« AnteriorContinuar »
SOCIETY FOR THE RELIEF AND BENEFIT OF THE MANUFACTURING AND LABOURING POOR.
An admirable plan for the establishment of local institutions for the relief of the IK»r has been printed, and circulated by the Committee.
It is formed on the model of a soup society, established in the poor and populous 'listriet of Spitalfields, which has afforded substantial relief to the distressed manufacturers, and has given rise to many important plans for the alleviation of human misery. The history of the origin of this society, is instructive and encouraging, as it shows how much good may be ultimately effected by the labours of a few personsin the first instance; and the plan itself, as it has been remarkably successful, may serve as a model for similar institutions.
In the year 1797, an individual, affected with the sufferings of the poor in Spitalfields, many of whom were starving, resolved to procure, if possible, the co-operation of some of his friends in a plan for affording relief to a few of the worst cases, and to ascertain which were really such, by visiting them in their houses. He communicated his idea to a friend. These two persons called a meeting of a few of their friends ata private house, wherein the subject was discussed. At a second mectiiig,about twenty were present, and this company resolved to form themselves into a Society for the purpose of supplying the poor with meat soup at a penny per quart. A subscription was commenced, the Society rapidly increased, and in the course of a few days a committee was formed. Sub-committees were appointed to draw up Piles and regulations, and by a division of labour in this way, the society was quickly organized. The sub-committee appointed for that purpose soon met with eligible premises, at No. 53, Brick Lane, Spitalfields, and no time was lost in adapting them to die purposes of the institution. Tickets were printed, and issued to the subscribers. On the first day of delivery the visiters attended, under no small degree of anxiety a to the result of their experiment. It succeeded, however, to their utmost wish: the applicants paid the penny per quart with cheerfulness, and earried home a supply of food which they could not have prepared of equal quality themselves, for four or five times that sum. The committee purchase at the first hand, at wholesale prices, meat, barley, &c. of prime quality; and as every thing is done by sub-committees and individuals, from the purest and most disinterested motives, there are no salaries for clerks, no commission to agents; the only expense beyond that of the ingredients of the soup is the rent of the premises, the hire of servants to prepare the soup under the inspection of the visiters, and a moderate allowance to die superiiitendant. In the choice of the latter, the committee was most fortunate; they found a married woman possessing every requisite qualification for the office, which she has continued to discharge, with great credit to herself, and benefit to the institution, down to the present day.
The committee consists of above fifty gentlemen, some of them churchmen, and the rest dissenters of different denominations, who regularly meet once a foitnigbt, and transact their business with great harmony and regularity. Deeply sensible that the success of every charity mainly consists in personal inspection, and in a scrupulous and minute attention to all the details connected with it, the committee has) framed its regulations accordingly.
A constant oversight is kept up by the members of the committee in rotation, and the whole so contrived as not to press heavily upon any individual.
It comes only to the turn of the same individual to attend at the making and dis•ribuuoo of the soup once in three weeks; and the days being fixed, every one knows his time.
It has been found of great advantage to appoint sub-committees for particular purposes; one to provide the meat, another for barley and peas, a third for pepper and salt, and a fourth for onions: there is also a committee for inspecting the visiters' fcook, and bringing forward any remarks recorded in that book which may appear of sufficient consequence to engage the attention of the committee. There are sther sub-committees for different purposes.
The poor person takes the recommendation to the visiters at the soup house. It <> here numbered, put upon a file, and the applicant receives a ticket in its stead, faring the same number as that put upon the recommendation. It is usual to allow •ae quart of soup to every two persons in a family.
la the boiling-house are five cast-iron boilers of different capacities, capable of making from 3000 to about 3300 quarts of soup. The following are the ingredients for one of the large boilers, which furnishes
Vol. I—No. I. 2 E
from 700 to 800 quarts of soup. Beef, 2001b.; Scotch barley, 100 lb.; split pease, 761b.; onions, 10 lb.; salt, lylb.; pepper, 15 oz.
The original practice for some time was, to make the soap principally from the coarser pieces of beef; but the Society has latterly adopted the plan ot buying quarter* of beefonly, lest the demand on the market tor coarser pieces should, by raising the price, be of prejudice to individuals, who may be m the habit of providing themselves with these only. Every article in the soup is of thu best quality that can be' Srocured. Every quart of this soup contains the essence of about five ounces of :ef, and nearly three ounces of solid barley aud pease. It possesses the ativuitage of being ready cooked. 1'wo or three quarts of it, if mixed with boiled potatoes, would furnish a savoury meal for a large family.
The whole of the meat is cut up, and put into the boilers in the evening, and is left to simmer all night. During this time it becomes thoroughly slewed down, and the fleshy fibres equally distributed through the whole mass. The men come at six o'clock in the morning, rouse up the fires, add the barley and pease, aj;d at eight o'clock the onions, pepper, and salt; and the whole is kept constant!) stirred until it is served oat.
In onler to prevent loss of time in disputing whether the money be good or not, the committee has ordered that only penny pieces, new halfpence, or silver be taken. The committee, indeed, has been very anxious to economize the time of the poor, and improvements suggested by experience have shortened the time of delivering the soup to limits scarce!) credible; for some perhaps will not without difficulty be brought to believe, that upwards of three thousand quarts are daily distributed to above one thousand persons applying for their families, their money taken, and their tickets marked, in less than two hours and a quarter on an average: it h*» been done frequently witl.'n the two hours. The average of the detention of each persou during the delivery, from the time of entering the house at one door and quilting it at the other, is about thirty -eight minutes; and as a great number of thow who come for the soup, are either children, or aged persous past any very beneficial labour, it is evident that not much valuable lime is Inst in fetching it
In order to shelter the poor from the inconveniences and danger of being exposed to the weather, the committee has found means to receive about three hundred persons at once under cover; and to prevent that violence and confusion wbteh at fmt were subjects of just complaint, a kind of railing has been constructed, wbkL ensures order by obliging each person to follow in regular succession to the place ot serving.
The average daily quantity of soup delivered, is above 3100 quart*, and the daily consumption of beef is 856 lb.; of Scotch barhy, 4261b.; of split pease, 3171b.; U onions, 401b.; of pepper, 3 lb. 14 ox.; of salt, 62 lb.
It is calculated, that a meal is thus furnished for 7000 persons every day. Tfcf beef alone which enters into the composition of every quart, costs the iijsthuooD twopence at the wholesale price: if this portion of meat were distributed to tlpoor, raw, it must be cooked; if roasted or fried, besides the expense of fire, therwould be waste: if boiled, some of the gelatine, one of the nust nutritious parts*'* the meat, would be dissolved out by the water; but in this mode of eooking, tin vhole of the nourishment is preserved. For the detailed regulations for me proper management of such an institution, we must refer to the account published by thu association.
SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL IN
The incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parti. having of late years found great difficulty in prevailing with proper clergymen to g*> abroad in their service, and conceiving that one cause of this disinclination ah** from an ignorance of the whole, of the emoluments and advantages annexed to the situation of a missionary in the colonies to which they are sen% thiuk it proper to publish the following more full account than what appears in the general annual sV ■tract of their proceedings.
The colonies to which the Society send out missionaries are these following: Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Upper and Lower Canada, Cape Breton, and Africa,
ft may be useful to notice, that before the Society send out a missionary to any new place, the people first petition the Society to do it, and signify that they are able «nd willingto contribute towards his support. In general, it is required that a church be built, a glebe secured, a parson age-house erected, and a subscription entered into by the people themselves, or such engagements made as may induce the Society to establish a mission before they are completed; but where the people have tailed in the performance, the missionary has been removed to another station.
Upon the opening of a new mission, the Society grant a yearly salary of 50J. Afterwards, it is increased or diminished according as circumstances may seem to require, the glebe lands being in some places of more value th'an in others. Half a year's salary is advanced to each missionary upon bis going abroad, and an allowance made towards the charge of the voyage, generally about 301.
Besides this, great aid has been afforded by government towards carrying on the pious designs of the Society. In the province* of Nova Scotia thirteen missionaries now enjoy an annual salary from government of 70/. or 75/. In New Brunswick nine missionaries have each 100/. a year. To the missionary at Cape Breton 100/. a year is allotted: and to five missionaries in Newfoundland 50/. a year, with some allowance of rations, in addition to the Society's salary of 100/.
The missionaries in Canada have each of them an annual salary of 100/. from government, and no one has less than 50/. from the Society. The other growing advantages from glebe, subscription, and other contingencies, cannot be accurately stated, as they must be subject, from many causes, to variation and uncertainty, and will be governed, in some respects, by the abilities of the people, and the estimation in which the missionary is held.
In addition to this, it should be observed, that the Society, ever attentive to the necessities of their missionaries, have been accustomed, as occasions required, toreward the diligent for any extraordinary services, and to alleviate the distresses of those who have been afflicted with sickness, or sustained any unforeseen losses and calamities, by pecuniary gratuities.
The Society allow to four students in divinity at King's College in Nova Scotia, 50/. a year eacii, during the term of seven years, with preference to sons of missionaries.
MISSION TO TARTARY.
Extract of a letter from a gentleman at Petersburgh, dated January 17, 1812.— "Two of my friends, who are returned from the waters of Caucasus, tell me that they passed a fortnight very agreeably with the Scotch missionaries in that neighbourhood. The principals are the Rev. Mr. Brunton and Mr. Patterson. During the seven years they have, been there, they have suffered much from-the Circassians; yet, nil thing* considered, they have succeeded much better than might have been expected. Their village is surrounded by Tartars, who befriend them as far as lies in their power. Tiie missionaries have a small wooden church; a printing-hotfsf, with Arabick types cut m England, for printing and dispersing religious tracts in that language among their neighbours. Mr. Brunton has nearly completed the New Testament; which, considering he was ignorant of the language seven yeaps ago, praves lum to be an indefatigable man. They have also a cloth manufactory, and ts much land allowed them by the Russian government as they choose to cultivate; frota which they furnish the surrounding country with potatoes, tobacco, &c. In their school they have nearly forty children, who are all instructed in the Christian religion: several of them have been sent from Circassia: the rest are Tartars. This has gained them the good-will of their neighbours. They are often applied to as arbitrators," &c.
AFRICAN AND ASIATICK SOCIETY.
This Society was instituted for the benefit of the natives of Africa and Asia, and their descendanti, resident in Loudon and its vicinity.
It provides religious instruction for those connected with it, a publick lecture being regularly carried on, every Lord's-day evening, expressly for their benefit; and schools being provided in their respective neighbourhoods, where they are taught to read, to write, and to cast-up accounts &c. ,
It induces a habit of economy Itnd foresight, by receiving from its members a »maU sum weekly, on the principle of a benefit Society. Out of the fund thus vnmA by their individual contributions, they become, on certain conditions, entitled to receive regular assistance and relief in seasons of distress, and in time of old age.
It assists in providing employment for such as are out of situations: the Committee using their individual exertions towards this end, and places being opened as registers, where their applications may be lodged and attended to.
It contributes to th« relief of distressed Africans and Asialicks, whether enrolled »s members or not; the Committee regularly meeting once a mouth expressly for this purpose.
Such are the leading objects proposed by the African and A»iatick Society. Since the commencement of the Society, 375 persons of colour have joined themselves to it as subscribing members, most of whom have occasionally, and many of them regularly, attended publick worship. Some of them are said to give the most satisfactory evidence of repentance towards God, and faith in our Lord Jesot Christ, and good hopes are entertained with regard to others. Several of those who have been patronised by litis Society, have died rejoicing in the Lord Jesus.
Since the last annual meeting, about one hundred and eighty cases of deep affliction have been relieved, and the number of cases of distress continues to multiply; » i circumstance which the Committee trust the benevolence of the publick will enable them adequately to meet.
SOCIETY FOR THE SUPPORT AND ENCOURAGEMENT OF SUNDAY SCHOOLS THROUGHOUT THE BRITISH DOMINIONS.
At the annual general meeting of this Society, on the 8th day of April, the committee reported, That since the last general meeting 239 schools had been added to the Society's list; and assistance repeated to 92 other schools formerly established,for which, and the new schools before stated, they had distributed 26,723 Spelling-books, 5056 Testaments, and 132 Bibles. That since the commencement of the institution, (1785,) they had issued 339,695 Spelling-books, 70,537 Testaments, and 8001 Bibles, to 3730 schools, containing upwards of 303,000 scholars. In the course of the put year, numerous testimonies of the utility of this institution have been furnished from various quarters, many instances of which were read by the secretary. Wales appears to have felt the moral influence of Sunday Schools, throughout the principality; and Ireland is making progress by means of them, in civilization and religious light. Applications have also been made to this country for the establishment of Sunday Schools at St. John's, Antigua; St. George's, Barbadoes; the Cape of Good Hope; Sicily; and Gibraltar: in consequence of which, the Society resolved to extend their patronage as far they may be enabled, '• throughout the British dominions," and have designated themselves accordingly, on the presumption, that in prosecuting an object that promises such extensive benefit, both moral and political, the liberality of the publick will not be found to desert them.
SOCIETY FOR MISSIONS TO AFRICA AND THE EAST. It appears that the Society's missionaries at the Rio Pongas, on the western coast of Africa, have received about 120 children under their care, many of whom are children of native chiefs; and that there are the most encouraging prospects of establishing schools further in the interiour. The national system of British education has been introduced, and is now making its way among the Susoos. One of the Society's missionaries, the Rev. L. Butschar, was present at the meeting, with an interesting African youth, one of the scholars at the Society's settlement, who had accompanied his teacher on a visit to this country. The missionary confirmed the representations of the Report, with respect to Western Africa, in an address of great information, simplicity, and piety; and particularly gratified the Society by stating, that 72 slave factories, which had existed on that coast before the abolition, and had transported annually 4000 slaves, were now reduced to 18, and that these, under the vigorous measures of his excellency governour Maxwell, and of the naval officers on the coast, were dwindling away.
We perceive an account also of two other Societies of an interesting nature,— The Religious Tract Society, and The Society for Promoting the Observance of the Lord's Day. But our limits do not permit much further extracts, and we hasten to conclude this dilated view with an account which we take en masse, from die Christian Observer, of the
BAPTIST MISSIONS IN INDIA.
The 2-2d Number of the Periodical Accounts of the Baptist Missionary Society, comprising a view of the progress of the Mission from the beginning of October, 1810, to the end of March, 1811, has lately made its appearance. From this it appears, that the Baptist Mission has now branched out into fire distinct missions, viz, (he Bengal, carried on at five stations, Serampore and Calcutta, Dinagepore and Sadamah'l, Goamalty, Cutwa, and Jessore; the Burman, at Rangoon; the Orissa, at Balasore; the Bootan and the Hindoost'han, at Patna and Agra. At these different stations they are proceeding with more or less success. The number of missionaries from Europe is nine, and of those raised up in India seven, besides twelve Hindoo converts, who have been either ordained to the ministry, or are on probation with that view. The whole number in the communion of these churches is 310; of whom, 105 have been added in the year 1810, and 16 in the year 1811.
Having taken this general view of the state of the mission, we will proceed, as usual, to give a few extracts from the Accounts.
Calcutta, Oct. 5, 1810.
"There are six candidates for baptism, and reason to expect more before the end of the month. The greater part of these have to glorify God, in a peculiar manner, for the translation of the Scriptures into their native language, as scarcely one of them, even of those who can smarter a little of our tongue, can comprehend the plainest parts of the Bible in English. It is truly gratifying to see what profound attention pervades the whole of our young pupils, when we have worship in the Bengalee language. This has induced me to allow a larger portion of their time to he devoted to learning it, and have therefore this morning altered the plan of teaching.''
Calcutta, Oct. 26,1810.
"There are three additional candidates for baptism; two of whom waited on Mr. Carey yesterday, the other requested to be introduced to him on the next visiting day. Christ appears to be very precious to these persons, and their minds are relieved from doubts and fears. These, added to the sixteen mentioned at the last church-meeting, make nineteen; eighteen of whom are indebted, under Divine grace, to the translation of the Scriptures for their conversion. They are not very easy of belief on these important subjects, especially the native Catholicks, who find a vast difference between the pure word of God and the fables and wicked inventions of their blind leaders. They are therefore determined to be thoroughly satisfied now, lest they should be deceived again, and to become well persuaded that they are at last in possession of the pearl of great price.
"You have no doubt heard of a wish having been expressed by some ladies for the establishment of a school for the instruction of indigent young females upon a plan similar to our institution for the boys. This is a most desirable object"
The English editor of these Accounts, introduces at this place the following note. "It is not for us to give account of any but our own proceedings; otherwise the communications of our brethren would enable us to speak with pleasure of the fruits of other evangelical labours in the city of Calcutta, as well as our own. The above hint respecting a female school, was from the friends of religion in the Established Church."
We think this a perfectly fair and natural course of proceeding, for which we cannot at all blame either the Baptist missionaries or the editor of their transactions. It is not many months, however, since a writer in the Eclectick Review, when giving an account of the Christian Researches of Dr. Buchanan, thought proper to make the following observations. "We are not to be understood as implying that the Doctor has used, with respect to the missionaries, in this or his other works, any terms of a directly depreciating nature"—" but we read with a very perverted apprehension, if there is not a systematical avoidance to give due prominence of representation to their energy, their talents, and their performances; if there is not an obvious disposition to throw a fuller, richer light on the exertions, even the much more limited and less important exertions, of other scholars; if there are not, in •hort, some indications of a sectarian feeling, that is far from pleased that persons M connected with the Church of England should have obtained a precedence from