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Again, more particularly to his eldest sons“And as for you who are likely to be concerned in the government of Pennsyl. vania, I do charge you before the Lord God and his boly angels, that you be lowly, diligent and tender; fearing God, loving the people and hating covetousness. Let justice have its impartial course and the law free passage. Though to your loss protect no man against it : for you are not above the law, but the law above you. Live, therefore, the lives yourselves which you would have the people lead, and then shall you have right and boldness to punish transgressorg. Keep upon the square, for God sees you : therefore do your duty and be sure you see with your own eyes, and hear with your own ears. Entertain no lurchers ; cherish no informers for gain or revenge ; use no tricks; fly to no devices to support or cover injustice : but let your hearts be upright before the Lord, trusting Him above the contrivances of men, and none shall be able to hurt or supplant you."

Was ever the duty of magistrate more clearly defined, or the way pointed out more plainly, by which he may secure respect and reverence for his authority.

He stayed in Pennsylvania two years, and thought to end his days there ; but was recalled by letters with the word that he had been accused of being a papist and jesuit, and that the quakers were suffering a persecution of great malignity. He returned and became a great favorite of king James, and procured from him a proclamation of a pardon of all imprisoned for conscience sake. His charter was afterwards taken from him by reason of the misrepresentations of his enemies, but restored by king William. He returned once again to Pennsylvania, where he resided two years, and sailed again for England. He continued all this time to preach and to write his pamphlets.

His illness began in the year seventeen hundred and twelve, by an apoplectic fit. He had three successive strokes. For six years he gradually declined, and at last with a powerless body and mind, and memory wholly gone, he awoke into a new life.

His portrait, which we have placed as a frontispiece to this number, is taken from a portrait copied from a bust in the Loganian library, said by himself and those who knew him in his youth, to be the best ever taken. It was taken when he appeared as a cavalier, and was an officer under the Duke of Ormond, in Ireland ; quite different perhaps in appearance from the image we have cherished in our minds, and the character by which we best know him—the peaceful Quaker.

“ He seems to have been a man of kind affections, singular activity and perseverance, and great practical wisdom. Yet we can well believe with Burnet, that he was a little puffed up with vanity,' and that he had a tedious, luscious way of talking, which was apt to tire the patience of his hearers.'” He had a great aversion to tobacco and was careful about his person. He was methodical in his daily private life, and had an order of exercises, as it were, posted in the hall, by which the hours and duties were assigned. We will not dwell on the lustings after power, and longing for worldly prosperity, which mingled themselves among his great and

pious motives. It is sufficient that we know William Penn as among the wisest legislators, and most moderate of rulers. He is eulogized by philosophers, was revered as an agent from the Great Spirit by the Indians, and will be forever blessed by the descendants of his colonists.

He is buried at Jordan's, near Beckersfield, Buckinghamshire, England. No stone marks the spot, but the shape of the cemetery is an oblong, at the head of which, and on the middle of its breadth, is seen a little square możnd, hardly exceeding in height the elevation of a common grave. This is the only distinction it possesses.

For WILLIAM PENN there is no need of other.

His memory is enshrined in the grateful hearts of a free people, citizens of this flourishing commonwealth which bears his name a monument more noble and enduring than pyramids of marble or statues of iron—where it will be perpetuated, as generation succeeds generation, for all time to come.



Yes, the Year is growing old,

And his eye is pale and bleared !
Death, with frosty hand and cold,
Plucks the old man by the beard,

The leaves are falling, falling,

Solemn and slow;
Caw! caw! the rooks are calling,
It is a sound of woe,

A sound of woe!

Through the woods and mountain passes

The winds, like anthems, roll;
They are chanting solemn masses,
Singing-" Pray for this poor soul,

And the hooded clouds, like friars,

Tell their beads in drops of rain,
And patter their dolefal prayers ;-
But their prayers are all in vain,

All in vain!

There he stands in the foul weather,

The foolish, fond Old Year,
Crowned with wild flowers and with heather,
Like weak, despised Lear,

A king- a king !
Then comes the summer-like day,

Bids the old man rejoice!
His joy ! his last! (), the old man gray,
Loveth that ever soft voice,

Gentle and low.

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WHAT constitutes a State ?
Not high rais'd battlements or labor’d mound,

Thick wall or moated gate ;
Not cities proud with spires and tarrets crown'd;

Not bays and broad arm'd hosts,
Where, laughing at the storm, rich navies ride ;

Not starr'd and spangled courts,
Where low-bow'd baseness wafts perfume to pride.

No-men, high-minded men,
With powers as far above dull brutes endued

In forest, wake, or den,
As beasts excel cold rocks and hamlets rude;

Men who their duties know,
But know their rights, and, knowing, dare maintain,

Prevent the long-aim'd blow,
And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain--

These constitute a State.

*Written in England over one hundred years ago..




This bird belongs to the same species as the partridge. These two birds are much alike in their shape and appearance. The quail is, however, only about half as large, more plump in its appearance, and less rich in feathers. “The feathers of the head are black, edged with brown; the breast is of a pale yellowish red, spotted with black; the feathers on the back are marked with lines of pale yellow, and the legs are of a pale hue.'

The quail is a bird of passage. In Europe they arrive in May, and leave again for warmer climates in autumn. Crossing the Mediterranean twice a year, they stop on its numerous islands to rest themselves, when they are caught by the inhabitants in large quantities. It is said that the Bishop of the Island of Capri, near Naples, receives the largest portion of his income from the sale of quails—from which circumstance the people of Naples call him familiarly the Quail Bishop.

At the time of migration, in the spring and fall, they are also found in immense numbers along the coasts of Egypt and Arabia. Around Constantinople, in the fall of the year, the sun is often obscured by clouds of quails, and are caught in large numbers in nets on the high rocks of the Black Sea and Bosphorus. They fly, especially in the evening, so near the earth that little children catch them with their hands. Those who take them string them upon a withe, one end of which they cut to a sharp point, with which they pierce the lower bill of the bird, and thus a string of fifty or sixty are sold at market for a trifle. During the seasons little else but quails is eaten in Egypt. As it is impossible to eat all that are taken while they are yet fresh, many are salted and smoked, and thus used as food throughout the whole year. What renders these birds so cheap in the markets, is the fact that the Mahomedans regard all flesh that has been strangled as unclean, and hence will buy quails only when they are brought to market alive. Thus all those birds that come strangled to market are bought by the Greeks and Copts at half price.

Aristophanes says that no bird was more common in Greece ; and Juvenal asserts that none were cheaper at Rome. Other writers assert that in the beginning of spring a hundred thousand are sometimes caught in one day, and that within a space of five miles; and this rate of taking them generally continues during a whole month. Vano asserts that quails return from the south into Italy in immense numbers. Hence their flight, when they approach the land, is alleged by Pliny to be “attended with danger to mariners; for these birds, wearied with their journey, alight upon the sails, and this always at night, and sink their frail vessels." Solonius, according to Bochart, bears testimony to the same fact thus: “When they come within sight of land they rush forward in large bodies, and with so great impetuosity as often to endanger the safety of navigators; for they alight upon the sails in the night, and by their weight overset the vessels.”

To show farther how immensely plenty were these birds in the East, and especially on the shores and countries surrounding Egypt, we need only yet mention that “many places have borne the name of Ortygia, (the Greek for quail,) from the multitude of quails which crowded their fields. Thus Delus was called Ortygia. The Island of Syracuse was known by the same name; also the city of Ephesus, as well as a grove near it, and another in the vicinity of Miletus. For the same reason the whole country of Lybia received from the ancients the name of Ortygia. But quails abound nowhere in greater numbers than in Egypt and the surrounding countries, whither they were allured by the intense heat of the climate, or the fertility of the soil. Hence, the remark of Josephus that the Arabic gulf' is particularly favorable to the breeding of these birds. We have also heard the testimony of Diodorus concerning the countless number of quails about Rhinocolura ; and the ancients mention a species of quail peculiar to Egypt, which is so numerous at a certain season of the year that the inhabitants, unable to consume them all, are compelled to salt them for future use. This was done in times when, according to Theocritus, the vale of Egypt contained more than thirty thousand cities, and, by the testimony of Josephus, seven hundred and fifty myriads of people, without including the inhabitants of Alexandria.”

What has now been said of these birds will serve to illustrate those passages of scripture in which allusion is made to them. When the children of Israel murmured against God, and asked for meat, “it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and crowded the camp.” Ex. ch. xvi. v. 13. They the shore of the Red Sea into the wilderness.

On another occasion, when the people loathed the other food which God gave them, and cried for meat, “there went forth a wind from the Lord, and brought quails from the sea, and let them fall

camp, as it were a day's journey on this side, and as it were a day's journey on the other side, round about the camp, as it were two cubits high upon the face of the earth. And the people stood up all that day, and all that night, and all the next day, and they gathered the quails : he that gathered least gathered ten homers : and they spread them all abroad for themselves round about the camp.” Numbers, ch. xi. v. 31, 32.

Though, as may be judged from the great numbers of these birds, it was not necessary for God to create them by a miracle, yet his wondrous goodness is equally manifest in the fact that he brought

by the

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