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illustrandam SS. veritatem adhibuit." These stars, alas! are set, and we regret to say, that, amidst the crowded galaxy of their successors in this particular sphere, few are found to shed the Same sacred light and heat on the temples of our country.
Finally, we wish to observe to those who, awed by the charges of credulity so prodigally launched forth by the skeptical writers at the head of the orthodox, begin to be " ashamed of Christ and him crucified"—that there is nothing, even in the extravagancies of Christian enthusiasm, which approaches the credulity of Sir W. Drummond, or of any deluded creature who believes a page of his book. Hear his creed put into piain English:—" I believe that a plain history is an allegory; that the Jews, who exist to this moment, never existed; that all the writers who mention them arc liars; that all the monuments existing of this fabulous people, exist but in idea; that writings penned long before the real reform of the calendar, were an allegorical history of it; that a book in every page condemning idolatrous worship, was a treatise upon it; that thousands, living in the very age when, (I pretend,) these books were written, lived and died to defend a false meaning of them." Such is the nature of this skeptick's credulity. But is he never incredulous? Indeed he is: and let us see what credit his general incredulity lends to his religious skepticism. His negative creed may be conceived to run thus:—" I do not believe that my own body, or any other body, or any other mind, or my own mind, at any but this precise moment; or my pen, or my ink, or God, or the universe, or any thing in the heavens above, or the earth beneath, or in the water under the earth, exists." Shall we wonder, then, if he adds yet one more article to his creed? "I do not believe in the authenticity of the Jewish Scriptures."
We cannot conclude without returning our thanks to Mr. D'Oyly, for his successful refutation of this scandalous production. It is, we believe, his first offering to the publick since the dignity of * Christian Advocate to the University of Cambridge" was conferred upon him. We trust, that, in virtue of his high commission, he will persist, under God, in the good work he has begun; that he will feel his duties to extend beyond the defence of the outworks of the temple; and that he will not only guard its walls, but also watch over the fires on its altar. It will little benefit us, that the walls stand, if the lamps are gone out; that the priest remains, if the ark is departed; that the pillars are unshaken, if the glory of the Lord shine no longer upon them. It has always deeply affected us, when we have been obliged to draw the sword against any of his predecessors. It is, thank God, now in its sheath; and we shall never unsheath it, unless the Christian Advocate, which we have no reason to anticipate, should betray the cause he is now pledged to defend. How much rather should we fight under his shield, and sharpen our puny arrows at his forge; march with him under the standard of the Cross; conquer with him and every true soldier of Christ; and, at length, through Divine mercy, sit down with all the company of the saints and martyrs »f Christiar.jty, at the right hand of the throne of God.
FROM THH RI11TISH CBITICK.
Discourses and Dissertations on the Scriptural Doctrines of Atonement and Sacrifice; and on the principal Arguments advanced, and the Mode of Reasoning employed, by the Opponents of those Doctrines, as held by the Established Church. With an Appendix, containing some Strictures on Mr. Belsham's Account of the Unitarian Scheme, in his Review of Mr. Wilberforce's Treatise. By William Magee, D. D. Senior Fellow of Trinity College, and professor of Mathematicks in the University of Dublin. 2d and $d Editions, with Additions.
IN our Review for May 1802, vol. xix. p. 501, we gave an account of the first edition of this most important work. Totally unconnected and unacquainted, at that time, with the learned author, we remember to have felt a peculiar anxiety to make known to the publick on this side of the water, as early as possible, a performance of such singular merit, and to recommend it in the strongest terms to the careful perusal and diligent study of every zealous and enlightened Christian. Elaborate as most of the criticisms are, which it contains, we could not indeed expect it to be generally, or rather universally read; but we confess that we felt a lively hope, and even ventured to prognosticate, that in no very long space of time, it would become a book of standard eminence with biblical scholars and criticks; and we are happy to think, that events have realized this hope and this prediction. The name of MAGEE now appears in almost every theological work, that pretends to treat of the great doctrines herein elucidated and vindicated, and has undoubtedly acquired a credit and authority that must, we think, be highly gratifying to that very respectable and learned divine.
In consequence of repeated applications from his bookseller, a second edition of this work was committed to the press, by the author, in the year 1807, though, owing to the multiplicity of his academick labours and occupations, its publication was delayed till 1809. This second edition was. speedily followed by a third, which, though published only in the present year, was sent to the press in 1810. To both these editions much matter of very great importance has been added; and we now therefore consider it to be our duty, to solicit the attention of our readers afresh to the work in general, as one, with which no person, pretending to a knowledge of Christianity, as the religion of the bible, and at all competent to engage in such studies, should be unacquainted. Its merit is established; its character fixed; and we can certainly have little more to do, than to make known its contents, for the advantage of those, whose attention may not hitherto, from circumstances •f various kinds, have been particularly directed to it.
The great object of the work, generally speaking, is well expressed in the title page. It is designed to clear up, in every possible manner, but most particularly in the way of argument, and criticisms on the original language of Scripture, both in the Old and New Testaments, the great doctrines of Atonemekt and Sacrifice, and to consider "the arguments advanced, and mode of reasoning employed, by the opponents of those doctrines, as held by the Established Church." The form, or rather arrangement of the work, still continues, for the most part, the same as was adopted in the first edition of 1801. At the commencement we have the two Discourses, delivered by the learned Professor before the University of Dublin, in the years 1798, 1799, followed by many truly curious and valuable notes of reference and illustration; and many important Dissertations, on almost every point connected with the subject. In these, the arguments, systems, and criticisms of some of the most eminent writers on both sides of the question, are discussed with infinite care and labour, and the whole very fairly and candidly left to the judgment and decision of every impartial and unprejudiced scholar.
Referring our readers to the volume of our Review before cited, for our account of the first edition, we shall endeavour, as briefly as we can, to notice the improvements and additions made in those more immediately before us. And first, in both the latter editions, the typographical improvements are considerable. The second much superiour to the first, in the adoption of a larger type for the notes. The third is still printed in a clearer character than the second, and on paper of a superiour quality; and, considering the nature of the work, every edition may be approved and admired for its accuracy. A very important improvement also in the two latter editions, is to be noticed, in the addition of distinct titles to the several notes ard dissertations, and a table of contents prefixed to each, conformable to these heads or titles. Of the great utility of these titles, and of the table of contents, the reader perhaps will be better able to judge, from the following view of both. In the first edition, the first note is introduced with a simple reference to the page of the discourse, and its appropriate number: in the other editions, it has the following running title, " On the pre-existence of Christ, and the species of arguments by which this article of the Christian Doctrine has been •pposed;"—by this slight alteration the notes are marked as they should be, rather as distinct dissertations on special points; and the attention of the reader is more immediately drawn to the particular topick under discussion. The table of contents also, by means of this improvement, sets forth at once, to the view of the reader. a complete summary of all the valuable matter contained in the book; the importance of which may easily be judged from a few only of the titles as they at present stand—
« No. I. On the Pre-existence of Christ, and the species of arguments by whi<& this article of the Christian Doctrine has been opposed.
"No. II. Unitarian Objections to the religious observance ofstated days.
"No. III. On the Importance of the Doctrine of Redemption.
"No. IV. Pardon not necessarily consequent upon Redemption.
"No. V. The sense entertained by Mankind oftlieraafuraJiuefficacyof Repentance, proved from the History of Human Sacrifices.
"No. VI. On the multiplied operation of the Divine Acts.
"No. VIL Deistical reasoning instanced in Chubk.
"No. VIII. On the Consistency of ifrayer with the divine immutability.
"No'. IX. On the granting of the divine forgiveness through a jMcdiator or Intercessor.
"No. X. On Uwitariaks or Rational Dissenters.
"No. XI. On the distinction between Unitarians and Socanians.
*. No XII. On the Corruption of Man's natural Stale.
"No. XHI. On the misrepresentation of the Doctrine of atonement by Unitarimi.
"No. XIV. On the disrespect of Scripture manifested by Unitarian Writers.
"No. XV. On the heuthen notions of merit entertained by Unitarians.
"No. XVI. On Dil. John Tailoii's Scheme of Atonement.
"No. XVII. The doctrine of Atonement falsely charged with the presumption on the necessity of Christ's death.
"No. XVIII. On the mode of reasoning whereby the Sufficiency of good works izithout mediation is attempted to be defended from Scripture.
"No. XIX. The want of a discoverable connexion between the means and the end, equally applies to every Scheme of Atonement.
"No. XX. On the Scripture Phrase of our being reconciled to God." &c. &c.
When the Reader considers the importance of those articles alone which are here enumerated, and is told, that on the whole they amount in the 2d and 3d editions to more than seventy, independent of the Appendix, now also enriched with many very learned and curious notes, he may be able in some degree to appreciate the value of the learned Professor's labours, thus communicated to the publick.
Besides the table of contents, which stands at the beginning of the work, there are subjoined at the end a copious index of the principal matters discussed—an index of texts, and a List of the books consulted.
We have been the more particular in noticing these parts of the work, as auxiliary to the researches of the student, because we have happened to hear the Professor's arrangement of his matter questioned; and have therefore been led to consider it the more maturely; and we must confess, that the result of our own reflections is, much more in favour of the present arrangement than against it; without it we are almost at a loss to know whether it would admit of any other improvement in future editions, (which »re already called for,) than the incorporation of such notes, as would of course be taken into the text, whenever the book shall 50 to press under such circumstances as to admit of it; for every person acquainted with such writings must know how additional matter will accumulate in the hands of an author, even while his work is passing through the press, and how irresistibly he will be compelled by this circumstance to add note upon note, though it must certainly always be desirable to avoid such accumulation as much as possible. Had not the present work been likely to descend tc posterity, as a standard book of reference, our ideas might have been different in regard to the arrangement; but considering it as »uch, and having a view to the great multiplicity of topicks, severally discussed by the learned Professor, we think the apparent want of coherency, compensated by the present arrangement under
VmL. I—No. I. T
distinct heads, aided by the tables and indices noticed above. This very arrangement has rather enabled the learned author to go beyond the limits of his title page, and to treat of subjects, which, though not immediately connected with the Doctrine of Atonement, are certainly very curious, and upon which we are truly happy to have, as upon other points, his thoughts and opinions; but of which perhaps we should have been deprived for ever, had it not been for the facilities afforded him by the method adopted. We doubt not, however, but that before another edition shall appear, the learned Professor will himself re-consider this matter, and if this arrangement should appear really capable of improvement, wiilingly adopt any steps towards it that may be pointed out; for ourselves we must repeat, that we are contented with the work as it is, always taking into account that we regard it in great measure as a book of reference.
In an advertisement prefixed to the third edition, Dr. Magee has given an account of the additions made to the work in that particular impression. He has not so immediately pointed out ■what was added in the second edition. We shall give some account of both.
The principal additions in the 2d edition occur in numbers vii.
VIII. IX. XII. XXXIV. XXXV. XL. XLII. XLVIII. LXVII. LXX. LXXI. J.XXIV. w •
It is impossible for us to enter far into the merits of these several additions. They are all of them of great importance; the most noticeable perhaps are those that occur in No. xn. "On the corruptions of Man's natural State." No. xxxv. "On the Passover being a Sacrifice." No. Xl. "On the Antiquity of the Book of Job, and objections thereto." No. Xlii. "On the Heathen corruption of the Divine institution of Sacrifice." No. Xlviii. "On the supposition that the Mosaick Sacrifices originated in human invention." No. Lxx. "On the disproportion between the effects of the Mosaick and the Christian Sacrifices." No. Lxxi. " On the correspondence between the Sacrificial language of the Old Testament and that employed in the New to describe Redemption by the death of Christ." And in No. Lxxiv. " On the vicarious import of the Mosaick Scriptures." In the additions to No. Xii. the learned author reprobates in strong terms the tenets of the modern Methodists, with respect particularly "to miraculous impulses" and « sinless perfection," so insisted upon In the writings of Whitefield and Wesley. Whatever might be the original purity, and amiable tendency, of the motives, by which these two heads of the methodistical party were actuated when they first separated from the church, there can be little doubt, that in a short time they fell into that rant of language, and hyperbolical style, ■which has served to turn the heads of many of their followers. Attempts are often made to give an unexceptionable turn to their expressions, and to lower their pretensions greatly, but as far as language can be considered as the vehicle of thought, and thought U the expression of the feelings of the soul, we must be justified