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people, He presented all who were converted by him, to the confessor of the Pope that they might receive confirmation. The confessor and bishops remained by express command of the Pope in Rome, to watch the treasury of the relics of the saints, when the Pope was taken as a prisoner to France. When the Pope returned from his exile, the followers of Napoleon were either put in prison, or exiled by the Pope's command from Rome; and Pius VII. intended to have banished with the rest the before mentioned professor of Church History, but the confessor of the Pope saved him, saying that he should be pardoned because he had converted many Germans of distinction to the Romish church, and the Pope pardoned him accordingly; and then he soon professed himself the enemy to Napoleon, and a zealous follower of the Pope. The Lectures upon Church History occupy four years, and yet they only come down to the fourteenth century. Dissertations about celibacy, the holy wars, and the infallibility of the Popes, and reconciling the fallibility of Pope Honoriuc with the doctrine of infallibility, take up the greatest part of the history. The professor's prudence surprised me, when he lectured on the history of Henry IV. and Gregory VII. So long as he was able to defend the latter against the emperor, he did it; but when he came to facts mentioned of the Pope which he could not defend, he merely read the history, and left us to form our own judgment. I only found one amongst the pupils of the Seminary, who had a spirit of tolerance, and knowledge of the Bible. The ambassador of the king of Prussia being informed of my critical situation, became my protector and friend, and wrote about me to the government of Prussia, and advised me, as Count Stolberg also did, by letter, to be prudent and cautious in disputing; and indeed further, that I should entirely avoid every disputation: but I did not follow their advice, and indeed, could not well do so. I thought frequently of escaping from the Seminary by night, when I considered the great loss of time I sustained in idolatrous ceremonies; but the Prussian ambassador, and the pious German artists forbade me to attempt any thing so inconsiderate and dangerous. My German friends invited me sometimes to dine, and to hold spiritual conversation with them, to refresh my spirits, as my continual disputes destroyed all devotional feeling, and Christian meekness. Overbeck said to me, “We must bear the prejudices of other men with meekness and humility, because we are all more or less prejudiced.” But I replied, “When I find things in the very seat of Catholicism which prove the reproaches of Protestants to be just, I cannot be quiet. The Protestants of Germany believe me to be an hypocrite in entering the Roman Catholic church; and I should be such, if I were to consent to these abuses.” Overbeck replied: “You are not yet able to check such things as these; you must wait as Christ did till you are thirty years of age: and you will surely fall, and will embrace the doctrines you now ablior, if you will not hear the voice of your friends.” The pious Schadow also remonstrated with me; and submitting to my German friends, I returned after dinner, to the college, and on the following day, I heard the following conversation between three of their theologians, which enabled me to understand the true spirit of the Romish court. B. Abbot O. will be soon a Bishop. F. Why? B. He is not only approved by the Cardinal Litta, but likewise by Prince P. and he is very much attached to the Pope. F. The enemies of the Pope will altogether soon perish, because the Pope has now made a concordat with the king of Bavaria! The Jesuits, perhaps, will be established again in that kingdom. O. Cardinal S. will now soon arrive from Vienna, and I shall have considerable influence with him, because he has heard that I converted those famous Protestants, and I hear Mr. Tamburini has no longer any influence in Pavia. I myself. What sort of a man is Tamburini? O. He is a wicked and wretched man.
I myself. In what consists his wickedness. O. He is an enemy of the Pope, and wrote against his authority. F. The Germans are very obstinate, and Austria especially. O. But I hope they will soon be reconciled, because the Archbishop of O. and Mr. S. S. are friends of the Curia Romana. F. How is France? O. Well disposed, because the Pope elected some Cardinals, not long ago, from the French Bishops, and they wrote to the Pope, in the most humble and submissive manner, saying, that they consider the primacy and the infallibility of the Pope, as the chief foundation of the Catholic religion. I heard that Baron Wessenberg, Vicar-general of the Pope, of Constance, was not acknowledged by the Pope as Bishop of Constance, after the death of Duke Dalberg, as the grand Duke of Baden, and the Chapter of Constance wished, and that the Pope had published a Bull against him —This proceeding much dissatisfied me, because I was well acquainted with Baron W., and was persuaded that he was a good Christian, and a most worthy Prelate of the German Catholic Church. I wrote, therefore, three letters, the first to Cardinal Litta, the second to Prelate Testa, and the third to Cardinal F.; and I mentioned to them, that the Germans considered Baron Wessenberg as a pious and learned man, and that I was persuaded, the Bull published against him would be revolting to the sselings of every German; and that the Grand Duke of Baden would not respect the Bull. I added, that I could not but approve the conduct of the Duke; and that the power of the Court of Rome would surely sink if it did not act with more prudence and meekness: and I reminded them that we now live in the nineteenth century, and not in the eleventh. Cardinal Litta and Mass. Testa answered me with great kindness, and praised my sincerity; but Cardinal F. went to Cardinal Litta and said, “I have now a bad opinion of Wolf; how can he prefer the judgment of the Grand Duke of Baden, who is a Protestant, to the judgment of the holy father f" Cardinal Litta defended me, saying, I had a warm heart, and did oftentimes not reflect on what I did : and he commanded me in future, to write to no Cardinal except himself. I frequently heard the noise of a crowd of people flocking to the church called Rotunda, and exclaiming, “The mother of God opens her eyes and works miracles.” The Clergy send soldiers to guard the image which represents the Virgin; and to deceive the people, one priest reads mass, and another collects money for the mother of God. It is true the greatest part of the clergy said to me that this was only the fanaticism of the people, but why does the Pope approve such an idolatrous fanaticism, and why do they send soldiers to the altar of that image, and why do priests collect money for the support of that image, and celebrate mass before the altar of that image, to show respect and honour to it? The Vicar-general, in a printed declaration, approved the miracles, said to be wrought by the image of the Virgin. In the month of October, 1819, all the pupils went to Tivoli, where they have a very fine country-house. I saw there the villa of Maecenas, the grotto of Neptune, the ruins of the barracks of the army of Trajan, and the ruins of the temple of the Sybil ; and I read Horace's poetry in one of his own country houses. I went one day, with the other pupils, to the church of the Franciscan friars of that town, They were then celebrating the festival of St. Franciscus Assissi.—All the monks of Rome are accustomed to preach sermons on the day of their Patriarch, which they call Panegyrica. I heard the panegyricum of St. Franciscus of Assissi, composed by a Franciscan friar! He enumerated all the miracles of St. Franciscus, and all the pains of his body, where they observed the five wounds of Christ. And, after the account of these miracles, and these wounds, he said, “I therefore argue, that Franciscus Assissi has taken upon himself the sins of the whole world.” I said to the pupils, and to the master of our College, after the sermon was finished, “This monk has blasphemed
Christ; for Christ bore the sins of mankind, and not Franciscus Assissi. He was a pious and a humble man, but yet a sinner, who, like ourselves, must be saved by Christ.” In the month of December, Cardinal Litta ordered me to enter the College of the Propaganda, which was then re-established, although the building itself was not opened until the eleventh of January, 1818. I left the Seminario Pontificio, accordingly, on the sixth of December, and entered amongst the pupils of the Propaganda, in the missionary house, called Monte Littorio, under the direction of the Missionaries, called Vincenciani. This Missionary order was established by Vicentio di Pauli, in France. He was a great man, and a true member of the body of Christ,-he established, not only a Missionary order, but formed other establishments for the poor. He was a friend of Franciscus Salessius, and of the celebrated lady, called Madame de Chautal. Many clergymen of Rome said to me, “You do not well to leave the learned college of the Pope, and enter amongst the ignorant Vincenziana, who know little of scholastic divinity.” I was glad when I heard this. When I entered that convent, I put on the habit of the pupils of the Propaganda. It consists of a long black garment, with a red girdle, and five red buttons are attached to it, which indicate the five wounds of Christ; and the red colour is the symbol of the danger of losing his life, to which a Missionary is exposed. I found amongst the monks of that convent, holy and silent devotion, not the spirit of controversy; and they read daily, not Segneri, but a book called the Imitation of Christ, composed by Thomas a Kempis, together with the Holy Scriptures, and the Church History. That history, however, speaks with great freedom of the tyrany of Alexander VI. who burnt the pious Savonorala, for preaching against that monster of a Pope, more fit for the leader of a banditti, than for a Pope. I found also in that convent, two Italian Bishops, who with the simplicity of Apostles, encouraged me in the