« AnteriorContinuar »
zie, daughter to Rorie M'Kenzie of Davoch-maluack. His first patrimonie was his sword and bow, quherewith he did such worthie service, that he conqueist first the love of his chieffe and broyer, the lard of Kintail, wyt the love of all his countreymen; so as his broyer made choise of him to be his mareschall of all his armie in all ye wares he had wyt Glengarrie and M'Leod of the Lewis. He commanded sexscore of the prettiest men that ware in his broyer's armie, and especiallie the Clanwurchie were under his command, quho served him as under officers to discharge the dutie of marischall. His dutie wes, that in ye armies marching to ye enemies land, he should still guard the rier; and as the armie rested in ther camp, he still went in expeditiones to bring them hership* and provision, quhilk herschips were distributed as he liked, with the consent of the superior. His own pert of the hership was ilk cow quhose ear wes longer then hir horn, ilk black cow that had not a white spott in her bodie, ilk white cow that hald not a black spott in her bodie, and ilk horse that wes wytin three yeares; and his under officers had all the hedes of all the cowes that were killed in the camp. But sometimes he distributed his part of the herships amongst the best deshervin of the shouldiers, quhilk made the shouldiers so desperat quich were under his command, that they resolved ayer to die or be victorious quhenever they ingadged. He had power to fine all the shouldiers that did not goe right in ther cloathes and armes, and wytall to decern all the contravershies; quhilk place he managed so fortunatlie, that he was sent in all expeditiounes, and in everie expeditioune he wes victorious. His good service gott him the reall affectioune of his breyer, so that his breyer, in his death-bed, left him his own sword, quhilk was the gretest merit a kinsman could haive, to have the sword of such a braive conqueror, as a testimonie of faithfull service."
The situation appears to have been lucrative; for he adds, "Ane estate from his brother he needed not; ffor befor his broyer's death, by his oune prudent managment of ye benefit of
"Herschip, Heirschip, Heiriscip, the act of plundering, devastation.-Booty, prey, &c." Jameson.
ye impleyment he had, and of quhatever fell to his hand, he conqueist to himself a reasonable estate, quhilk he dailie augmented during the rest of his worthie dayes. He married to his first wife Annabel M'Kenzie, daughter to Murdo M'Kenzie of Fairburn, and relich," &c. &c. &c.
The place was not hereditary; at least the historian, himself a male descendant and grandson of the marshal, does not affirm that it was ever again held by any of his kindred. (To be continued.)
ACCOUNT OF MR RUTHVEN'S IM
PROVED PRINTING PRESS.
As one of the objects of this Magazine is to disseminate useful knowledge, we cannot attain the end in view with better effect than by giving some account of a most important improvement in the mechanical part of printing, by Mr John Ruthven, printer, of this place. This very ingenious mechanician having diligently studied his profession for upwards of twenty years, observed that there were numerous defects in the construction of the printing presses commonly em ployed, the principle of which is unaltered from the time of the invention of printing. The excessive and dangerous labour occasioned to the workmen, and the very imperfect adaptation of the press to many purposes, were the most obvious defects; to remedy which, by any improvement of the original machine, Mr Ruthven found, after diligent study, to be quite impracticable; he therefore resolved on attempting something new; and after much labour, he has succeeded in producing not only a highly useful press, but in giving a most beautiful application of a combination of levers, for the production of parallel motion, with a degree of power hitherto unequalled.
For the better understanding of the account we propose to give, it will be well to premise a few observations on the printing-press commonly used.
The screw has hitherto been the power employed to produce pressure, while the types were placed on a moveable carriage, which was moved, after the ink had been applied, under the surface for pressing. In consequence of this, the power has always been limited, the radius of the lever which moves the screw being confined. It is also a consequence that not more
than one half of a large sheet could be printed at one descent of the screw. A most serious evil results from this, especially in printing duodecimo, because the pressure necessarily is applied twice to the centre pages of each sheet, while it is applied only once to the other pages. To these disadvantages may be added, the difficulty of ascertaining and regulating the degree of pressure; the irregularity of the motion of the lever; the severe labour, and excessive exertion, of the workman; the nice accuracy in placing the types under the centre;-there being no difference, in point of trouble and labour, in printing a card and a folio; -and the necessity for placing small work always in the same spot, which necessarily wears out one part sooner than the others. In obviating these defects Mr Ruthven has completely succeeded;-and after giving some account of the construction of the new printing press, we shall point out the superior excellencies of it as briefly as possible.
The general appearance of the large press is well represented in fig. 1.; of which fig. 2. is a complete section. In this press the types are placed on a stationary coffin or tablet, P; the paper
is put on in the usual manner on a, (fig. 1.) and secured by the frisket, b. On turning over the tympans thus arranged, the platen, N (fig. 2.),-supported by the wheels, QQ,-is drawn over the coffin by the handle, U, till the lower parts of the screw bolts, M M, be fully secured in the clutches, LL (fig. 2.); the lever or handle, A, is then turned over in the front of the press till stopped, when it will be nearly in a horizontal position. It is then restored to its original situation, the platen pushed back, the tympans raised, and the printing is completed. The mode in which this movement is produced is concealed by the check, R.
The action which takes place in the above-described process will be best understood by a reference to, and examination of, the section, fig. 2. The platen is, in this, represented in its proper situation over the types. The parts of the external structure have been already sufficiently explained; it only remains to point out those which are exposed in the section. Beneath the tablet, P, and immediately behind the check, R, are the levers, I I, having their fulcra at K K; to which are attached the clutches, LL, communicating as above mentioned with MM; бут в ног
the motion to which is given by the bolt, H, forming a point of union between the levers, I I. When their ends are depressed by means of the crank, E G F, which is moved by the handle, A, communicating to the crank, B C, and the connecting rod, D, the platen or upper surface, N, is forcibly drawn down upon the types.
To maintain the relative position of the several levers, the balance-weight, S, is applied. TTT is the frame-work supporting the whole of the machinery. Such is as minute an account of Mr Ruthven's printing press as is necessary for general information. It is here proper to state some of the points of superiority which it has, very decidedly, over all other contrivances of the same kind. These may be very briefly detailed, as we have already pointed out the most glaring defects
which first solicited Mr Ruthven's attention.-1st, In the new patent press the types remain stationary. 2d, The platen is the size of the whole sheet. 3d, Time is saved by its being brought over from the side. 4th, There is nearly half an inch between the tympans and the platen while passing over the types, by which all blurring is avoided. 5th, Any degree of pressure (from an ounce to twenty tons) may be correctly and uniformly given at pleasure. 6th, The platen being drawn down by the two ends, and the resistance sustained against the under surface of the tablet, affords the most complete and uniform security to all the parts; while, contrary to every other example known to us of the application of pressure, the frame is wholly independent of, and unaffected by, the force employed. 7th, As com
plete parallelism between the two surfaces (viz. of the platen and coffin) is maintained by means of the two screws, O O, so a small piece of work may be done at either end without a supporting block at the opposite extremity. 8th, This press being entirely unattached, requires no levelling or staying; and one for demy royal requires a space of only forty-two inches square. 9th, The motions of the pressman, though less severe, are sufficiently similar to enable him, in the course of one or two hours, to work with equal facility as at the common press. 10th, The principles above described are equally applicable to presses of all sizes. Fig. 3. represents one of the size of a cubic foot, which is capable of printing off an octavo page with greater celerity than a larger press, and may be worked on a common table without being fixed. The advantages of foolscappresses of this construction will be found very important.
An ingenious application of the principles of this press has been made to copying manuscripts; for that purpose (although it may with perfect effect be done with the small printing presses) Mr Ruthven has contrived the press represented in fig. 4. which is made without the printing apparatus, and having, instead of the clutches, permanent pillars to connect the upper surface with the levers. The paral lelism of the two surfaces is regulated by two graduated scales and indices at each end, as may be seen in the annexed figure.
We are persuaded, that when, in addition to the excellencies already described, the extreme simplicity of the new patent press, and its little liability to derangement, are taken into consideration, it will in a short time supersede every other printing machinery that has hitherto been in use. M.
Nothing can be more conducive to the promotion of the arts than publicity, which may be greatly accelerated through the medium of your publication, by the admission of discussions on the works of ancient and modern artists, explanations of their modes of representation, or descriptions of the implements or apparatus used by them for that purpose. To those desirous of information, you may thus furnish facilities of acquiring it; and to those willing to communicate the result of their experience, a reputable and easy channel to publicity. To the inexperienced, nothing is more discouraging than the difficulty with which practical information is to be obtained, with regard to the composition or management of the substances or implements to be employed in the arts in general. With this view, and trusting to a coincidence of opinion on your part, I beg leave to request the insertion of the following article on LITHOGRAPHY, or the art of engraving on stone, which I hope may be the means of calling forth other communications, either on the practice or criticism of the fine arts.
ACCOUNT OF THE METHOD OF EN
GRAVING ON STONE.
THE increasing taste for the fine arts in this great literary capital, and the pretty eager attention now paid to them by the public in general, inspire a hope that you will allot a place in your Magazine for so interesting a de partment of polite and useful knowledge..
This art has been long and succesfully practised on the Continent, and we believe Germany has the honour of its invention. It was introduced into this country by a person of the name of Andrè, about fifteen years ago, who attempted the publication of a periodical work, containing specimens of it by some of the most eminent artists in London, but which has been discontinued. It was also used in the Quarter-Master General's office, for the purpose of printing military plans, &c. In this country, however, it has never reached that state of perfection to which it has arrived on the Continent, as may be seen by a comparison of the works of Spix on craniology (in the College Library), Albert Durer's Missal, and the Bavarian Flora, all of which are printed at Munich, and also the Flora Monacensis, and the last number of the Journal des Scavans; and these also furnish a proof of what may yet be done in the detail of this extraordinary invention.
The great advantages which this art possesses over every other kind of engraving, are, first, that any person who can draw, can also execute the
engraving with the same ease with which he uses the pencil on paper; and, secondly, the circumstance of his being enabled to have any number of copies taken at less than half the expense of ordinary copperplate printing.
Nothing equal, it is true, to the tone, or minute elegance of the best line engraving can be produced, but an inspection of the works already mentioned, will shew how admirably it is adapted to represent objects of a picturesque description, natural his tory, outlines, anatomical subjects, plans, &c. It is also applicable to the purpose of multiplying writings, as the subject can be written on the prepared paper, afterwards transferred to the stone, and then printed without delay, at no further expense than the printing. In this way all the proclamations of the state at Munich are made public.
Directions-A slate of white lias (Bath stone), about one inch thick, must be made perfectly level, and polished with very fine sand. The subject is then drawn on the stone with a common pen, and a prepared liquid of the consistence of common ink, and with the same facility; after this the stone is washed over with diluted nitric acid, which slightly corrodes that part of the stone only which has not been drawn on with the pen. The liquid is made with gum lac, dissolved in ley of pure soda, with a little soap, and coloured with lamp black. The liquid upon the stone, after the design is drawn, must be allowed to dry for about four days, and then soak ed in water till perfectly saturated; in this state (with the water on the surface), a common printing ball is dabbed over it as in type printing. The ink adheres to such parts as have been drawn upon, the other parts of the stone being wet, repel the printing ink; the impression is then taken, by passing it through a press with a single cylinder. When the print is wished to resemble a chalk drawing, the stone is left rather rough, by using a coarser sand to polish it; and instead of the ink and pen being used, a crayon made of the same materials (only with a larger quantity of the lamp black) is applied in the same manner as a pencil. There is another method by which it may be done, namely, by covering the stone over with a thin mixture of VOL. I.
gum water and lamp black, and after it is dry, the design is drawn with the point of an etching needle, in the same way as on copper, cutting through the covering of gum and black, till the surface of the stone is reached, and then rubbing the solution into the lines or scratches. This done, it must be allowed to dry for the above mentioned time, and then soaked as before in water, when the gum will dissolve, leaving the lines only; upon which the printing ink is applied, as before explained, and the impression taken.
Should this plan find a place in the Magazine, it is proposed to give, in some of your subsequent numbers, a short account of the history of the discovery, and of the methods used in common etching upon copper, together with some receipts for the preparation L. I. of the grounds, &c.
ANECDOTE OF THE HIGHLANDERS IN 1745.
(Communicated by MARY LADY CLERK to the Publisher.)
ACCORDING to your request this morning, I send you some account of the particulars that attended my birth,
which I do with infinite pleasure, as it reflects great honour on the High, landers, (to whom I always feel the greatest gratitude,) that at the time when their hearts were set on plunder, the fear of hurting a sick lady and child instantly stopped their intentions.
This incident occurred November 15, 1745. My father, Mr D'Acre, then an officer in his Majesty's militia, was a prisoner in the castle of Carlisle, at that time in the hands of Prince Charles. My mother (daughter of Sir George le Fleming, Bart. bishop of Carlisle) was living at Rose-Castle, six miles from Carlisle, where she was delivered of me.-She had given orders that I should immediately be privately baptised by the bishop's chaplain (his lordship not being at home), by the name of Rosemary D'Acre. At that moment a company of Highlanders appeared, headed by a Captain Macdonald; who, having heard there was much plate and valuables in the castle, came to plunder it. Upon the approach of the Highlanders, an old gray-headed servant ran out, and entreated Captain Macdonald not to pro