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and then his darling Joseph; no wonder he thinks that all things are opposed to his happiness. His present condition too is ainful, and seems to justify the |. It had been well if his sorrows had past, and brighter prospects opening before him. But the present is painful, and the future gloomy. He has a family of ungodly children who pierce his heart through with many sorrows; he was threatened with poverty; his son Simeon had just been taken from him and he dreaded the worst; the infirmities of age were creeping upon him, and he was called to give up his beloved Benjamin ; in a word, he thought his grey hairs were hastening in sorrow to the grave. And who can wonder at his exclaiming, “all these things are against me.” But yet he was mistaken. His views were not correct. Had what he said been true, it was calculated to humble him, and should have led to sorrow on account of sin. We have no right to complain of the dispensations of God, however severe; for “wherefore should a living man complain, a man for the punishment of his sins” If we set ourselves against God we ought not to murmur if his providence is against us. But the language is that of mistake. These things were not against him; they would not bear him down into the grave. Let him look over his life again. If he had been exiled from home, God had found him another and a better; if he had laboured, God had given him a reward; if he had been persecuted, he had also been supported under it; if he had been oppressed, the divine hand had interposed in his favour; if Jehovah i. taken away his beloved Rachel, he had given him himself; and if Joseph be indeed gone, he shall see him, and his endeared
Rachel, and each of his pious friends, in a future world. Let him look at his present state, and if poverty threatens him with its apo is not God also at his right hand? If his children are wicked, if he cannot blame himself for neglect or improper indulgences extended to them, why should he be so much discouraged 2 If Joseph, and Simeon, and Benjamin are all removed, all is under the superintendence of him who must do right. And what a mistake in reference to the future | The dark clouds that now hovered over him
Are big with mercy, and shall break In blessings on his head.
Joseph is yet alive—Simcon shall soon be free—Benjamin is about being elevated to honour—and a fine old age of peace and happiness awaits the patriarch himself. Ah, what mistaken views do Christians form, when they say, “All these things are against me !” No such thing: all work together for good to those who love God. All was now tending to accomplish the infinitely wise plans of Jehovah, to make Jacob's family happy, and “to save much people alive." Christians now make the same mistake as Jacob did when aftlictions overtake them, and sorrows seem to oppress their souls. But they are wrong, for they are designed to sanctify their souls, to teach them the sinfulness and vanity of the world, to endear to them the promises of God on earth, and the enjoyments of God in heaVen. But the mistake of Jacob was not only a great but a criminal one. Most of our mistakes are of a sinful character, and those which resemble this are very criminal. The language of Jacob seemed to reflect on the Divine character. Is not God the Father and the Friend of his people? Does he not love them, and can he change in the purposes of his love towards them? Why should such a thought be indulged” Has he not said “I the Lord change mot ?” And does he not possess all the power we need to protect us, and that is requisite to accomplish the design of his love? Has he not the wisdom that can convert our greatest trials into the greatest benefits Has he not always delivered us, and would it not be our wisest plan to say, “he who hath delivered will yet deliver ?” Why, because all is dark and enveloped in mystery, should we encourage our fears 7 If we loved God as we ought to do, we should indulge a confidence that he would direct all for our good. But the language of Jacob breathed a spirit of disbelief of the Divine promises. God had expressly assured him that in all places where he went, he would be with him, and that he would never leave him till he had accomplished all the purposes of his mercy towards him. Jacob had acted wisely for his own happiness, as well as honourably towards God, had he believed this, and allowed the whole of his conduct to be influenced by it. This however, was not the case; and in this respect the people of Jehovah are ever too much like him. What room for repentance and humility This criminal conduct was not confined to the person or the times of Jacob. Though God has ever been kind to his people, we have still hearts disposed to murmur against his arrangements, and to say that all is against us, when if we could see the whole of his designs, we should know the reverse to be true. Let us cast a glance towards Jacob when “the mystery of God”
towards him “is finished,” and he is settled in comfort in the land of Egypt. Would he not now be ashamed that ever he encouraged the feelings of despondency, or entertained hard thoughts of God? Would he not be concerned to humble himself before the God of his mercies, who had raised him above all his fears 2 Oh what gratitude must he feel to that Being who had been his friend amidst so much murmuring, and notwithstanding so much impro. of conduct l His future opes would be encouraged by his recollection of what God had done for him. And he would be concerned to encourage his children and his children's children to let their faith and hope be in God. Let it be the concern of each of my readers in this respect to imitate the venerable patriarch. “All things,” saith an inspired apostle, “work together for good to those who love God.” The grand enquiry then is, do we love Him? If so, we have nothing to fear, for He is our friend, his providence is on our side, and nothing can be against us. But if we have no love to Him, he is our enemy; nothing can be for us, but all is for ever armed in opposition to us. Let us possess an interest in his favour, and we shall then sing for ever “He hath done all things well ?” J. B. Folkestone.
SALTERs' HALL CHAPEL. To the Editor of the Baptist Magazine. SIR, I HAve read with delight, the announcement that Salters' Hall Chapel has been purchased for the use of the Baptist denomination; and I trust I shall soon see it opened, a church formed, and a minister ordained. I am aware the two last events are not likely to succeed the opening very quickly, but I have mentioned them to show the extent of my wishes. I was one of the frequenters of that chapel when Dr. Collyer preached there; it is endeared to me by the many excellent sermons I have heard in it, and I shall rejoice again to have sittings there, especially under a Baptist Minister, for to the Baptist denomination I feel the greatest attachment. I would suggest the propriety of having the regular services in the morning and afternoon, not morning and evening. A great number of places in London have altered the periods of worship from the former to the latter, but I have always considered the change a bad One. Many arguments might be urged against the change, the one on which I would most rely is this: that the majority of tradesmen keeping but one servant, and who are anxious to allow her the privilege of hearing the gospel once on the sabbath, regularly, are unable to do so, unless they can themselves go to a place of worship, where service is performed on the two former parts of the day; for, it must be obvious to all, that the evening is that portion of the day when the servant can be best spared, and that the evening being the usual time when burglaries are attempted, it is therefore the most E. time for the master to be at ome. Now, were there more meeting-houses open morning and afternoon, to which those of my situation in life could resort, there would ensue a greater regularity and a more uniform attendance on the part of both masters and servants, and the houses of tradesrole would be better protected.
I do not say, have no evening service at Salters' Hall: no, I would have it appointed one of the places where evening lectures are delivered, and thus make it, in the hand of God, a blessing to all classes of society.
A great deal, perhaps the whole success of the undertaking will rest upon the choice of the minister. It may seem from this statement, that I rely chiefly upon human agency, and that I forget it is neither Apollos nor Paul, but “God who gives the increase.” I would ask, are we not taught that without the use of means we must not expect a blessing? And does not the use of means imply the use of those, the most likely, to secure the end proposed ? I say then, much, if not all, depends upon the selection of the pastor; he should not be too aged, lest he should have lost all his energy, nor too young, lest he be without solidity. His sermons must not be all argument nor all learning, lest the pious hearer derive no benefit; nor all experience, lest the judicious and the educated hearer derive no instruction. They must not be entirely doctrinal, lest the unconverted be unchecked in their career of sin; nor wholly practical, lest the saints be not built up in their faith. He must be a man well versed in biblical literature, and of fervent piety; he must have a ready utterance and an earnest manner; he must have sufficient faithfulness to reprehend the vanities of this life and worldliness of professors—sufficient firmness to resist the seductions of a silk gown although offered by female hands; and above all, he must possess and maintain a character that can challenge scrutiny and defy calumny.
It may be asked, where is such a man to be found ! I answer, .
*The writer will doubtless be gratified to find that the provincial committee for
Salter's Hall, have anticipated his wishes respecting the times of worship.
The Establishment of the Turks in Europe. An Historical Discourse. Foolscap 8vo. pp. 128. Price 5s. 6d. London: Murray.
The state of the Turkish Empire has of late powerfully attracted the public attention, and still continues to do so. And it is observable, that individuals of very different characters harmonize in their sentiments on this point. The politician sees various symptoms of internal weakness and decay, anticipates the final success of the Greeks and the declaration of independence by the Pacha of Egypt, presumes that the Christian Powers of Europe will not long continue inactive, and therefore hesitates not to declare, that the Ottoman crescent is rapidly waning, and will soon be extinct. Some modern interpreters of prophecy have formed the same opinion, though on different grounds. Their views are founded on the visions of Daniel and John, in which they have not only discovered predictions of the downfall of the Turkish power, but have also ascertained, as they suppose, the time when it will take place, and that it is now very nigh at hand. Whether we are interested or not in these theories, we cannot but receive with pleasure any information respecting the singular people to whom they relate. The volume now before us is ascribed to the pen of Lord John Russell, who has already attained high distinction as a writer, by his Memoirs
of his illustrious ancestor, and his Essay
on the British Constitution. In the present work, his Lordship has given an account of the establishment of the Turks in Europe by the conquest of Constantinople, and after rapidly glancing at their subsequent successes, has considered — I. The extent of the conquest: II. The character and genius of the conquerors: III. The causes of their success: IV. The kind of government they established : and V. The causes which arrested their progress and have led to their decline. Much useful information is given, and numerous observations are interspersed, characterised by accurate discrimination and sound judgment, and expressed in an elegance and terseness of style which cannot fail to please every reader of taste. We must make room for a few extracts.
Unless we are greatly mistaken, the following is a fine specimen of moral painting:—
“The primitive character of the Turks is a simple one ; it is that of the pastoral or warlike nations; they are by turns active and indolent, cruel and merciful; easily excited to combat, but with difficulty induced to labour; equally pleased amid the toils of war and the luxury of repose. In their general mode of living, they are temperate and even abstemious ; implicit followers of the commands of their Prophet, and haughty despisers of all other institutions. By nature they are frank, candid and sincere; but too barbarous to consider properly the obligation of a treaty, or the sanctity of a promise, more especially with regard to
nations of a different faith. Venality seems to have been long a blot upon their character. Integrity is the virtue of extreme simplicity or extreme refinement; the Turks soon passed the one point, and never reached the other. Yet, although the possession of a rich empire has tended greatly to corrupt their manners, the noble nature of the savage is still perceptible; the generosity of the Turk is spontaneous, and even his injustice, though violent, has something which savours of hardihood and grandeur. “The Turks appear to be distinguished from the nations which occupy the rest of Europe in nearly every circumstance. The ample solds of their garments, their shorn heads covered by a turban, their long beards, their stately bearing, form a direct contrast with the trim dress and coxcomb fashions of our Christian communities. Nor is there less difference in substance than in outward appearance. The Turk is moved by few passions, and those few carry him straight to their object; if he is revengeful, he takes away the life of his enemy; if he is covetous, he seizes the possessions of those who are weaker than he is ; if he is amorous, he buys and shuts up in his seraglio the object of his love. He has no conception of the complicated intrigue, the perpetual bustle, the varying opinions, which attend and influence the business of life in our northern countries. Still less can he imagine the active society; the distinctions of rank ; the conversation without any thing to say ; all the toys, in short, by which vanity seeks to be remarked, and the love of novelty requires to be gratified. His life is simple, tranquil, dull, we should say, when not anoved by the great passions of our nature. A steady trade-wind carries him to port, or a calm leaves him motionless; of the varying state bf our atmosphere, and all its shifting breezes, he has no adequate conception: he wonders at and pities our activity. Whether these dispositions are suited or not to promote the happiness of the individual, may admit of a doubt: but it is quite evident they are unfavourable to the progress of a nation. The busy motion of commerce, the disinterested ardour of science, the continual desire of distinction, the slow advancement of patient industry, the passion for notoriety, and the favours of what is called public opinion, are the wheels upon which the great machine of civilized society is moved forward; they are all unknown to or despised by the Turk.” p. 25–29.
The next extracts will show how grateful we ought to be for a constitution which secures civil liberty and religious toleration:—
“If the administration of civil justice is
defective, that of criminal law seems to have hardly advanced beyond the rude time when men first discovered the advantages of order and the necessity of punishment. The power of life and death, that dreadful and extreme resource of society, seems to reside every where, and for every purpose, without delay, without mercy, without limit. Take a single instance. The great Hassan Pacha ordered the captains of his fleet to superintend the caulking of their own ships. Upon finding one of them absent at his own house about a quarter of a mile off, he sent for a blunderbuss, and when the offender by his order came to receive his commands, shot him dead on the spot without saying a word. The chief of the police, at Constantinople and other great towns, goes round in the day-time and at night, and executes immediately the sentences he gives. If a baker is found selling his bread by a light weight, he is hanged before his door; if any one is apprehended on the spot where a disturbance takes place, he is instantly despatched. No matter if the apprentice who knew nothing of the fraud is hanged instead of the baker; no matter if a spectator loses his life instead of the actual rioter; the purpose is to create terror to the guilty, even by shedding the blood of the innocent, and the crime is punished when the criminal escapes. Inferior punishments are ordered and regulated by the same arbitrary eaprice. If the officer does not think the offence worthy of death, he orders the bastinado to be applied, and sits smoking his pipe till it appears to him the culprit has been tortured sufficiently, and he is pleased to pronounce the merciful word “enough.”
“It not unfrequently happens that the celerity of Turkish justice is purposely displayed to awe the minds of foreigners. A Russian minister complained to the vizier of an outrage that had been committed on persons entitled to his protection. The vizier made a horizontal motion with his hand to some of his attendants, and before the conference was over, seven heads were rolled on the floor before the face of the Russian. An English ambassador, on another occasion, was also a witness of this fatal motion of the hand in a conference he had with the vizier; when he rose to go away he saw several heads newly put up at the gate of the palace.” 82–85.
“Besides the oppressions I have mentioned under the heads of Justice and Taxes, it must be added that the Christian subjects of the Sultan are always treated as an inferior race, and bear in every relation of life the marks of their degradation. By a solemn fetva of the Mufti, the oaths of Christians, when unsupported by Mussulmans, are of no avail against a Mussulman. In order