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or expressing estimation, bears so sin- marking the line of distinction, in gular a character, that one can hardly connexion with the great importance be made acquainted with it without attached to its contents, and the care immediately proposing the question, exercised to prevent its being over
Whence could it possibly originate?” turned, may be viewed as an indicaThe query has accordingly been put, tion that there was a hereditary resby an intelligent correspondent, in pect to some more ancient rite or idea, your third Number; but, in conse- the meaning of which, and even its quence of the oblivion of former ages, peculiar character, had been lost in and the indifference which men have the lapse of ages. generally manifested in regard to the Trivial as the castom under considorigin of customs with which they eration may appear to those espewere themselves perfectly familiar, cially who would deem it a degradathere is reason to fear, that from the tion were they to waste a thought an depths of antiquity no responsive the vestiges of popular tradition, who voice shall be heard, none at least that find sufficient occupation for their skcan give a certain or distinct sound. perior powers in acquainting then
As in the days of our forefathers selves with the ever-varying minute the salt-seller was placed in the mid of modern manners, the inquiry leads dle of the table, that it might run no us much farther back than mights risk of being overturned, it might at first be imagined, and points to sources first view seem, that, as its position of intelligence not unworthy of the individed the table as it were into two vestigation of the philosophic mind. equal parts, the expression, sitting Various proofs have been giveur of the above," or “ sitting below, the salt," symbolical use of salt, in connexion meant nothing more than having a with Divine worship, among ancient place at the upper, or at the lower, nations. · Ås salt was invariably teed end of the table, and thus, that the in the sacred rites of the heathen, free relation, which one's seat was said whom immediately it was received by to bear to the salt, was merely ac- the Church of Rome, it has been cidental, from the circumstance of the thought that this custom was borror vessel which contained it being the ed from the Jews. It was one of the central object, in the same manner as laws delivered by Moses, Eray one, in our own time, might be said oblation of thy meat-offering shali to sit above or below the cpargne. withou season with salt.'; Lev. ü. 13.
But although it may afterwards ap- V. Etymol. Dict. of the Scottish Lapear that, among the ancients, salt guage, vo. Salt, adj. and Saut-FIT. was the established symbol of friend- " The great importance attached to ship, I do not see that the relative salt," says Pliny," appears especialposition of individuals, as above or be- ly from the sacred rites of the aflow the vessel which contained it, cients, who never celebrated any sacricould be meant of itself to intimate fice sine mola salsa. For so they dethe greater or less degree of respect nominated toasted coru sprinkled with which their host entertained for them. salt; for it, being bruised, was sprink. For, in this case, actual propinquity led on the victim. The fire, the bed to the salt-seller, whether the person of the victim, and the sacrificing sat above or below it, must have been knives, were indeed all sprinkled with the test of estimation.
the crumbled cake." Hist. lib. 31. If, however, it could be supposed, c.7.-To the same purpose is the lanthat the salt-vat did not equally divide guage of Juvenal:- *152 the table as to its length, but that it « Sertaque delubris, et farfa imponité cuwas placed nearer the head or bottom, tris.":41., b: 94372 Satyr it. as the less or more honourable guests exceeded in number this difficulty And of Tibullus :The Brodertast would be obviated. For thus it must “ At yanum in curis hominum genuis ontna have been understood, that it was not noctis
VOF propinquity to this symbol, but the Farre pio placant, et saliente sale." 29. possession of a seat above it, that conristitūted the peculiar badge of honour. 1Hence, i jas has been observed, the
Buy perhaps all, that we can fairly siterm immolatio, which was as it were, dédúce from the custom referred to the consecration of the victing by ene is, that the choice of this utensi, as, act of sprinkling, or of laying, the
salted cake on its head. The cake it- used at all entertainments, both of the self was called mola a molendo, because gods and men, Awhence a particular it was made of bruised corn, or that sanctity was believed to be lodged in which had been ground, mola, in a it. It is thence called feios "dais, mill. By means of this cake, also, divine salt, by Homer; and hestenes, which, when bruised, they sprinkled holy salt, by others; and "salinorum on the sacrifice, they used to divine: appositu, by the placing of salt on the whence the Greek terms, kasuçsuculeia, table, a sort of holiness was supposed i. e., divination by meal ;” and to be derived to them. Antiq. ii. 415. BÚToxumayisíc,“ divination by the salted sv$From the language of Philo Jucake." s ahibinin
dæus, it has been inferred, with great its o rig . Dit appearance of truth, that although no But salt, even as symbolically re- mention is made of this circumstance garded, was not exclusively appropri- in the Pentateuch, salt was always ated to a religious use. It was also placed on the table of shew-bread an established symbol of friendship along with the loaves. “The table," between man and man. We learn says this ancient writer, « has its pofrom Eustathius, Iliad, A. that among sition towards the south, upon which the ancient Greeks salt was presented there are bread and salt." Vit. Moys. to guests, before any other food, as a lib. 3. Scacchus concludes, that there symbol of friendship. Hence Æschi- must have been at least two salt-sellers, nes, when describing the sacred rites because the Greek term (Lass) is ot hospitality, says, that the Greeks used in the plural. Myrothec. ii. 495. made great account, tās rónews irai, The figurative connexion between
of the sult of the city and the pub- salt and friendship does not appear so lic table." -The language of Pliny, close, that this can well be viewed as salem et caseum edere, contains a simi- the primary use of the symbol. It lart allusion and that of Cicero, seems necessary to suppose, that be« Vulgò dicitur, multos modios salis fore it would be applied in this mansiinul edos esse, ut amicitiæ munus ner, it had been generally received as
expletum esse." ;LTI on it an established emblem of what was Sint Eustathius says, that " as salt con-, permanent. Now, this idea was most
sists of aqueous and terrene particles probably borrowed from the mode of mixed together, or is a concretion of confirming covenants by sacrifice, in several aqueous parts, it was intimate which salt was invariably used; and ed that, in like manner, the stranger it is well known, that sacrifice was a and his host, from the time of their common rite in confederation, not only tasting salt together, should maintain where God was the principal party, a constant union of love and friend- but between man and man. This is ship.". This idea, however, seems by evident, from the account given of the far too metaphorical and refined to covenant between Jacob and Laban, have originated a custom received by Gen. xxxi. 44, 45. As an agreement nations in an early state of society. of this kind was called “ a covenant
. Others, with greater plausibility, by sacrifice;" from the use of salt in have observed, that, as salt preserves the oblation, it was also denominated meats from corruption, the use of it, "a covenant of salt," Num. xviii. 19. as a symbol, signified that the friends . That singular phrase, « the salt of ship, which had its commencement in the covenant,” Lev. ü. 13. obviously a futual participation of it, should be contains the same allusion. With this Sirm and lasting. .... corresponds the German term, salz
It has also been supposed, that this bund, explained by Wachter in his castom respected the purifying quality Glossary, Fædus firmum validumque of salt which was cominonly used in ratione durationis. To lustrations, and that it intimated that the presenting of salt to a stranger, friendship should be free from all ar- or the eating of it with hiin, might tifice, jealousy, and suspicion.
thus come to be a common symbol of Potter, I find, has in general pre- friendship, as containing a reference ferred the same idea that had occur- to the ancient sacrificial mode of enterosted to me, in regard to the origin of ing into leagues of amity; although
salt as a symbol of friendship. It those who used this might in general Inay be," he says, to the ground of this be total strangers to its meaning. custom was only this, that salt was Hence, also, most probably, the idea
so universally received, that the spil in Amsterdam well worthy of actes ling of the salt was a bad omen; as it tion. was supposed to forebode the breach The ci-devant Stadthouse, now of that friendship, of which the con- Palace, is a grand building, and mee. junot participation of salt, was the nificently fitted up. It contains three symbol.
large rooms full of paintings, chiedy It would appear, however, that the by the Dutch masters. I was, med symbol itself had been pretty general- pleased by six or eight of them, ut ly diffused among the nations. We cularly the rural scenes, with are informed, that, to this day, the by Paul Potter; and the evening eating of bread and salt together, is a school, by Gerard Dow. This last 1 symbol of friendship among the Mus- should have preferred to any of the covites. Stuck. Antig. Conviv. p. 270. others. There is also a large picture
Those who would wish to have fur by Vandyke, which contains seves ther information in regard to this figures. In it there is the head of is ancient custom, may, besides the writ- old man, for which, it is said, the bus er last quoted, consult Pierii Hiero- go-masters were offered seven thou. glyph. fol. 221, D.; Pitisci Lexic. vo. sand florins. It is calculated that is Sal., and Potter's Antiquities of Greece, building cost upwards of thirty mit
lions of guilders. It was founded E I may afterwards supply you with the mud, upon 13,659 large woodes a few remarks on the singular custom piles, and measures 282 feet in front of using bread and salt as the instru- by 235 in depth, and 116 in height ments of adjuration. ANTIQUUS. exclusive of the tower. It is situated did noista stuning sada so
in the great square of the city, whid -99 Fidsensacaib o v e greu
is sufficiently spacious to afford a pro asvig 299.02 sgstro sds
per view. In this dwelling, Lars
2e90 Bonaparte. while king of Holland, SKETCHES OF FOREIGN SCENERY AND sided of the milaness, equity, so diw MANNEAS rs te map 12900 humanity.
e humanity, of this man, every valt scop WAN marron speaks well. He seems to have feed oroid anal91102 frigure jepel, s 918
a pretty general favourite. Althoven wod asudest Amsterdam. nk the Prince of Orange måy be in WI LEFT Haarlem yesterday evening, respects popular, I haye never heart and in about three hours found my- any one mention the name of the phy self in Amsterdam, the greatest city sent king, I went through the who of Holland, and at one time the em of the Palace, which is finished child porium of European commerce. I with marble, and most superbly fu. perambulated the streets, &c. this nished. The grand hall is a magnis morning. It is a dull, and in my cent apartment, and with the end opinion, an uninteresting place. The tion of Il Salone, the Town-hal 21 canals are certainly very spacious, and Padua, is the finest I have ever seed the streets well and pleasantly shaded Besides the paintings before-mention by rows of goodly trees; but to a ed, I remember another with which 1 stranger who knows not, and does not was much delighted. It represents desire to know any thing about mer- meeting of Dutch gentlemen, um cantile matters, it must necessarily be what occasion I do not remember, stupid. In forming an estimate of this painting, however, it is said the any object, much depends upon the Sir Joshua Keynolds declared it to state of the observer's mind at the the finest and most characterist time. During my short stay in this thing he had ever seen, and that a town, the heavens wore a gloomy as- man might tell what each of the pect, the weather was damp and raw, sons represented was going to say: the streets were dirty, and the hotel I visited the house possessed OEM in which I lodged partook in a con- society called Felix Meritis. 10 siderable degree of all these qualities; founded about the year 1777, by sota by which means, the impressions of opulent lovers of science, among whole cheerfulness, cleanliness, and comfort, was the well known Van Swindi which I had received during the pre. This society, I am informed, is.com ceding, pant jof my journey, were in posed of five classes. The attention some degree offaged. There are, how of the first is directed chietly to the ever, I have no doubt, many objects improvements in commerce, manga
tion, and agriculture ; the second de- went on board one of them, called the votes itself to natural philosophy; the Piet Hein, not yet launched. I obthird to drawing; the fourth to music; serve here, that vessels, at least such and the fifth to general literature. as I have seen, are built with their
On the top of the house is an ele- prows to the water, whereas with us vated dome, from whence there is a they are usually launched stern fored commanding view of the city, and of most. The cradles, or camels (kames the rich plains in the neighbourhood, len), upon which large ships are lifted, with parts of the Zuyder Zee and the and carried over the banks and shoals Haarlem-meer on either side. Each of the Zuyder Zee, are very curious, department of the society has a cabinet though well-known. In the model to exemplify, and instruments suited room, there is a ship of the line in mito the exposition and advancement of niature, about six or eight feet long, the particular branch of science or of made of mahogany, which opens by art which its labours are intended to hinges at the bow, and shows the illustrate. Hoido ssablo
whole interior of a hundred gun ship, Amsterdam, like most great com- even to the minutest birth and locker. mercial towns, is not characterised by In the same room there is a model of excessive cleanliness. Except those De Ruyter's favourite ship, with all by the sides of the canals, which are her guns, masts, sails, and rigging, in broad, and adorned by rows of fine the highest order. On shore there is trees, the streets are dull and narrow. a vessel kept completely rigged, where Most of the houses incline forward, young men intended for the navy are so that the streets are necessarily nar- taught to run up in the dark; and, as
rower above than below, by which by constant exposure to rain, and the by means a portion of day-light is exclud- want of that minute attention, whieh,
ed, producing a corresponding degree during a voyage, is indispensably neof darkness and gloom. In the attic cessary, the cordage sometimes gives
story of these houses the winter sup- way, these youths occasionally expeReplies of fuel, &c. are deposited, after rience more rapid descents than they * being hoisted up from the street by consider as entirely consistent with the
means of a projecting beam; and I eternal fitness of things; so that they al conclude, that this inclination forward, are at least taught something before
is to prevent any bulky articles from they go to sea. A Dutchman, howstriking against the windows below. ever, in good health, is said never to The houses are of great height and alight upon his head, and I believe chiefly built of brick, and without any that the fact, though singular, is in relative plan or uniformity of aspect. exact agreement with our theory of
There are, however, many dwelling gravitation. During the only Sunday houses which I visited in Amsterdam, which I passed in this town I visited particularly in Kiezer's Gragt, and most of the churches ; none of which, Heeren Gragt, which are built in the however, are at all to be compareá most elegant and commodious manner. with those I have already seen. In The steps up to the doors are of a one of them I found a Scotch clergygreyish marble the lobbies are finish- man, preaching to his countrymen in ed with white marble floors—and the the language of his country. He indifferent apartments are decorated in culcated the doctrine of eternal db
the Continental style, with magnifi- with great spirit; frightened the young o cent mirrors. The windows, too, are children, and made the old women
wide and lofty, many of them consist of turn up the white of their eyes, and panes of crown glass, three or four feet appeared, wherewithal, to be some
long, and of a proportional breadth; what better than wise. B E DATES 2 and the doors are richly carved and 28 og Ste sen 9 mar
ornamented. Almost every lobby ter-swa bas b Utrecht. 150w sa 4999 For Himinates with the view of a little flower I left Amsterdam in the evening,
garden, which produces a freshness with the intention of travelling during 16 and beauty unknown in most large the night, as the sky foreboded a sula
cities. In as far as I have observed, try day; I was moreover induced to there are no flag-stones, or foot-path this, from the beauty of the full moon of any kind, even in the finest streets. the preceding night is. On my way to
In the dock-yard, I saw three sail of the treckschuyt i crossed the Amstel the line, built there by Bonaparte, and by the PortNeut, a magnificelit bridges 1 Server 351500. Hier 1961 at 2139 do y er duob om v T 1975
600 feet long, and to broad. It is his left, which supported his head, built upon 30 arches, and on each side hung over his plumed helmet. On there are iron balustrades. This bridge the other side of the lamp, upon a conducts to the only pleasant public bench, lay a tall thin figure, with walk which I observed in or near Am- sallow complexion; a nose and chin sterdam, and I unfortunately did not handsome, but rather too much hookdiscover it till the evening of my de- ed; and the blackest and most fier parture. It was crowded by people of eyes I ever experienced. He seemed all ranks and ages; and I observed at about 50 years of age or upwards, and great many beautiful chariots in mi- wore a long blue great coat, with a niature drawn by goats, richly and head dress of white maslin, fresem. fancifully caparisoned, in which little bling a Turkish turban, and red mo: children, gaily dressed, were seated. rocco shoes. He lay upon his sicles Every thing here seems to be put to with his face to the light ; his head use. In the market-place, and along supported by his right hand, and in the keys, you meet with bull dogs and his left there was a book, which bei mastiffs, loaded with heavy burdens, or perused most attentively and leisurela dragging along little carts; and in a Every two or three minutes he raised house in which I visited, there was an his head, and fixed his sight on the old cat, whose occupation it was to lamp, as if meditating on the contents drive the flies and wasps from some of the volume. I could have believed fruit which lay ripening in the sun. him some powerful magician engrossed
About eight in the evening, I em- with the study of the magic art, er barked on board the treckschuyt for even the Prince of Darkness himself. Utrecht. The ruif, as it is called, or “Of regal port, tho faded splendour Fan. place for the gentry, was engaged, so I entered the ruim with a most motleyIn the back ground were figures and group. This is the larger part of the faces of every kind men, women, and boat, and may contain near forty people, children ; some of which, from the whereas the ruif, or small cabin-like unsteady light of the lamp, appeared partition near the stern, does not ad- to advance and recede like the repremit more than eight. It is lighted sentations of the Phantasmagoria. But from the ceiling by a lamp, and is so all were asleep, save Satan and myself low in the roof, that a man of ordi- Seldom have I seen any countenancer nary stature cannot stand upright. A which impressed me more with the long range of seats occupies each side, idea of a person whose ways were not and there is a similar range down the those of the world, and, though wel centre. I took my place in an obscure are now perhaps soine humdred miles corner, where I had a complete view from each other, in imagination I still of this curious and novel scene. behold his fiery countenance, and al
There were in all about three-and- most tremble at the trouble of his thirty persons, and by accident they darkened eye."
IT, had grouped themselves in the most At four in the morning I arrived at picturesque and striking attitudes. Utrecht; and being attracted by the immediately before me lay a band of beauty of an eiderdown coverlet, and weary labourers, with their scythes fatigued by my watching in the night and pruning-hooks, all in the arms of I went to bed for some hours. 109 Morpheus. The lamp was now light- I am much pleased with my res ed, and threw a broad unnatural light dence here, and have passed my time on the objects in its immediate neigh- much more happily than in Amster bourhood; whilsta paleand sickly gleam dam.Utrecht is the sweetest towash irradiated the more distant parts, serv, have yet seen in Holland. The male ing merely to render darkness visible. parts are high and broad, and com The two principal figures were reclining mand a fine view of the adjacent on each side of the lamp. On the one country, which is rich and beautiful side there lay a gigantic dragoon, with The walls are surrounded by a broad huge mustachios and a long sabre; he fosse; on the other side of which had a black patch on his forehead, and in Leyden, there is a delightful walk wore on his breast a badge of honour. all round the town. The stripe of He was lying on the ground, with his ground between the walls and the head and chest somewhat raised : in fosse is divided into small and elegaux his right hand he held his sabro; and gardens, in many of which there