Imágenes de páginas

selected from some dissenting psalm-book; but, even —although indeed I am none of your strait-gate and as it was, the aggregate of voices made up a most narrow-way people-election.' impressive harmony. The preacher subsequently

Finally, if I had to answer that before-mentioned referred to this when speaking of the voice of many tract called Why is Boanerges Popular ?' I should waters, and the voice of a great thunder, and the voice answer, that he is so mainly because he combines real of harpers harping with their harps,' as also to his possessed, and which no modern preacher, except

eloquence with what Luther possessed, and Latimer own sensations at different times when under such Boanerges, perhaps does possess—earnest religious influences; and indeed he seemed to well understand humour. what modern divines have mostly yet to learn, that an example from their own experience, or drawn from

PICTURE-WRITING OF EGYPT. the present circumstances of their audience, is worth a thousand metaphors from earth, and sea, and sky. To commemorate events by tracing a representation of Boanerges never missed an illustration because of its them on wood or stone is a natural expedient among homeliness, and, leaving abstract virtues and vices to rude people, such as the North-American Indians, who abstract men and women, addressed himself to folks of still practise it. This seems to have been the origin flesh and blood. When I say mammon, I don't mean of the famous hieroglyphics of Egypt, which, in their idle dukes or greedy merchant-princes; my small first form, were simply a kind of picture-writing, and adulterating shopkeeper, I mean you.' And again, of general application, notwithstanding that the name upon the importance of seeming trifles: “There is literally, sacred sculpture-implies an exclusively many a man who will lose a thousand pounds without religious character. We can readily imagine, however, a murmur, and yet blaspheme about a shirt-button.' that to carve out the whole particulars of an event In the prayer before the sermon, he touched upon the would be found troublesome, and that a short-hand subjects at present interesting the national mind, process would be early called for. Apparently the expressing in a brief, rough manner, too, the healthy first step would be to come to conventional signs. For popular opinion upon most things. For the country, example, instead of representing a battle by a combinafor the Queen, he prayed; for the confounding of tion of the pictures of men, horses, and warlike instrudespots, for the extinction of slavery, and for peace; ments, men found that they might depict it by two and for the high court of parliament, that it may swords crossed; or they might indicate a victory by the do this coming session something, and not nothing, head of the conquered laid at the feet of the conqueror. and that it may be vouchsafed, if it be but a little, And besides these visible objects, men would soon wisdom.' Before this prayer, he gave a short exposi- desire to represent invisible things: they might, for tion of the hundred and third psalm, more remark. example, in reckoning time, use the figure of the moon able for eloquence than learning, in which he rejected, to designate a month. By and by, also, they would somewhat violently, the eagle's renewal of its youth proceed to express abstract ideas; in which departas a wicked fable, and limited the parallel to the ment they might, for instance, represent strength or ordinary process of moulting; then followed more power by the head and neck of a bull. This mode singing, and then the sermon, which was taken from of conveying ideas, either by direct pictures, or the Revelations. It is not of course my purpose to by obvious conventional signs, is plainly suited for a repeat it in this Journal, or in any way to deprive the people in the first stages of civilisation; but, as they Penny Pulpit of its lawful prey'; my only intention advance, it becomes necessary to extend still further has been, and is, to give a brief impartial account of the their writing, or communication of ideas by signs. public preaching of a very remarkable man. Now that The qualities of objects, and the passions and sentiI have been to hear him, and since scarcely any of my ments of living creatures, having no visible archetypes acquaintance have had the same opportunity, I feel in nature, would, in the progress of time, be that there is something to be said for Boanerges as well expressed by arbitrary marks or characters, which, as against him. He seems to me to be thoroughly in being applied to the spoken language, would become earnest, to have great command of language, and to the representatives of words, or portions of words, as know his way to the feelings of his congregation; at all among the Chinese ; and, finally, some of these known events, he knows their weaknesses, and attacks them characters would be appropriated to represent the boldly, face to face, without any masked batteries what- elementary sounds of the spoken language—that is, ever; while that great voice of his is rolling over their an alphabet would be invented and introduced. The heads, there is not a sound to interrupt or weaken it; Egyptians, who were the most ancient of civilised and when he pauses to refresh himself at his glass of nations, early arrived at this point-so early as the water, a tempest of coughing and nose-blowing pro- days of Moses, indeed, they seem to have attained claims at once the willing patience and real attention that maximum of learning at which nations generally of his hearers. I know many wittier men than remain stationary for a longer or shorter period. Boanerges, and I know one or two as eloquent, but I The true meaning of hieroglyphic writing was first know none who could have preached such passages unfolded by the ingenious labours of our own country. as this man did without a trace of flippant profanity, man, Dr Thomas Young, and the distinguished French and with all appearance of religious earnestness : “The archæologist, Champollion, near the beginning of the name that was written upon the foreheads of the saints present century. But before proceeding to give a -what was it? B for Baptist, do you imagine, sketch of the art, as elucidated by them in modern my friend Bigot yonder ? W for Wesleyan? C for times, it will be interesting to inquire what light was Calvinist ? E, perhaps, for the establishment? It does thrown on the subject by ancient writers. On this not say so here. If you asked of the angel who keeps point, we might have expected to find in the Father the gates of paradise whether there are any Baptists of History some valuable information; yet, while the withinside, he'd shake his head. Any Calvinists --he writings of Herodotus furnish us with ample details would not so much as look at you. Any of the of the laws, manners, and customs, topography and establishment ?--he'd answer: Nothing of the sort.” buildings of ancient Egypt, it is to be regretted that They would all be there indeed, perhaps, my friends, he has given only a few scanty notices of the literature but not in miserable sects and parties : they would be and language, and, as included in this, the method of all Christians-saints.' There were many such–I writing among the Egyptians. He says nothing of was almost going to write “hits '-striking illustra- their picture-writing, but merely mentions that they had tions during this sermon, the whole of which was upon two kinds of characters--sacred and popular—without that 'very disagreeable but true doctrine, my friends leading us to suppose that these had any near connection.

Diodorus Siculus is the first in whose writings we of the object intended to be represented was given, as find anything of the kind of any consequence. He the plan of a house for the house itself. lived in the first century before the Christian era ; and II. Symbolical.-Abstract ideas, having no visible informs us that the hieroglyphic art was confined to objects by which they can be directly represented, the priests, and that they communicated it only to were expressed by images used symbolically. Thus, two their own children; but he makes no allusion to that arms stretched up towards heaven, expressed the word phonetic character which recent investigation has offering ; the wind is signified by a hawk on the wing; shewn to be one of its essential principles. He tells writing, by a reed and an inkstand, &c. It is to these us that all kinds of animals, and of instruments, symbolical figures that ancient writers, when speaking especially those of the carpenter, were used to express of hieroglyphics, have generally alluded. They are ideas; but modern discovery has shewn that he is wrong naturally more difficult of interpretation than direct in many of the examples he has given. An ancient images ; and as a mistaken notion prevailed that all the father of the church, Clemens of Alexandria, who lived figures in Egyptian monuments were symbolical, this at the end of the second century, has given us, in error occasioned for ages among the learned the most his Stromata, or book of miscellanies, a description of extravagant and contradictory interpretations, which the system in the following words: “Those who are were not got rid of till the researches of Young and educated among the Egyptians, learn first of all the Champollion cleared away the difficulty. It may be method of Egyptian writing called epistolographic; noticed, in passing, that hieroglyphics of the symbolsecondly, the hieratic, which the sacred scribes employ; ical kind are also used among Christians : for instance, and, lastly, the most complete kind, the hieroglyphic. a triangle in a circle is employed to represent the Of these, one sort is the common way of writing, and Trinity in unity; and sometimes an eye is introduced another is symbolic. Of the symbolic he describes in the centre, in allusion to the divine omniscience. three kinds: One,' says he, represents objects by Again, an anchor is used as emblematical of a Christian's imitation; another expresses them tropically; the hope and constancy; and the figure of a cock for third suggests them by certain allegorical enigmas.' Christian vigilance. This account of the Alexandrian presbyter has been III. Phonetic.—The two kinds of hieroglyphic signs shewn by modern discovery to be wonderfully accurate. already described were not sufficient to express the Apuleius, a contemporary author, has also written on various ideas of so highly civilised a people as the this subject; but his descriptions are confused and Egyptians, and this no doubt led to the invention of unsatisfactory. Porphyry, a writer of the third century, the third class, called phonetic, or those expressive of has been ore successful, and has given an account of sounds, the principle of whose construction is as follows: hieroglyphics somewhat similar to that of Clemens; The figures of certain objects were used to represent the but the fullest notice on the subject by any ancient initial sounds or letters of the words standing for those author is that of Horapollo, a Greek grammarian of objects in the Egyptian or Coptic. For instance, in that the fifth century, born in Egypt. His work, originally language ahom is an eagle, and the figure of an eagle is composed in the Egyptian language, has come down to therefore made to stand for the initial letter a ; berbe is us in a Greek translation. It is written specially on a censer, and so the figure of a censer stands for b; jal hieroglyphics, but is full of errors, and therefore, like is a swallow, and the figure of that bird stands for j; the statements of Diodorus, calculated to mislead and so on of other words, till an alphabet is formed. But the student. Egyptian hieroglyphics seem to have as the figure of every object which began with a in the attracted little or no notice from writers of the middle Coptic might stand for that letter, it might be supand later ages; and the first attempt to decipher them posed that this principle would lead to endless confusion in modern times was by De Guignes, who, in the and difficulty; and so it would, had the signs not been Memoirs of the Academy, 1759, declared that he limited. But they are really restricted, eighteen of thought he had perceived alphabetic characters among nineteen being the largest number of images assigned them -a guess, however, which led to nothing. The to any one letter, while few have more than five or discovery of the Rosetta stone at the beginning six, and some only one or two. of the present century, was, as will be afterwards The merit of the discovery of the phonetic alphabet explained, the means of unravelling that mysterious has been by some ascribed to Champollion; but it has kind of writing, the signification of which had lain been proved by good authority, as will afterwards concealed from mankind for thousands of years. appear, that Dr Young was, beyond all dispute, the

M. Champollion, who devoted upwards of twenty original discoverer, so long ago as the year 1818. years to the study of Egyptian hieroglyphics, to pro- Young, unfortunately, did not follow out his inquiries secute which he went with an expedition of learned men in that direction, his attention being chiefly confined to Egypt in 1828, at the expense of the French king, has to another department of the art, the enchorial method; shewn that, when reduced to a system, they consist of but his discovery may be regarded as the foundation three kinds of characters or signs: 1. Figurative signs, of Champollion's future success in this province. or direct images of the things indicated; 2. Symbolic There is no doubt that the enterprising Frenchman signs; and 3. Phonetic, or those expressive of sound. had long before this occupied himself with the study As all visible objects naturally come within the scope of hieroglyphics; and he afterwards declared in his of hieroglyphic characters, it might be supposed there great work, Précis du Système Hiéroglyphique, that would be almost no end of them; but they appear this phonetic alphabet is the true key of the whole to have been limited, for the whole number observed hieroglyphical system ;' and that all hieroglyphical by Champollion, after the most diligent and minute legends and inscriptions are composed principally of investigation, was about 800 real figures of natural signs purely alphabetical. This may be so; yet it objects, and about sixty more of geometric figures and is a fact, that all the sorts of characters, figurative

, fantastic forms.

symbolical, and phonetic, are used together. It might I. Figurative. This class is also sometimes called have been supposed that such a complication would pure hieroglyphics, and is subdivided by Champollion have been a most perplexing obstacle to the decipher into 1. Figurative proper ; 2. Figurative conventional; ing of hieroglyphic monuments ; yet Champollion and and 3. Figurative abridged. All direct images of others acquired great skill in interpreting what had things signified, as sun, moon, star, are examples of the been so mysterious for thousands of years, and could first kind. As an instance of the second kind, may be read most of them with comparative ease. mentioned a section of a ceiling, to represent the sky or firmament—a very obvious symbol, though not a direct to in this subject. The ordinary style of hieroglyphics

There is another important distinction to be attended one. An example of the third kind is when only a part found represented in bass-reliefs and paintings on the

walls of public buildings, and descriptive of historical | its value, raised a contention about it that seemed scenes and civil and religious ceremonies, were no prophetic of its future importance, and some account doubt intelligible to all well-educated Egyptians; but of which deserves a short notice. An end being put there was another kind discoverable in the interior of to the war by the surrender of Alexandria in the end their temples and sepulchres, which was of a more of August, it was proposed that the collections of antienigmatical character, spoke a language more strictly quities which had been made by the French savans ideographical and mysterious, and formed an alle. should be considered as public property, and be given gorical representation of the religious and philosophical up to the British; but in the discussion that ensued, doctrines of the Egyptians. Like the esoteric doctrines Menou, the French commander, asserted that they of the ancient philosophers, none but the initiated were private property ; and he had selected the were suffered to inquire into them — the key to Rosetta stone for himself, and had caused it to be them was kept exclusively in the hands of the priests. carefully packed up. After much dispute, however, For this reason, this department of hieroglyphics was the monuments and manuscripts were surrendered termed hieratic, indicating that it belonged more to Lord Hutchinson, the British commander, and the peculiarly, if not exclusively, to the priesthood. It insects and other animals were ceded to the French, is a sort of hieroglyphical stenography, or short-hand who, in anger, tore the covering from the Rosetta writing, in which the form of the signs is consider- stone, and threw it down upon its face. It was at ably abridged. Various existing manuscripts exhibit length safely embarked on board a captured frigate, this species of hieroglyphic writing, belonging to the along with many other valuable relics, carried to Pharaonic, Greek, and Roman epochs of Egyptian England in February 1802, and, by order of George III., history; and it seems to have been confined to the deposited in the British Museum, where it may be transcription of texts and inscriptions connected with seen in the Egyptian Saloon, No. 24. religious matters. It is distinguished from that other This stone was found, on examination, to record a mode of writing already alluded to, the enchorial, so decree in honour of Ptolemy Epiphanes ; and the called by Dr Young from its being of peculiar use in lowermost division, which is inscribed in Greek, conthat country, but termed by Champollion demotic, cludes with these words: “This decree shall be because it comprehended the characters or style of engraven on a hard stone, in sacred, enchorial, and writing used by the common people. It has also been Greek characters.' So that it exhibits a specimen denominated epistolographic, from its fitness for letter- of hieroglyphics with a double translation, first in writing. It is almost entirely alphabetical, containing enchorial or common letters of the country, and few symbolic signs, and scarcely any direct figures, second in Greek. The Society of Antiquaries caused and these so much simplified as to lose nearly all a fac-simile of the inscription to be distributed among resemblance to the objects expressed. It formed a sort the learned in Europe and America. Porson in of running-hand; and from its being written in the England, and Heyne in Germany, the two greatest direction from right to left, it resembles the writing Greek scholars of the age, furnished a version of the of the Hebrew and other oriental tongues.

Greek; but this, however arduous a task it may have But we come now to a most interesting part of this been, owing to the mutilated condition of the stone, subject that remarkable discovery of the Rosetta was not the greatest difficulty. Of the first and stone, by which the interpretation of hieroglyphics second inscriptions, the hieroglyphic and enchorial, was first placed on a true and solid foundation. It not a single character was then known, and therefore has been said, that if the invention of fluxions by no comparison could, at first, be instituted between Newton, and of the differential calculus by Leibnitz, them and the Greek. The distinguished oriental is considered as the most brilliant proof of the calcu- scholar, M. Silvestre de Sacy of Paris, applied himself lating and abstractive power of the human intellect, to decipher the enchorial, and found there two groups the deciphering of hieroglyphics, which for thousands of characters in situations corresponding with the of years lay before us a sealed book, may well be called words Alexander and Alexandria in the Greek comthe master-piece of criticism. When the French took partment, and which were therefore supposed by him possession of Lower Egypt in 1798, it was part of the to represent these names; but he could not get beyond policy of that remarkable man who then ruled their this, and abandoned the attempt as hopeless. Mr destinies, and who had, a short time before, made that Akerblad, an attaché of the Swedish embassy at Paris, memorable declaration to the Institute of France, entered on the investigation at the point where De • The true conquests, the only ones which do not cause Sacy had left off, and demonstrated what the other a tear, are those which are gained over ignorance'- had only conjectured-namely, that the enchorial text it was part of Napoleon's policy to associate with his contained Greek proper names, written in Egyptian army a company of literati, for the purpose of investi- or Coptic characters. He made some approaches gating the geography, natural history, and antiquities towards the construction of an alphabet; but he failed of that once famous land, the nurse of learning and in completing one from two causes : first, from supcivilisation-an inquiry in which no one seemed to posing that the whole of the inscription was alphatake a greater interest than their distinguished com- betical; and, secondly, from the error of expecting to mander himself. It was not, however, in the course find all the vowels in the Egyptian words, in place of of these learned investigations that the discovery assimilating these with the Hebrew, Arabic, and other alluded to was made; it originated purely in an oriental languages, in which the vowels are mostly accident; it was one of those coincidences, undesigned left out. by man, by which often good is brought out of evil; In 1814, Dr Thomas Young, a native of Somersetfor, in this case, what was designed for deadly war, shire, and foreign secretary of the Royal Society, tended to the enlargement of man's knowledge in the entered on the work which had baffled his predecessors.

He began with the enchorial inscription; and, with While the French troops were excavating for the the assistance of Akerblad's conjectural' alphabet, foundations of a fort to be erected at Rosetta, a town and by a careful comparison of the different parts with near the mouth of the Nile, they dug up a large block the Greek text, he was, after the labour of some of basalt, containing an inscription in three compart- months, enabled to form a translation, which he gave ments, and each bearing a distinct character. When to the public in the Archæologia in 1815; and four the valour of Abercromby wrested Egypt from the years afterwards, he produced, in the article · Egypt,' republican yoke, by the battle of Alexandria in March in the supplement to the Encyclopædia Britannica, an 1801, it is curious to remark what was the fate of this enlarged digest of his researches, which has been prostone. The opposite parties, without being aware of nounced to be the greatest effort of scholarship and

arts of peace.

ingenuity of which modern literature can boast.' The possible that the results of the great discoveries of result of Dr Young's labours was to demonstrate that, Young and Champollion, in deciphering the Egyptian both in the hieroglyphic and in the enchorial texts of hieroglyphics, are not perfectly satisfactory, and not the Rosetta stone, certain characters were employed yet complete; but though the speculations of Forster phonetically, or to represent sounds. He thus exhibited are highly ingenious, and in some respects valuable, à phonetic alphabet, comparatively so extensive, that they have failed to undermine the general principles few additions of any value have since been made to it; of the system of those two learned hierogrammatists. and, by laying the foundation of a hieroglyphical one, he led the way to the true knowledge of that hitherto

CATHERINE OF WÜRTEMBERG: mysterious mode of writing.

Champollion laboured in the same field; and the ROYAL LIFE IN THE NINETEENTH CENTUBY. priority of discovery between him and Dr Young has An act of graceful homage has recently been paid to been much disputed. For a full and fair statement the memory of Catherine of Würtemberg, the second of the case, the reader is referred to the Edinburgh wife of Prince Jerome Bonaparte, and the mother Review for December 1826, in which the writer comes of Prince Napoleon, who has of late attracted so to the conclusion, that 'Dr Young has the exclusive much attention in the European world. The heart of merit of having solved an enigma, which had for cen- the ex-queen of Westphalia, enclosed in an urn, has turies baffled all the resources of the learned.' This, been deposited in the tomb of the Emperor Napoleon however, does not detract from the great merit of at the Invalides. It is, as has been well observed in Champollion, in rearing up, by his unwearied labours the Times, the heart of a noble woman, of one whom and perseverance, an enlarged superstructure on the no entreaties of her father, the king of Würtemberg, foundation laid by Dr Young.

could induce to abandon her husband in his days of The Rosetta stone contains only the last fourteen adversity, and who clung to him in evil report and lines of the hieroglyphic text, and that, too, in a muti- good report to the hour of her death. The circumlated state; and the part of the Greek text which stances of her life are so full of deep and touching corresponds to these lines is, unfortunately, all defaced interest, that we trust our readers will not unwillingly with the exception of one word; so that any exten- follow us in some passages of her changeful and sive comparison between these two inscriptions is pre- eventful career. cluded. But it was the good-fortune of Champollion At the commencement of the present century, the to discover another monument calculated to throw ancient palace at Stuttgart was the peaceful and happy light on the subject in Philæ, an island of the Nile, abode of the ducal family of Würtemberg, whose once famous for its religious importance under the position, although high enough to secure for them the Pharaohs, and still remarkable for the number of homage and respect which is due to the princely its ruins. This monument is an obelisk with a houses of Europe, yet seemed not lofty enough to hieroglyphic inscription upon it, which rested on a expose them to the political dangers so often entailed base bearing a Greek inscription. By means of these, on the more elevated and ambitious potentates of he was enabled to form a hieroglyphic alphabet, with Christendom. The great social revolution, however, which he proceeded to decipher the proper names which had shaken continental Europe to its very inscribed on the temples and other buildings of Egypt; foundations, came to disturb the tranquil happiness of and at length, in 1824, he published his great work, the Würtemberg family. Napoleon the Great, now already alluded to, Précis, &c.; a most valuable produc- seated firmly upon the imperial throne of France, tion, which not only gives a clear view of the results resolved that a crown should also encircle each of his previously obtained by himself and others, but contains brothers' brows. The throne of Holland had been a great variety of new matter. By a series of readings bestowed upon Lucien Bonaparte; Joseph was the indicating profound scholarship, he has shewn that king of Spain; and a new kingdom-that of Westthere is a phonetic alphabet applicable to the hiero- phalia-was about to be formed for Jerome. There glyphical legends of every epoch of Egyptian history; was, however, one serious obstacle in the way of this that this phonetic alphabet, as has been already latter arrangement: Jerome had, in defiance of his mentioned, is the true key of the whole hieroglyphic brother's wishes, wedded himself to an American lady, system;'and that all inscriptions in hieroglyphics are who had recently presented him with a son. Napoleon composed principally of signs purely alphabetical. was seriously displeased at this union, and refused to He has traced these phonetic signs from the death of acknowledge its validity. Jerome, warmly attached to the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, 161 A. D., up to his wife, came over to Europe, and throwing himself the conquest of Alexander the Great, in 332 B.C.; at the emperor's feet, besought his pardon, and earagain, from Alexander's time to the Persian conquest nestly entreated him to receive his spouse as a member by Can ses, 525 B.C.; and thence through the differ- of the imperial family. This request was made at ent Egyptian dynasties as far back as to the beginning an untoward moment; for Jerome's interview with of the eighteenth, about the year 1874 before the the emperor took place at Milan, in 1805, just after Christian era. He has thus been enabled to verify he had grasped the iron crown of the ancient kings the chronology of Manetho as preserved by Josephus, of Lombardy, bearing this proud yet beautiful device : which had been previously treated with neglect, and

Dio me la diede ; has thereby shed a strong light on a portion of ancient history which, before his time, was enveloped in

Quai che la tocca. obscurity and doubt.

It was at this proud moment of his life that Jerome An attempt has since been made by two French asked him to receive a plebeian sister from republican writers–M. Klaproth and M. Dujardin—to invalidate America ! The request was indignantly refused. the discoveries and the system of Young and Cham- Jerome shed tears of passionate affection as he pollion; but on the whole, they have not succeeded in embraced his wife's portrait, and swore never to give establishing any serious objection. More recently, the her up for any paltry consideration of earthly granRev. C. Forster has appeared to dispute their system. deur. He, however, lacked the firmness and resolution He has endeavoured to shew that hieroglyphic writing by which the Bonaparte family were so eminently is entirely phonetic, and that the pictorial figures are to characterised; and when the temptation of a kingdom, be taken merely as illustrations; but others, who have with its power and its pomps, was held out to his well considered the subject, think that this doctrine is dazzled vision, he gradually became less vehement refuted by certain inscriptions published by the learned in his denials, and finally yielded to the will of his Egyptian scholar, Mr Birch, so lately as 1853. It is imperious brother. His wife was abandoned, his offspring disowned, and Jerome stood alone, a weak quite out of date-cut out into a scanty narrow frock and guilty man, ready to sacrifice honour, affection, with a short round queue, exactly resembling a beaver's and duty upon the base altar of earthly ambition. tail; the sleeves very narrow and very flat, looking as if

And now, who is to be his partner upon the newly her arms had been squeezed into them; and then the erected throne of Westphalia ?

shoes pointed, as if they had been made some cenNapoleon turned his glance towards Würtemberg, turies ago. Around her neck hung two rows of pearls, which had recently been raised to the dignity of a king- from whence was suspended a miniature of Jerome, so dom, and whose sovereign was now degraded into a clumsily set that it swung about at each movement satellite of imperial France. The princess-royal had of the wearer. In spite of this antique costume, the just completed her twentieth year. Fair in person, appearance of the princess was pleasing and attractive. and amiable in disposition, this youthful princess She is described to us as of a fair and fresh compossessed, nevertheless, far more firmness than her plexion ;. her beautiful light hair and blue eyes royal parent, and she resolutely expressed her aver- harmonising well with the graceful and dignified turn sion to the proposed alliance, regarding Napoleon as of her head, and she entered the apartment with as the direst foe of her native Germany; while at the same much princely self-possession as if she had been time she felt her maiden dignity deeply offended at attired under the direction of the imperial coiffeur the thought of being espoused to a man who, in her and modiste-personages of such importance as to be estimation, was already married to another. Vain, remembered even now under the names of Charbonnier however, were all her remonstrances. She was com and Leroy. Before dinner was announced, Catherine's pelled to bow beneath the iron will of Napoleon the agitation became so evident to her hostess, that the Great, with whom her father was at this time closely latter ventured to inquire whether aught had occurred allied; and before many months had elapsed, she to disturb her royal highness. Catherine, in reply, found herself wedded by proxy to Jerome, king of expressed her wish to be informed a few moments Westphalia, and had entered the confines of France before Jerome's arrival, so that she might be prepared as the acknowledged sister of its imperial ruler. She to meet him. This was promised; and while the was obliged, in compliance with court etiquette, to princess thanked Madame d'Abrantes for her kind part on the frontiers with all her German attendants, readiness to oblige her, “the burning blushes on her and to advance alone in a foreign country, surrounded cheek revealed no pleasing emotion, but the passionate indeed by a brilliant retinue, but with no familiar pain of an indignant woman's heart.' face to meet her saddened gaze; no sweet sound of *The dinner,' Madame d'Abrantes writes, 'was dull, home voices to soothe the bitter feelings of her heart. and even mournful. The princess was restless and With the characteristic firmness of her disposition, agitated. Having asked her twice which she would however, she gathered up all her courage to meet the prefer-taking coffee and ice in the park, or in the trying circumstances of her lot, and seemed resolved grand saloon, she seemed suddenly to recollect herself, that no tell-tale glance should betray the hidden and looking at me as if she scarcely understood the conflict of her heart. As she drew near to Paris, the purport of my question, replied : “ Just as you please." whole current of her being seemed to be changed; We quitted table at half-past six, and feeling anxious the usual kindliness of her manner became petrified to satisfy the princess's wishes, I went to inquire into a proud and frigid bearing; and while she was whether there was any symptom of Jerome's approach. studiously courteous to her attendants, her evident Just at this moment, a cloud of dust became visible constraint gave a disagreeable expression to her on the road from Paris, and several carriages were countenance.

seen to enter the poplar avenue. I hastened to inform It was on the 20th of August 1807 that, at an early the princess that in a few minutes the prince would hour of the day, she found herself almost in sight make his appearance. With a faint attempt to smile, of Paris ; but it being Napoleon's pleasure that she she thanked me for my kindness; but her appearance should not enter his capital until evening, she was really alarmed me; for in a moment her whole conducted by his order to Rainey—a charming coun- countenance became of a deep purple hue, which was try residence, once the abode of royalty, but now the immediately succeeded by the cold blanched colour possession of Junot, Duc d'Abrantes, whose wife was of death. She seemed, however, to summon all her commanded to receive the princess with all the honour resolution, and, rising from her seat, advanced with due to her elevated rank. The duchess received one of her ladies-in-waiting to the grand saloon, to her en demi toilette de cour on the grand peristyle of await the prince's arrival. This apartment communithe château, and conducted her to her own apart-cates at either end with the music-saloon and billiardments, where a repast of the most costly description room, from both of which it is separated only by was prepared for her refreshment. She courteously pillars, so that we who were assembled in the billiardinsisted on Madame d'Abrantes and her friends partak- room could see all that passed in the central saloon. ing with her of breakfast; and the animation with Catherine of Würtemberg seated herself near the which she talked might have bespoken a mind con- chimney, having by her side an arm-chair, intended tented with its lot, but that the rapid changes in her for the prince. The door of the music-saloon opened, countenance revealed only too clearly the inward and Jerome entered, followed by the officers of his conflict of her heart. At one moment, her features household, who remained in the outer chamber, while were suffused with the deepest crimson, and at another the prince advanced alone into the saloon where they became livid with a deadly pallor.

Catherine awaited him. She rose up, advanced a step The afternoon was filled up with a drive through or two towards him, and saluted him with much the Forest of Bondy, during which the princess still grace and dignity. As for Jerome, his aspect was exerted herself to appear pleased with the efforts made that of a boor, who looked as if he had come there for her amusenient. Next came the grand affair of because he was ordered to do so. He approached the her toilet, which seemed to Madame d'Abrantes a princess with an air of brusquerie and malaise. After matter of the utmost importance at this critical a few words had been exchanged between them, she moment of the princess's life. She anxiously awaited pointed to the chair near her; and a brief conversation her appearance in the saloon before dinner. What ensued about her journey. Before long, Jerome rose was her dismay on beholding the royal bride enter the up, and, in the tone and style of a bourgeois, said apartment clad in a style of old-fashioned magnifi- to her: “My brother is expecting us. I do not cence that might have suited her grandmother, but wish to delay the pleasure he will have in welcoming which was ill befitting the court of the Tuileries in you as his sister.” The princess smiled and bowed 1807. The material was a bluish moire-at that time acquiescence; but scarcely had Jerome withdrawn

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