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permit, and, in the mean time, would continue his pension during his life." The good man thought this bounty too great, and an ill precedent, and therefore he wrote a letter to the lord treasurer, earnestly desiring that his pension might be only during pleasure; but the king would grant it for life, and make it payable quarterly. Yet for a whole month he would not suffer his servant to sue out his patent for the pension, and when the first payment was received, he ordered a great part of it to be given away in charity, saying, that he intended most of it should be so distributed as long as he received it.
His resignation was in February 1676, and heditdon Christmas day following. Not long before his death the minister told him the sacrament would be administered at the church next Sunday, but as he could not come and partake with the congregation, therefore he would administer it to him in his own house; but Sir Matthew answered " No; my heavenly Father has prepared a feast for me, and therefore I will go to my Father's house to partake of it."
He had, according to his biographer, some unaccountable presages of his death; for he said, that if he did not die on the 25th of November, he believed he should live a month longer, and he accordingly died on that day month.
His remains were deposited in the church-yard of Alderly, among his ancestors, and his monument, which is of black mar^ ble, has a plain inscription in Latin, composed by himself.
Sir Matthew Hale, says the author of his life, had a soul enlarged and raised above the mean appetite of loving money. He did not take the profits he might have had by his practice; for in common cases, when those who came to ask counsel gave him a piece,* he used to return one half, so making ten shillings his fee in ordinary matters that did not require much time and study; if he saw a cause was unjust, he would not meddle with it, saying, " that it was as great a dishonour as a man could be capable of, that for a little money he was to be hired to say or do otherwise than he thought."
When he was a practitioner, differences were often referred to him, which he settled, but would accept of no reward for his pains, though offered by both parties together, after the agreement was made; for he said, "In these cases he was made a judge, and a judge ought to take no money." If they told him he lost much of his time in considering their business, and so ought to be acknowledged for it; his answer was, " Can I spend
• The piece of money so called at that time, wits worth twenty shillings,
Vol. I.—No. II. 2 K
my time better than to make people friends? Must I have no time allowed me to do good in?"
He laid aside the tenth penny of all he got for charitable purposes, and he took care to be well informed of proper objects: and after he was a judge, many of the perquisites of his office were sent by him to the gaols to discharge poor debtors, who never knew from whose hands their deliverance came.
It was a custom for the marshal of the King's Bench to present the judges of that court with a piece of plate for a newyear's gift, that for the chief-justice being larger than the rest; this he intended to have refused, but the other judges told him that it belonged to his office, and the refusing it would be a preiu.dicfe to his successours, so he was persuaded to take it; but he sent word to the marshal, "that instead of plate, he should bring him the value in money." which, when he received, he immediately sent to the prison for the relief and the discharge of poor persons confined there.
He usually invited his poor neighbours to dine with him: and if any of them were sick and could not come, he would send them food from his table. If any common beggars met him in his walks when he lived in the country, he would ask such as were capable of working, "why they went about so idly?" and if they answered, it was because they had no employ, he would send them to some of his fields to gather all the stones into a heap, and then pay them for their labour. This being done, he used to send his carts, and cause the stones to be carried to those places in the highway which needed repair.
When he was in town his charities were very liberal even . among the street beggars; and when some friends told him that he thereby encouraged idleness, and that most of them were notorious cheats; he used to answer, "that he believed most of them were such; but that among them there were some great objects, and pressed with grievous necessities; and that he would rather give his alms to twenty, who might perhaps be rogues, than that one of the other sort should perish for want of his small relief."
Another instance of his justice and goodness was, that when he received bad money,he would never attempt to pass it again, which, being known, induced many crafty persons to impose upon him. He had a large heap of base money in his chamber, which being observed by some thieves, they contrived to steal the whole, thinking they had got a great prize. This circumstance the judge used to relate, and with much pleasantry remark on the disappointment which the thieves must have experienced, when they found what kind of a booty they had obtained.
He had so completely gained the government of his passions, that though naturally of a quick temper, he was never seen in a passion; nor did he ever resent injuries. Of the noble generosity of his mind, the following is a striking instance. A person who had done him a great injury, afterwards came to him for his advice in the settlement of his estate, which he very frankly gave him, but would accept no fee for it; and when he was asked how he could use a man so kindly who had wronged him so much, his answer was," I thank God I have learned to forget injuries."
His mercifulness extended itself to his beasts, for when his horses grew aged and incapable of labour, he would not suffer them to be sold, but turned them loose into his grounds; he also used his old dogs with the same care; and he was scarcely erer seen more angry, than with one of his servants for neglecting a bird that he kept, so that it died for want of food.
His equanimity was so great, that no accidents, how sudden soever, could discompose him.
In the year 1666 an opinion was prevalent in the nation, that the end of the world would be that year, which spread great consternation among the people; and judge Hale going the western circuit in the summer, it happened that, as he was on the bench, a most terrible storm came on very unexpectedly, accompanied with dreadful flashes of lightning and claps of thunder, which made such an impression upon the people, that they went to prayers: this, added to the horrour raised by the storm, made a very dismal scene; but the judge was not at all affected, and went on with the business of the court in his ordinary manner.
This great man was twice married; by his first wife he had ten children, all of whom he outlived except his eldest daughter and his youngest son.
His literary character was highly respectable. His work on the Pleas of the Crown is still a standard performance, and the author an oracle in all our courts. His Moral and Theological Pieces are written in a style of great plainness, but they are addressed to the heart. His folio volume against atheism, entitled, " The Primitive Origination of Mankind," is replete with various erudition and sound argument. Dr. Paley, in his Natural Theology, has adopted an illustration from it, without any acknowledgment.
JONES'S PREFACE TO THE LIFE OF BISHOP HORNE.
Bishop Home has been sometimes represented as a thorough-going diseifile of the famous Hutchinson, and the Reverend and very learned author of" The Retrospect of the \8th Century" a tuork of indefatigable research and established reputation, appears to countenance this common mistake; our theological readers, therefore, will be doubtless gratified with a short introduction to the Hutchinsonian system,from the pen of one of the greatest masters in Israel, who in these latter days have defended the Christian Church by their profound and extensive erudition, and adorned it by the uniform candour and piety of their lives. I mean the late Rev. William Jones, of JVayland, A. M. F. K. S. and chaplain to this good bishop—From this edifying and entertaining account of Hutchinson's opinions,it will be seen how far bishop Home conceived himself authorized in adopting them.
IN publishing the Memoirs of the Life of Bishop Home, my intention was only to give a true idea of that good man, as it presented itself to my memory and affections; and to produce an edifying book, rather than a formal history. I flatter myself it has done some good; and I hope it may do more. If any offence has been given, I can only say it was no part of my plan: but it is a common fault with plain Christians, who know little of the world, to tell more truth than is wanted; and they have nothing left but a good conscience, to support them under the mistake.
Some few exceptions have been made to the performance by little cavillers, which are not worth mentioning: but I brought myself into the most serious difficulty of all, by representing bishop Home as an Hutchinsonian; which thing, (it seems,) ought not t» have been done; as it was strongly suggested to mc, from the late learned Dr. Farmer, while my work was in hand. On this matter I beg leave to explain myself a little. I never said, nor did I ever think, that bishop Home owed every thing to Hutchinson, or was his implicit follower. I knew the contrary: but this I will say, because I known it to be true, that he owed to him the beginning of his extensive knowledge; for such a beginning as he made placed him on a new spot of high ground; from which he took all his prospects of religion and learning; and saw that whole road lying before him, which he afterwards pursued, with so much pleasure to himself, and benefit to the world. This declaration, however clear it may be to me, is more than some of my readers will be willing to admit, or able to bear. I perceive, by what has been written, that, if it can be effected, bishop Home must be taken away from the Hutchinsonians: or, if that cannot be done, his character must not be set too high; we must beware of exaggeration; he must be represented as good and pious, rather than wise or great. This comes not from the truth, but from, the timet: and it is what we must expect to hear, till the times shall alter, and a few stumbling-blocks shall be removed out of the way. After what I had related, with so little disguise, concerning the earlystudies of Dr. Home, I could foresee that his character, excellent as it is, had a fiery trial to pass: I therefore prepared myself to see—what I have seen.
But, while I heard some things which were unpleasant, I heard others, which gave me encouragement. For, though it was commonly reported, that I had bestowed too many words upon a cause, which neither required nor deserved them, one of the wisest men of this age, who is a host of himself, wished I had said more; it being a cause of which the world heard much, but knew little, ana* wanted to know more. I shall take this opportunity of satisfying their curiosity as faithfully as I can.
But 1 find myself called upon, by the way, to justify the bishop against an unexpected accusation of a late author; who charges him with fancifulness and firesumfttion: for what reason, and with how much justice, learning, and judgment, we shall see presently: and I am glad this second edition was deferred, because the delay has given me an opportunity of seeing some things, of which I ought not to be ignorant.
In a Nevt Biografihical Dictionary, a life of Dr. Home is inserted; the author of which speaks of him with as much caution, as a man would handle hot coals. For what he is pleased to say of mf, as a writer of Dr. Home's life, I am much obliged to him; and I think it more than I deserve or desire: but, I should be false to the bishop's memory, were I to allow his account of him to be either just or true. He gives him the praise of being a blamelest man! (cold enough!) when they, that have eyes to see, and judgment to discern, must discover him to be, both for matter and manner, one of the first oratours and teachers this church can boast; and that he often displays a rich vein of wit, rarely indeed to be found in a man of so much sweetness and good temper. What a poor figure does Priestley make in the hands of the Undergraduate! And the great philosopher, Hume, in the letter to Dr. Adam Smith! Where the bishop is reflected upon, for being an Hutchintinian, it is allowed, nevertheless, that he might be partly right in his natural philosophy; though I do not understand the biographer's method of making it out; and I question whether he understood it himself. But then it is added, that " if he proceeded to a supposed analogy between material and immaterial things, and compared the agency of the Son and Holy Ghost to that of light and air in the natural world; it will surely be thought, that he vent upon very uncertain and fanciful, not to say, presumptuous grounds." I thank him for speaking out. But is this true divinity? Is there then no analogy between things natural and divine? And have I been beating the air, and writing a volume, to prove and explain it, and demonstrate the great use and value of it; and tas this author discovered at last, that there is no such thing? How mortifying 15 it to me to hear, that so much of the labour of my