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present profits of the Bank, arising vidends, 6* per cent. £7,451,136. out of its contracts or transactions with New bank stock, £2,910,600, divided the public.
amongst the proprietors in May 1816, , Interest at 5 per cent.on £11,500,000 worth 250 per cent. equivalent in moof public balances held by the Bank ney to £7,276,500. Increased value since 1806, £575,000. From which of the capital of £11,642,000, upon an deduct for a loan of three millions to average of 1797 only 125 per cent. the public without interest, saving but which is now taken at 250, being 5 per cent., which is £150,000; ano- an increase in the market value of ther of six millions, at 4 per cent. this property of 125 per cent. equivasaving 1 per cent. £60,000 ; another lent to £14,553,000. Thus the total of tliree millions, at 3 per cent. saving profit, in addition to the annual divi2 per cent. £00,000; and half a mil- dends of 7 per cent, which had never lion taken froin the unclaimed divi- been exceeded during the first hundends, saving 5 per cent. £25,000; in dred years of the Bank's existence, all £295,000;- leaving to the Bank has been, in twenty years, on a capital of England, merely for the safe custody of £11,642,400, the incredible suin of of the public money, a clear profit of £29,280,636 ! £280,000 a-year! The rest of their We have now put our readers in allowances stand thus: Commission for possession of some striking facts in making transfers and paying dividends the history of this celebrated estab. on the national debt, £375,000. Com- lishment, for almost all of which, at mission on loans and lotteries, £30,000. least for those which are most import(Both these stated as in 1815.) Annual ant, we are indebted to the unwearied allowance, since the erection of the research and perseverance of the auBank, for house expenses, £4000. An- thor of the Speech before us. That nual allowance on four millions of the Speech, and the propositions to Parpublic debt bought by the Bank in liament on which it is founded, t rex 1722 from the South Sea Company, solve themselves into three questions. £1898. If to this we add, for sixteen Can the allowances made to the Bank millions of increase in the circulation be reduced in their amount, with jus. of Bank of England paper, since 26th tice to the Bank and safety to the February 1797, an annual profit of public? Can the nation derive farther 5 per cent. which is £800,000, the advantage from the large deposits of gross returns to our national Bank, money lodged at the Bank. These from its transactions with the state, objects once found practicable and exwill he £1,390,898 yearly!
ipedient, What would be the most The effects of this profitable arrange- effectual and dignified course to be ment, which has operated so visibly adopted for securing them? on that thriving establishinent, will On each of these we shall offer such be seen to the full conviction of our obvious and simple hints as the stinted readers, when we add a statement of limits of our publication will admit. the profits realized by Bank proprietors. lst, As to what farther deduction may during the last twenty years, reckon, be made on the allowance for managing ing from 1797; from which period, the debt, we quote, with deference and by the increased amount in the public satisfaction, from a letter addressed to expenditure producing such deposits the Treasury, 18th January 1786, by of money, and the increase of the na- the commissioners for auditing public tional debt, and the increased issue of accounts. “ We take the liberty to notes, unchecked, until within the suggest (what is indeed very obvious), last three years, by any motive of that the commencenent of every unprudence-over and above the old dertaking is usually the most expenordinary dividend of 7 per cent., there sive; and consequently, when the has accrued to that description of per- Bank had once provided additional sons: In bonuses, and increase of di.
* Bonuses distributed among the pro
prietors betwixt June 1799 and October It is only fair to state here a saving of 1806, 32! per cent. Permanent increase £233,720 per annum, from £11,686,000, of dividend, at 3 per cent. per annum, comadvanced to the public from the Bank since mencing in April 1807, is to April 1817, 1946, at 3 per cent interest, being the con. 104 years' dividends, or 314 per cent. To. sideration paid on every renewal of their gether, 64 per cent. charter for their exclusive privileges.
+ See No 390, Parl. Pro. Sess. 1815.
clerks, and incurred such other new must be of the highest value. It is to expenses 'as ’ might be necessary, the them so much added to their ordinary same persons and accommodations (or capital, without much of the risk or nearly the same) would be sufficient responsibility to which their floating to transart the payment of the divi- obligations subject them. For every dends on several additional millions, thousand of this money in their hands, without much increase of charges of they are enabled to discount so'many management. We believe that most more bills, or issue so many more notes. other contractors have found, that a The public service ought instantly to moderate sumn gained on a large quan- be benefitted by them, if the usury tity of any commodity generally pro- laws are repealed, to an amount ac duces a greater profit than a higher cording to what may be the average price on a less quantity: therefore, if rate of interest for money throughout £360 was a sufficient allowance when the country. 3dly, Mr Grenfell reannuities on a capital of one million commends that Parliament should inonly were created, it should seem that terfere to make a new arrangement for the Bank could well undertake the the public; assigning as a reason, that like service at a much lower rate, not the influence “ which, though all only when the public necessities have powerful, irresistible in Downing Street, unfortunately increased the capital of would be impotent and unavailing the national debt to the enormous load within the walls of the House.". « Ig of two hundred millions,* but also not,” says he, with the same animawhen the consolidation of a variety of tion which we spoke of before, --" Is annuities must have lessened both the not your whole financial history, dutrouble and expense attending the ma- ring the last twenty years, filled with nagement thereof." The Bank has proofs of this influence? It is then in incurred, within the last twenty years, this House, and through the medium of a very great expense for additional this House only, that the interests and hands, and more accommodation to rights of the public can be secured in the public business; and no one can all negotiations of this nature with the deny that it is executed unexception- Bank ; and I repeat it, if the House of ably well. But these views of the Commons will interfere, my conviction committee are still applicable as prin- is, that the Bank will not resist. If, ciples. The allowance of £4000 for however, I should be disappointed in house expenses was strongly adverted this expectation,--and if the Bank, unto for discontinuance, in the end of mindful of what it owes to the public, 1807, by Mr Perceval, in his corre- forgetting that it has duties to perform spondence with the Bank at that time. towards the public, as well as within The same reasons exist now; and in- the limited circle of its own propried deed, the authority of that very acute tors,—I will go farther, and, as a proand able man is sufficient to those who prietor of bank stock myself, add, that know, that if his leisure from the mul- if the Bank, taking a narrow, contifarious' calls of state had permitted tracted, selfish, and therefore mistaken him to turn a' full attention to the view of its own real permanent inteaffairs of the Bank, he would have rests, should resist regulations founded insisted on a thorough sifting and re, in fairness, equity, and justice;-in vision of their bargains. The allow- such a state of things, sir, I say it ance for the debt purchased of the must be a consolation to us to know, South Sea Company, is one which and I assert it confidently, that we ought to cease instantly, on the plain have a remedy within our own reach." ground, that all management on it has p. 60. As to the profits accruing from ceased since 1722. 2dly, The deposits the paper circulation of the Bank, of of public money lying at the Bank which we hope the country will conare just so many millions of capital tinue to enjoy the advantages, under taken from the productive labour and due modifications, * Mr Ricardo is of productive capital of the country, where they might at least be useful, and
* We hope to be able to announce very lodged with a great corporation
whose soon, from the pen of one of the ablest ecotrade is money, and to whom they a large coinage of gold
' would be a ftration nomists of our time, an Essay, shewing that
of capital, and therefore hurtful to the state. That truly “ enormous load" is now For the happiest idea that ever was connearly 860 millions !
ceived, of a currency liable to no variations
opinion, that paper money affords a during the occupation of mind so naseignorage equal to its exchangeable turally produced by the vast concerns value ; and he also believes that the of the war. The author of these disnation might gain two millions yearly, cussions, to whom all the merit is due, if it were the sole issuer of paper money. and who might be excused for any He wisely adds, that this would only partiality to his own inquiries, or arbe safe under the guidance of “com- dour in the pursuit of their objects, missioners responsible to Parliament shews exemplary moderation. He has only.” Mr Grenfells recommendation taken them up without violence or of parliamentary interference is good. faction, but with the urbanity and deThat is, indeed, the truly constitu- cision of an English gentleman. He tional mode. Every exertion of the has not over-estimated their importkind is so much gained towards en- ance; and his statements are remark suring a considerate use of the public able for perspicuity and plainness, treasure, and a strict control over it in without the least shade of laboured future, as matter of duty and honest comment or ostentatious deduction. emulation, on the part of those who He deals not in splendid generalizahave been recognised, since the Revo- tions, nor in well-turned invectires ad lution, as its guardians.
captandum vulgus. We entreat the We have now gone over the prin- early attention of our readers to the cipal matters of these questions. For Speech itself, and to the Appendix, in the rest we refer to Mr Grenfell, who which they will find a variety of essenhas invested the subject with attrac- tial statement and explanation, for tions of manner to which we cannot which we could not possibly make aspire. To his interference in the busi- room. ness this country is indebted for a Mr Grenfell was a member of the saving of £180,000 yearly, a thing of bullion committee, and enjoyed the greater importance than those who are friendship of Mr Horner. In e letter occupied with the taking but doubtful written lately to a correspondent in schemes of a more extended patriot- this place, he says, “the sanction of ism could be easily led to acknow- his great authority, and his unvaried ledge. Nice calculations of political countenance and approbation of my arithmetic, however, and even the humble exertions in this cause, inmost refined inquiries of political eco- spired me with a confidence as to the nomy, come now, with direct force, to correctness of my own views, wbich the ordinary business and interests of has been most essential to me." We all those who have, in common par- knew, ourselves, enough of that most lance, a stake in the country ; and we excellent person, to perceive that this might even add, to those also who is a great deal for any man to say. have nothing but life and liberty to The privileges and advantages which care for, and whose interest in the it implies can only be equalled by cause of good government is the ulti- intercourse with one of the most arimate and the extreme.
ginal and inventive writers on political We know, from the very best autho- economy since the time of Adam rity, that Lord Grenville, much to the Smith; * whose speculations on the credit of his sense and candour, has great subjects of human interest with recently taken blame to himself for which that science is especially connot looking narrowly enough into the nected, have much of the strictness affairs of the Bank in 1806-7, when and severity of mathematical demonhe was at the head of the Treasury, stration; and who bids fair to give to and Mr Vansittart secretary under its most practical deductions more him. The truth is, we believe, that shape and certainty than they have ministers only overlooked this subject received from any writer of his day.
except such as affect the standard itself, we • Mr Ricardo, who is the friend of Mr refer to the novel, solid, and ingenious rea- Grenfell, seconded his resolutions proposed sons urged in Mr Ricardo's Proposals. to the Court of Proprietors at the Bank, There also the reader will find the practical 231 May 1816, and speaks with respect of developement of this fortunate conception his exertions for the public. See Proposals made out with uncommon closeness, clear. for an Economical and Secure Currence, ness, and simplicity.
gravity, and many of the absurdiThe Life of William Hutton, F.A.S.S. ties which accompany the decline of
including a particular Account of the life. He is serious, egotistical, and Riots at Birmingham in 1791 ; to vain,-never absolutely tedious ; for which is subjoined, the History of his sentences are short, and his reasonhis Family, written by himself, and ing obvious, pointed, and at least, in published by his Daughter, Catha- his own opinion, quite conclusive. rine Hutton. 8vo. pp. 400. Lon
We cannot make room for long exdon, Baldwin & Co.
tracts, but the character of Phebe The Life of William Hutton ought
Brown, as recorded by. Mr Hutton, to obtain a place next to the Memoirs accords so well with some other chaof Dr Franklin, in the libraries of all racters already described in our misaspiring young men who are entering cellany, that we cannot resist the upon business, or active life. If they temptation of transcribing it at full find nothing very elegant in the com
length. position of these volumes, very skilful Phebe Brown. She was five feet six inches
** But the greatest wonder I saw was in the arrangement of the incidents, in height, is about thirty, well proportionor very great and striking in the inci- ed, round faced, and ruddy, has a dark pedents themselves,--they will be pleas- netrating eye, which, the moment it fixes ed and edified by the simple picture of upon your face, sees your character, and human life which is there delineated, that with precision. Her step (pardon the the characters of truth and nature Irishism) is more manly than a man's, and which are impressed on every line, can cover forty miles a-day. Her common and, above all, by the animating con
dress is a man's hat, coat, with a spencer firmation which it affords of a truth married, I believe she is a stranger to
over it, and men's shoes. As she is unvery generally acknowledged, and al- breeches. most as generally neglected, that there “She can lift one hundred weight in each is 'scarcely an obstacle placed in the hand, and carry fourteen score ; can sew, path to independence and respectabi- knit, cook, and spin, but hates them all ; lity, which may not be surmounted by and every accompaniment to the female honesty, economy, and perseverance.
character, that of modesty excepted. A The narrative is simple, perhaps to a
gentleman at the New Bath had recently fault, but always assumes an earnest have knocked him down.' She assured me,
treated her rudely, “She had a good mind to or playful tone, with the most judici
she never knew what fear was.' She gives ous conformity to the importance or no affront, but offers to fight any man who frivolity of the incidents related. The gives her one. If she never has fought, "author'attempts to interest his readers perhaps it is owing to the insulter having by no complicated manæuvres, no po- been a coward, for the man of courage litical intrigues, no marvellous adven- would disdain to offer an insult to a female. tures ;- he gives them the unadorned
“ Phebe has strong sense, an excellent history of his own struggles up a
judgment, says smart things, and supports inountain of difficulties,-yet the cir.
an easy freedom in all companies. Her
voice is more than masculine, it is deep i cumstances in which he is placed are toned. With the wind in her favour, she sometimes so uncommon, as to appear can send it a mile; she has neither beard almost incredible. The mode in which nor prominence of breast; she undertakes he ushered himself into life, is perhaps any kind of manual labour, as holding the unparalleled in the annals of biogra- plough, driving a team, thatching the barn, phy. We were particularly delighted using the fail, &c.; but her chief avocation with the sly humour which charac- is breaking horses, for which she charges a terizes his remarks on the transac- without a saddle, -is thought to be the best
guinea a-week each. She always rides tions of his juvenile years, and which judge of a horse or cow in the country, and presents the interesting picture of an is frequently employed to purchase for old man, looking back with pleasure others at the neighbouring fairs. on the years of childhood, yet regard- “ She is fond of Milton, Pope, and ing the foibles and frivolities of that Shakespeare, also of music; is self-taught, light-hearted age with a mixture of and performs on several instruments, as the complacency and derision. While he fute, violin, and harpsichord, and supports describes the years of youth and vani
the bass-viol in Mallock church. She is ty, his sarcastic humour and self-gra- shoulder. She eats no beef or pork, and
a marks-woman, and carries a gun on her tulation still blend in happy unison but little mutton. Her chief food is milk, with his theme. In old age, again, which is also her drink, discarding wine, we find him represented with all the ale, and spirits.” VOL. I.
One quality distinguishes this me- Long after its burial in the dust of moir, which, in a work of fiction, would oblivion, advertisements of its existbe an unpardonable fault; but which ence continued to infest the public seems almost inseparable from bio- prints. We believe the intention to graphy, written by the subject of it have been good, though such behavihimself, from recollection. It ad- our on the part of the bookseller had verts constantly to the future, so that the appearance of scorn and mockery. the reader, prepared for every event There is, however, in the public mind, before it occurs, hears it without sur- a generous and humane feeling, which prise, and of course without much in- rises up indignantly against any atterest.
tempt, real or apparent,
to disturb the Upon the whole, we have perused ashes of the dead. This was most these volumes with much satisfaction. strikingly exemplified on the death of The man who had a perfect recollec- that pamphlet. The whole affair was tion of the incidents of every day for hushed up, and, in an incredibly short the long space of ninety years, must time, the offence was forgotten among have been such a living chronicle as the other enormities of the day. shall rarely be seen again. He had There was, in truth, something beheld whole generations fade away rather affecting in the “simple annals from the face of the earth, and his of its history. Its conception was, no early and intimate acquaintance for- doubt, accomplished by severe and gotten as if they had never been. arduous efforts, and its birth attended
with " difficulty and labour hard ;"
but no sooner had it beheld the light Comparative View of the British and of day, and breathed the air of heaven,
American Constitutions ; with Ob- than, like those mysterious animals, servations on the present State of which, it is said, have been dug out British Politics, and of the probable of solid rocks from the bowels of the consequences of introducing into Great earth, all symptoms of life and animaBritain the mode of suffrage that ţion fled for ever, and it sunk into the erists in the United States; by a
incommunicable sleep of death, from Gentleman some years resident in the which all subsequent endeavours to United States. 8vo. Edinburgh, rouse it have proved vain and profitBallantyne.
less. It was consigned to the grave in
the same blue covering in which it This Pamphlet is not well calculat- was ushered into the world, and “ its ed for circulation ; it is by much too name shall be its monument alone." heavy. It is considerably heavier even Indeed, but for those injudicious than the author's former production, advertisements before alluded to, its “ A View of the State of Parties in parturition and funeral rites might America.” That essay could not be have been contemporaneous, and it made to circulate, it was," by its own would have passed through this world weight, immoveable and stedfast." of care and sorrow without spot, and The few copies that were carried off blameless, " alike unknowing and unby main force from the shop of the known.” But notwithstanding the bookseller (in that case erroneously impertinent interference of the newsstyled the publisher), on being re- papers, in a matter which was intendmoved to the houses of the several ed to be entirely confidential between purchasers, immediately assumed a de- the author and the public, the latter, termined character, and became fix- it must be confessed, behaved with tures. Indeed, we recollect a case in unusual delicacy and honour; the which the pamphlet was considered in secrets which had been confided to it that light, and, along with articles of a it faithfully kept, and no further notice similar kind, transferred to the pur- was taken of the matter. chaser of a new tenement along with But if, as we have already stated, the tenement itself, where it remains the weight of that pamphlet rendered to the present hour,“ like Teneriffe it unpublishable" either by moral or or Atlas, unremoved."
physical strength, how can this one, The violence of the effort to create which is certainly heavier, be supposed circulation was proportioned to the capable of publication ? No author has weight of the object. But nothing a right to request impossibilities of his could overcome the “ Vis inertiæ.' bookseller. Mr John Ballantyne may