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United States, in announcing that he should adhere to the financial policy of the president who preceded him, said he "should walk in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor."

In all these examples, an act of one kind is used in the place of another, and the resemblance that subsists between them is not one of nature, but only of condition; such as, ease or difficulty, prosperity or adversity; or of the effects they occasion, such as, relief or perplexity, elation or depression, advantage or disadvantage.

What is a hypocatastasis? How does it differ from a comparison? How from a metaphor? To which class of figures does it belong; or what is it that is used by the figure-words or things? Which part of the proposition is it in which it is used? Give an example. How is the nominative of the figure, or name of the agent that exerts the act it expresses, employed? Are the acts and conditions which it ascribes to its agent such as are proper to him or not? Give an example. How does it differ in that respect from the metaphor? Give an example. What is the peculiarity of the resemblance which it expresses? Is the figure recognised by writers on rhetoric? Does it occur more frequently in the sacred than in other writings? Which is the most impressive and grand of the examples quoted in this chapter from the Scriptures!


In Isaiah x. 17-19, quoted above, in which the figure is used, there are three nouns and two verbs used metaphorically. Which are they?

In Isaiah xxxvii. 21-24, quoted above, there is a hypocatastasis besides that in the language ascribed to the king of Assyria. There is also a metaphor in the interrogatory addressed to him. Point them out.

There are two verbs used metaphorically (Ezek. xxxii. 7, 8), quoted above, in which the figure is employed. Which are they?

There are two metaphors in the interrogatory (Is. xl. 14). Point them out. How many comparisons are there in verses 15-18 that follow?

The figure is used Psalm i. 1. How many times, and in what expressions? How often is it used in Psalm ii.

Is the figure used in the following passage (Joel iii. 12, 13), which relates to the destruction of God's enemies? If so, how many times? Is there any other figure in it? If so, what?

"Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe;
Come, get you down, for the vats overflow;
For their wickedness is great.

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Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision;

For the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision."

There are in the following passage six hypocatastases, six nouns used metaphorically, and one comparison. Which are they?

"How should one chase a thousand,
And two put ten thousand to flight,
Except their Rock had sold them,
And the Lord had shut them up?
For their rock is not as our Rock;

Even our enemies themselves being judges.

For their vine is of the vine of Sodom,

And of the fields of Gomorrah;

Their grapes are grapes of gall,
Their clusters are bitter;

Their wine is the poison of dragons,
And the cruel venom of asps.

Deut. xxxii. 30-33.

There are five hypocatastases in the following passage, and one adiective, and one verb, used by a metaphor. Which are they?

For I lift up my hand to heaven,

And say, I live for ever.

If I whet my glittering sword,
And mine hand take hold on judgment,

I will render vengeance to mine enemies,

And will reward them that hate me.

I will make mine arrows drunk with blood,

And my sword shall devour flesh,

With the blood of the slain and of the captives,
From the beginning of revenges upon the enemy.
Deut. xxxii. 40-42.

Let the scholar select two passages from the Scriptures besides those quoted, in which the noun path or way is used by the figure. Let the scholar cite two passages in which a cup is used by the figure.

Let two be cited in which yoke is used by it.

Let several be cited in which burden is used by it.

Let several be cited in which light is used by it.

Let the scholar cite an example of the figure used in conversation, or aphorisms.

Let the scholar form an expression in which it is employed; as it may be said of a person whose style has great defects, his landscape always has sloughs or swamps in it. If he is extravagant in

his terms and descriptions, he uses too much paint. If he is negligent in his expressions, the figures in his pictures are always slipshod, or have lost the buttons from their coats. If he is over precise and trim, the animals in his paintings always look as though they had just been curried. If he is accustomed to over estimate and over praise what belongs to himself, the insects that live on his flowers are always employed in gathering honey; the songs he hears carolled in his garden are all the songs of the nightingale; and the fruits he gathers in his orchard are always nectarines, oranges, and pine-apples.

It will be of service to collect the most beautiful and striking forms of the figure in the Scriptures, the poets, the orators, and in conversation, and to learn to use it by tracing the forms in which it may be employed, and indicating the class of analogies which it is its office to express.



AN Apostrophe is a direct address, in a speech, argument, narrative, or prediction, to a person or object that is the subject of discourse; or to one who hears, and is to form a judgment respecting it: as when an advocate in a plea suspends his narrative or argument, and makes an appeal to the judge in respect to the character of the facts that are under investigation, or the principles on which the validity of the evidence respecting them is to be determined; or when an orator, in depicting the life of some one who has departed, arrests the story, and addresses himself directly to the dead, as though he were present, and aware of what is taking place.

Thus Isaiah, in announcing the visible advent of the Messiah, the earthquake with which the globe is then to be shaken, and the ruin in which all the objects of the vain confidence of the Israelites are tc

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