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DEATH. Jer. 51. 39. • That they may sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith the Lord. Targ. • Sed moriantur morte secunda, et non vivant in seculo futuro'but let them die the SECOND DEATH, and not live in the world to come. Ps. 49. 10. • For he seeth that wise men die.' Targ. Quoniam videbit sapientes improbos, qui moriuntur morte secunda, at adjudicantur Gehennæ’ -since he shall see the wicked wise men who die the SECOND DEATH, and adjudged to hell. Although, therefore, Cocceius understands by the second death in this passage merely final apostacy, or hopeless obduration of heart ;* yet it is probable that it points to the ultimate irrevocable doom of the lost after death. If so, the drift of the prophet is to convey the assurance, that the blessed participants of the first resurrection should not only enjoy all the present happiness and triumph, included in their living and reigning state on earth, but in addition to this, should be crowned with the prerogative of exemption from the fearful lot of those who might finally sink beyond redemption into the woes and horrors of the second death.'

The Holy Spirit having thus completed all that it was necessary to say respecting the state of things within the limits of Christendom during the period of Satan's restraint, having fully acquainted us with the sufferings

* Qui autem revixerunt, ii beati sunt, quia justi-sancti, quia a Spiritu Sancto sanctificati ad amorem veritatis, Propter eam causam secunda mors, avopia, atootaola, induratio, in cos potestatem non habet. Regeniti non deficerent ; quia beati et sancti sunt ; h. e. quia a Deo justificati sunt et arrhabonem Spiritiis a Deo acceperunt, et eo signati sunt. og in Rev. 21. 6.

and trials of the victims of papal persecution, another transition now occurs in the thread of the visionary narrative, and he proceeds to the memorable finale of the Dragon's machinations against the ehurch, eventuating in his own defeat and destruction. The consideration of this part of our subject will form the matter of the ensuing chapter.

** Because Satan was still to play a last game before he was condemned to his final judgment, by which he shall be quite driven from having any thing to do with mankind; the Holy Ghost goes on now to show us how he comes to his end in seoking, when loosed out of prison, to regain his dominion over men by assaulting even Christ and his saints, all over his kingdom ; even to the very attacking of the blessed and holy city. The prison therefore is the abyss wherein he was chained. We have no hints at all to make us determine what, and where, this prison shall be ; whether Satan indeed shall, during the Millennium be quite without vịsible votaries, or whether he shall have some such, but in so low a condition, and so much penned up, that he shall be as in a prison among them, without capacity to make excursions to disturb the peace of the world. If this last be true, it is likely that it will be among some of those nations which are called Gog and Magog in the next verse, and which he will then seduce to disturb Christ's kingdom."-Daubuz Perpet. Comment. p. 943.

CHAPTER V.

EXPLICATION OF THE GOG AND MAGOG OF THE

APOCALYPSE.

Various Opinions of Commentators respecting Gog and Ma

gog—Reason of this Diversity-The mention of this mystic Power by John extremely brief and obscure, because more fully predicted by Ezekiel-The Identity of the Gog and Magog described by the two Prophets maintained-An exa tendod Exposition of Ezek. Ch. xxxviii.—Gog and Magog shown to be a prophetical denomination of the Turks-Consequently the same Power with the Euphratèan horsemen of the sixth Trumpet, and to be referred to the same Period As certain, therefore, that the Millennium is past, as that the events of the sixth Trumpet have transpired-Destruction of Gog and Magog by Fire from Heaven explained-Objections answered.

" AND when a thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, and shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle; the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.” No part of the Revelation has given rise to a greater diversity of opinion, or to wilder or more extravagant conjectures, than this announcement of the future appearance and exploits, defeat and destruction, of the mystic Gog and Magog. On the one hand, the tremendous power shadowed forth by this denomination has been summoned

up from the then barbarous and pagan hemisphere of America and the Terra Australis Incognita. On the other, they have been generated, like the classical Python, by the productive heat of the sun, from the teeming slime of the renovated earth. And again, the bars of the grave have been burst in quest of them, and they have been resolved into countless armies of the risen dead, to whom a resurrection to life has been but a resurrection to their former fiendish malignity against the people of the saints, by which they are now urged on to a new assault against the holy and happy portion of the universe. Mede, Burnet, and Gill, are the distinguished names by which these strange hypotheses are severally endorsed, and their credit has given them currency, to a greater or less extent, among others of inferior note. Another class of writers, giving a purely mystical import to the appellation, suppose it to be intended merely as a figurative term denoting the enemies of the church in general, whether Pagan, Mohammedan, or pseudo-Christian.*

As, however, the views of expositors respecting the Gog and Magog of the Apocalypse have been governed entirely by their theories of the Millennium, it is not surprising that they should have broached the most fanciful constructions of the sacred text. For as long as they regarded the Millennium itself as yet future, they were obliged of course to consider the entrance of these hostile powers upon the prophetic arena at the end of the thousand years, as also future. They would as soon have sought for the living among the dead, as to have recurred to history for the identification of those mystic personages. But as the future is the field of conjecture, imagination has been suffered to run riot in the attempt to conjure up from among the shadows of coming ages the mysterious characters here described. That we look upon all such anticipations as groundless and chimerical, the reader will have inferred from the foregoing train of remark. Regarding the Millennium as long since past, we of course recur for the fulfilment of the prediction concerning Gog and Magog to the pages of history, instead of the auguries of prophecy; and as the establishment of our main theory respecting the chronology of the Millennium affords a strong prima facie evidence that the event in question has at least entered upon a course of accomplishment, so the positive proof of the latter position will be found to reflect back a powerful confirmation of the former.

* The objection to this mode of interpretation is well stated by Calovius :-"Sed nimis manifestum est, describi certum regnum, ac certos populos, quorum nomina, provincias, et situm expressit Spiritus Sanctus, neque in tam operosa populorum a nominibus gentilibus, et patronymicis descriptione, illa omnia allegorice exponi possunt, nisi vim textui insignem facere velimus”- But it is too obvious, that a particular kingdom is described, and certain people, whose name, provinces, and situation are expressly designated by the Holy Spirit ; nor in such a labored description of people by their gentile and patronymic denomination can all these things be understood allEGORICALLY unless we would do positive violence to the text.'--Calovius in loc.

And here it may be remarked in the outset, that it can scarcely have escaped the notice of the reader of the Apocalypse, that the mention of this hostile power, whatever it may be, is extremely brief and obscure, and accompanied with no clew which might serve to aid the

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