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me in paper;" where paper, the name of the material, is put for the promises printed on it; that is, for bank bills.

What is metonymy? How does it differ from the metaphor? Give examples from the Bible. Give examples from the poets. Give examples from conversation.



THE Synecdoche is the use of a term that properly denotes only a part of a thing, or one of a kind, in place of one that denotes the whole; or of one that denotes the whole instead of one that signifies only a part; as a species for a genus, or a genus for a species; a day for time, the hand for the whole person. Thus, in the following passage, swords and spears are put for military weapons generally: "And he shall judge among the nations, and rebuke many people; and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more (Is. ii. 4). As iron and steel are used in many other battle weapons, and the discontinuance of war will as naturally lead to their appropriation to the arts of peace, swords and spears, which, in

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the age of the prophet, were the chief weapons employed in battle, are obviously put for the instruments of war generally that are capable of being converted to peaceful uses. In like manner, ploughshares and pruning-hooks are put for the instruments generally of husbandry and other unwarlike arts. In the following passage, the implements of agriculture and of war are used in the opposite order:

Prepare war; wake up the mighty men; let all the men of war draw near; let them come up. Beat your ploughshares into swords, and your pruning-hooks into spears" (Joel iii. 9, 10). In the following passage day is used by the figure: "These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens " (Gen. ii. 4). As the creation occupied six days, the term is here used synonymously with days, or time. It is employed in the same manner in the expressions, "the day of power," "the day of temptation," "the day of trouble," "the day of adversity," "the day of wrath." Inhabitant is sometimes used by the figure for inhabitants, and man for men; as, "And now, O inhabitant of Judah, judge, I pray you, between me and my vineyard" (Is. v. 3), in which the appeal is made to the whole population of Jerusalem and Judea. In Isaiah vii. 18, 19, the fly and

the bee, as names of genera, are used for swarms and multitudes of those insects: "And it shall be in that day that Jehovah will hiss to the fly which is at the end of the rivers of Egypt, and to the bee which is in Assyria, and they shall come and rest all of them in the desolate valleys, and in the clefts of the rocks, and in all thorn-hedges, and in all pastures." In passages like the following, man is put for mankind: "As for man, his days are as grass; as a flower of the field so he flourisheth, for the wind passeth over it and it is gone" (Ps. ciii. 15, 16). "Man is born to trouble, as the sparks fly upward" (Job v. 7). Hand is sometimes put by the figure for the person; as, "My hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols ;" and "My hand hath found as a nest the wealth of the nations" (Is. x. 10, 14), for I have found them.

In expressions like the following, "The Indians hunt the buffalo, the bear, and the wolf," the genera are put for individuals of those animals. So also in numerous expressions used in common life; as, man tames the horse, the ox, the mule, the elephant; he cultivates the potatoe, the melon, the apple, and the orange, the genus is put for individuals in great numbers and multitudes.

The synecdoche is a verbal figure. It is not founded, like the metaphor, on resemblance; nor

like the metonymy, on the connexion of place with that which occupies it, of a cause with its effect, or of an instrument with the agent who uses it; but of the relation of a part of a thing, or one of a kind, to the whole, or of the whole to a part. It is used much less frequently even than the metonymy, and far less than the metaphor and simile.

What is the synecdoche? On what is it founded? How does it differ from the metaphor, simile, and metonymy? Give examples of it.

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