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be involved, arrests the prediction, and, in a direct address, summons them immediately to flee to the dens and caverns, and hide themselves, as though the lightnings of his presence were about to flash on their vision: "Go ye into the rock, and hide thee in the dust from before the terror of Jehovah, and from the glory of his majesty" (chap. ii. 10).

In like manner, in the allegory (Is. v. 1-7) betwixt the description of the vineyard and the prediction of its destruction, there is a direct address to the people of Jerusalem and Judah, whom the allegory represents: "And now, O inhabitant of Jerusalem, and man of Judah, judge, I pray you, between me and my vineyard. What could have been done more to my vineyard that I have not done unto it? Why when I expected that it should bring forth grapes, brought it forth wild grapes? But come now, and I will make known unto you what I purpose to do to my vineyard.'


The figure is used in a bold and impressive form (Is. x. 21-23), in announcing the destroying judg ments with which the Israelites were to be smitten: "A remnant shall return, a remnant of Jacob, to God Almighty. For though thy people, O Israel, shall be like the sand of the sea, a remnant, a remnant of them shall return. A consumption is decreed overflowing in righteousness. For the

consumption decreed, the Lord Jehovah of hosts will make in all the earth." And again, in verses 24-26, that follow: "Nevertheless, thus saith the Lord God of hosts, O my people, inhabiting Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrian. He shall smite thee with the rod, and shall lift up his staff upon thee in the way of Egypt. For yet a little while, and wrath is at end; and my anger to their destruction. And Jehovah of hosts shall raise up against him a scourge, like the smiting of Midian at the rock Oreb, and his rod over the sea."

Christ's address to Jerusalem-put by metonymy for the population-is an example of the figure: "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not; behold, your house is left unto you desolate" (Matt. xxiii. 37, 38).

Inanimate objects, also, are often apostrophized. There are several examples of that form of the figure in Isaiah xiv. 8-20. The fir-trees and cedars are exhibited as addressing the king of Babylon : "Even the fir-trees rejoice over thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art laid down nc feller is come up against us." On his entrance intc

the world of the dead, the spirits of the chiefs and kings of the earth are represented as awaiting him: "All they shall speak and say unto him, Art thou also become weak as we? Art thou become like unto us? Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, the noise of thy viols. The worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee. How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! How art thou cut down which didst weaken the nations!"

Immaterial things are often apostrophized; and in those instances the objects addressed are also treated according to their proper nature. Thus


"Domestic happiness! thou only bliss

Of Paradise that has survived the fall!

Though few now taste thee unimpaired and pure,

Or tasting long enjoy thee; too infirm,
Or too incautious, to preserve thy sweets
Unmixed with drops of bitter, which neglect
Or temper shed into thy crystal cup.
Thou art the nurse of virtue; in thine arms
She smiles, appearing, as in truth she is,
Heaven-born, and destined to the skies again."

It is happiness that is addressed and described throughout, and as happiness, though taste, tasting, sweets, and nurse, are used by a metaphor; while

shedding drops of bitter into her crystal cup is used, by a hypocatastasis, for an analogous act by which happiness is impaired by neglect, ill temper or other means. So music also:

"O music! thy celestial claim

Is still resistless, still the same

And faithful as the mighty sea

To the pale star that o'er its realms presides,
The spell-bound tides

Of human passion rise and fall with thee."

Here music is addressed simply as music, not as a person; and the sensibility of the passions to its influence is compared to that of the ocean to the moon, by which its tides are raised and depressed.


"O memory! thou fond deceiver,

Still importunate and vain ;

To former joys recurring ever,

And turning all the past to pain;

Thou like the world, the oppressed oppressing,

Thy smiles increase the wretch's woe,
And he who wants each other blessing,
In thee must ever find a foe."


All that is here affirmed is appropriate to

memory, considered as a faculty or power, not as a person. Deceiver and smiles are used by a metaphor; and its influence on the wretched is compared to that of the world, which tramples down those who are already the victims of misfortune.

The figure is thus a direct address, in a speech or narrative, to a person or object present or absent, for the purpose of a more emphatic description, or a bolder presentation of a subject. The agency, or condition, ascribed to the person or object addressed, is such as is suitable to its nature. The acts ascribed to the people of Jerusalem are such as they had exerted. The interrogatories and exclamations addressed by the spirits in Hades to the king of Babylon are in accordance with his history and condition. And so of happiness, of music, and of light, in the passage quoted on the next page; and of night on the page following that.

The figure gives, by the dramatic form which it employs, far greater force and emphasis to the thoughts which it utters, and the facts which it describes. The agents or objects apostrophized are addressed as though in the presence of the speaker, and listening to the narrative of their lives, the description of their character, or the laments that are uttered over them. The figure is often used by

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