable air,' Some labourers were at work underneath him, and through a complicated arrangement of leathern nooses. Lunardi begged their assistance to secure the balloon, The gas itself is hydrogen, manufactured from an but they all appeared horror-struck, and refused to infusion of zinc in vitriolic acid, the properties of move. One excused himself because he was too short; common coal-gas being then unknown. Lunardi and another said he did not like the look of it; and a Mr Biggin, the gentleman who is to accompany him, third honestly declared he would have nothing to do are busily engaged in completing their preparations; with one who came on the devil's horse.' Upon his and the visitors around them, with true English love nearer approach, they fairly took to their heels; and the of betting, are giving and taking the odds about the disembarkation would have been attended with great probability of their return alive. The hour fixed for danger, had it not been for the spirit of a young girl the ascent is passed; and the mob outside, pent up in who grasped a rope which Lunardi threw her, and held narrow quarters since an early hour in the morning, it till General Smith and other gentlemen who had are beginning to get clamorous. Dr Fordyce thinks followed him from London on horseback came up. The the balloon is not sufficiently inflated to take up its new-comers aided in securing the machine, and bore freight, for at present it is only pear-shaped; but off Lunardi in triumph to the Bull Inn at Ware, and with the horrid populace in prospect, it is not con- afterwards to Bayford Bury, the seat of Mr Baker, the sidered advisable to wait any longer. Lunardi and his member for Hertford. friend jump into the car; there is an anxious pause, Such was the prosperous ending of the first aërial
excursion in England. Lunardi, of course, became the Telegraph.' It is probable that a time-ball will be lion of the town. The journals were filled with odes erected at Devonport, the possibility of dropping such in praise of his daring; the king sent for him to
a ball by a flash from Greenwich having already been court, and the lord-mayor feasted him in the City. In demonstrated. The Astronomer Royal still, as last the curious little brochure published on the occasion, he recounts with great gravity many incidents year, refers to certain mysterious changes of level
and direction of one of the instruments, one occurring connected with his journey. While he hovered over London, George III. was holding a cabinet council. On with changes of temperature, the other at thie being told the balloon was passing, his majesty said: equinoxes, and he still imagines some movement of "We may resume our deliberations at pleasure, but we the earth itself to be the cause of these remarkable may never see poor Lunardi again. The conference phenomena. immediately broke up, and the king and Mr Pitt took
There is to be a better education for officers in the to their telescopes. One young lady mistook one of the oars which he accidentally dropped from the army. No more getting commissions by favour ; no balloon for the aëronaut himself, and was so affected more scandals about silly ensigns ; but real practical with the circumstance, that she took to her bed and ability, and thorough knowledge of military science, died soon after. A judge to whom he mentioned this are to be the rule. Above all, we want competent circumstance at the Mansion-house dinner, told him officers in India. As regards art-education, the South not to be concerned at the loss he had occasioned, Kensington Museum is open, and whosoever will for he had undoubtedly saved the life of a notorious may now inspect its valuable contents at pleasure. house-breaker
, whose jury were so amazed at the novel It is about three-quarters of an hour distant from sight over the Old Bailey, that they incontinently Trafalgar Square, 80 that working-men could hardly returned a verdict of acquittal.
The success of his first attempt induced Lunardi to resort to it without giving up half a day. But the make several other trials in various parts of the king- view of the buildings and the grounds, well repays dom. The year following, he went to Edinburgh, where the time and labour. Comprised in that museum, he made two ascents from the gardens of Heriot's are the Department of Science and Art from Marl. Hospital, the last of which considerably cooled his borough House; an educational department, exhibiting passion for aëronautics, as the winds being unpro- all the appliances of teaching, and a good library, pitious, he fell into the sea near the Isle of May, and well arranged; the collections made by the commisafter a bath of many hours, was picked up by some sioners of patents, all sorts of models and machinery; fishermen, half-dead with cold and hunger.
a trade collection; an Economical Museum; and the
Sheepslanks collection of pictures, 234 in number. THE MONTH:
The effect of the whole is admirable, so good is the SCIENCE AND ARTS.
general arrangement. It will look yet richer when One of the chief scientific incidents of the past month the articles lent to the Manchester Exhibition shall was the 'Greenwich visitation, as it is called that and on Monday and Thursday evenings, the museum
be returned. On Monday, Tuesday, and Saturday, is, the annual inspection of the Greenwich Observatory is open to the public; on the other three days of the by the Board of Visitors, most of whom go down, a week-students' days—there is a charge of sixpence comfortable party, in the Admiralty barge, and dine for admission; and the catalogue costs only a penny. together after their official business is over. Astronomer Royal in his Report on what has been a comfortable kind of inauguration took place ; Dr done since the visit in 1856, tells them that the work Lyon Playfair, president of the Chemical Society, of the observatory is progressing satisfactorily—that Society, and a troop of savans besides, and for once,
gave his soirée in the museum, to the fellows of the the new dome for a new class of equatorial observa- everybody had room enough.—May we not complete tions will be completed this summer—that suspending this paragraph on education by a specially notethe quicksilver trough of the reflex zenith tube by worthy fact: eight bills have been brought into the straps of vulcanised caoutchouc 'has been perfectly House of Lords as a beginning in the long-talked-of successful; the tremors are absolutely destroyed, and and much-wanted work of codifying our laws. Should the star has been observed at all hours of the night it please our legislators to pass then, the fifty volumes and day. And as regards the transmission of time of statutes will
be reduced to two or three. by telegraph, he says: ‘Five clocks are in sympathetic Row, Westminster, is also removed to South Kensing
The Architectural Museum lately kept at Canon movement in the observatory-one at the Hospital ton.-The Horticultural Society, after a lapse of two Schools, and one in the North Kent Station at London years, have again given one of their attractive flowerBridge. That for signals has received this slight shows at Chiswick.- Thirty-two thousand persons alteration, that the pull of the Time-ball Detent now visited the Zoological Gardens during three days of alters the connections of four triplets of springs. Of Whitsuntide; more than ever before.—The visitors these, one controls the communications with the last year to the British Museum numbered 361,714; in Electric Telegraph Company's office at Lothbury, by room were less numerous than in former years. The
1854, the number was 459,262. Visits to the readingwhich hourly signals are sent on various railways ; local committee of the American Association for the the time-balls at the Strand, Cornbill, and Liverpool Advancement of Science at Montreal, have sent invitaare dropped; and the Post-office clock in Lombard tions to certain savans in this country to attend their Street is regulated. A second affects the communi- meeting in August, accompanied by an offer of a free cations with the South-eastern Railway station, by passage there and back. We hear that an eminent wliich hourly signals are sent on various lines in geologist and some of his friends have accepted the Kent, and the time-ball at Deal is dropped, and
invitation. returns its signal to acquaint us with its successful being made, whereby to discover and determine what
A new magnetic survey of the British Islands is drop. The third and fourth are reserved for the changes have taken place in the phenomena of terresprospective wants of the royal dockyards; they trial magnetism since the former survey by General communicate with the Admiralty wire of the British Sabine in 1827. Mr Welsh, of the Kew Observatory,