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As waterspouts from out the deep of heav'n over

head, Evoke the deep beneath on earth to rise and rage in So judgments order'd by Thy will, descending from

on high, Call up the judgment of men's tongues to seal my destiny .

7. Thy waves and billows in their might have o'er me

their full sway. Yet will Jehovah loving-kindness bid for me by

day! And in the night His statutess shall be with me

as a song, When I'll my prayer unto the God of my soul's life prolong.

8. To God, who is my rock, I'll say, Why hast Thou

me forgot? Why flee I 'fore mine enemy, as though Thou

heard'st me not?

on the banks of Jordan from which Hermon and Zoar would be simultaneously visible.

Porter, in his “Giant Cities of Bashan," p. 100, observes, the whole valley of the Jordan, from Hermon, at the base of which its fountain gushes forth, down to Zoar at the Dead Sea, is a huge rent or fissure in the earth's crust.

The river Jordan-the descender-has also this peculiarity, that whereas other rivers have their mouths on a level with the ocean, this has its springs, and flows to a depth of about 1300 feet below the ocean, where it enters the Dead Sea. Also that sea is found to be, at a short distance from the Jordan's mouth, suddenly deeper by another 1300 feet. These observations serve to shew that the entire region from the base of Hermon to Zoar might with propriety be looked at connectedly, as has been suggested in the interpretation of this psalm.

3 Ver. 7. Gen. i. 7.

4 The Divine visitation on David in respect of expelling him from the land on the western side of Jordan, had the same effect on the minds of his countrymen generally on both occasions. Compare 1 Sam. xxvi. 19, with verses 3 and 10 of this psalm,

5 Ver. 8. Ps. cxix, 54.


While these, that should defend me, who cast at me

that word, “Where is thy God ?" pierce thro' my soul as tho’

'twere with a sword.


Why art thou so cast down, my soul? Why so

disquieted ? And cherishest desponding fears, of guilty doubting

bred ? Hope thou in God! for I believe, that God I yet

shall praise, Who is my God, and only can bring smiles back

to my face.

6 Ver. 10. The word translated “ enemies" in this verse is different from that so translated in verse 9, and rather means “these that press upon me -a description applicable to his superstitious adherents. (Ps. lvii. 4. James iii. 6. Eph. vi. 16.)


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ARGUMENT. It has been already observed, that this psalm has by the Septuagint doctors been ascribed to David.

Two expressions in the psalm itself favour this ascription of the authorship to David: one, in verse 3, where mention is made of “Thy holy hill and Thy tabernacles.” By the former of which is to be understood the hill of Zion, made by David his city in 2 Sam. v. 9, called “the holy hill,” when he carried up the ark thither, (2 Sam. vi. 17,) where the place of shelter for it is called a tabernacle."

From 2 Chron. i. 3, we learn that there remained the tabernacle of the congregation yet at Gibeon. Hence it may be "tabernacles in the plural here occurs : though it may be that other tabernacles beside that immediately covering the ark might have been set up for the use of the officiating priests in David's time in Zion. I am not aware that any inspired writer called Zion

“ the holy hill,” whose composition dates after Solomon's erection of his temple on the adjacent height of Mount Moriah; but by Ps. lxxviii. 68, it is thought that the whole range had the name of Mount Zion,

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The other expression which favours the ascription of authorship of this psalm to David is that mention of “the harp” in verse 4, which being here mentioned by itself was characteristic of the sweet psalmist of Israel.

On the supposition then of David having been the author, the time of its composition will apparently best agree with that in 2 Sam. xv.-xvii.; so that its subject is the same with that of the psalm preceding it.

Accordingly, "the unmerciful nation" would be Israel, that had gone after Absalom; and Ahitophel “the deceitful and unjust man."

In the second verse, David would, on this supposition, be pleading with God, that by being driven for any length of time beyond Jordan, he would be virtually driven from the throne; though God had not only promised to pardon his soul, but to make him the progenitor of Messiah, who should sit on his throne. He is therefore to be considered as, by this question in verse 2, deprecating God's prolonged displeasure, though aware of God's purpose in the course of providence to afflict him. (2 Sam. xii. 10.)

By verse 3, he is to be regarded as asking for the light of God's Spirit to guide him, (Ps. li. 10--13; John xiv. 17—26,) to make him patient until it should please God to restore him to his city. At verse 5, he expresses his disapprobation of his soul's dejection, which was undue, considering God's other mercies at that very time abounding towards him; and he is led to set the promises of God before his mind for refreshment in hope, (Heb. xii. 1—3,) for the joy of the Lord is our strength, (Neh. viii. 10,) and God's people in this way cherish hope, (Rom. viii. 18—24; 2 Cor. iv. 17, 18.) But while this psalm was in the first instance applied by David, under the guidance of the Spirit of Christ, to his own circumstances, it clearly admits of application to the remnant of Jacob in the great tribulation, (Jer. xxx. 6,) when the apostate nations of Christendom, with their false prophet and civil head, will be “the unmerciful nation” and “ruler" meant in verse 1, and the HebrewChristian remnant will take up the second verse after the manner of Peter, (1 Pet. ii. 20.)

Some anticipation of this employment of Psalms xlii. and xliii. by Israel collectively in the days of Messiah must be conceived to have guided the mind of him who in Hezekiah’s days arranged this book of Psalms in the present order, and placed it in the Scriptural

That compiler appears to me, by the significance of the arrangement in other cases as well as this, to have been guided therein by the Spirit of Christ. For although it is assumed that David wrote this forty-third psalm as well as the forty-second, yet to the compiler is due the credit of having here placed the forty-third immediately after the forty-second. By this means, the compiler's purpose in placing it at the head of this second book is pretty clear.


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For the forty-third regulates the application of the forty-second, after the same manner in which the seventieth does the sixty-ninth.

That the compiler had the coming of Messiah before his mind is apparent from the psalms that follow, down to the fiftieth.

And like as Psalms lxviii. and lxxx. seem to have been written in expectation of the tribes being destined once more to march after the ark to the Lord's inheritance, as did Israel of old through the wilderness; so the third verse of this forty-third psalm, “O send out Thy light and Thy truth; let them lead me;" seems to have been taken by the compiler to denote that some visible token for the guidance of the tribes, similar to the Pillar of Cloud in the wilderness, would in that day be granted. See Ps. lxyi. 5, 6; Isa. lii. 12; lyiii. 8; Micah ii. 12, 13.

1. Thy judgment give in my behalf, my controversy

plead, O God, against a nation, which in this my urgent

need, No mercy sheweth! yea, on me deliverance bestow, From that consummate man of fraud, not slack to strike his blow.

2. O God, who art my only strength, why leav'st Thou

me alone? Why am I made beneath my foe's oppression to

strive on? Oh, send Thou forth Thy light and truth to guide my

weary feet,

Till I again Thy holy hill and tabernacles greet.

3. Before the altar there of God will. I my hours

employ-Of God, Whose goodness doth alone impart to me

true joy : Yea, there with practis'd hand I'll strike the harp's

melodious string, And Thy high praise, O God, my God, in grate

ful accents sing

i Vor. 1.

Sam. xvi. 23.

4. Why art thou restless, O my soul, within me, and

cast down? In God set thou unmoy'd thy hope! nor think that

He doth frown Upon thee, tho' He chasten thee; for now draw

near the days, When I, return'd, 'fore Thee, my God, shall lift my

voice in praise.


TITLE. To the chief Musician. For the sons of Korah ; for understanding.

ARGUMENT. By sundry passages in this psalm it is clear that the psalmist's people were, at the time of its being written, in dire national distress.

Nevertheless, from an expression in verse 9, it is clear that they were, as a nation, in possession of their country; mention being made of “their armies going forth,” though only to sustain reverses; because of God not going forth with them as He had when He brought them out of Egypt into the land of Canaan. But by verse 11 we learn that they were

scattered among

the heathen." Now in 2 Chron. xxix. 5—11, we have, in Hezekiah's address to the priests and Levites, a detail of the nation's disasters closely corresponding with that in this psalm.

The disasters themselves had occurred in Ahaz's reign; but the psalm does not suit that period, because there was no national reformation such as is described in this psalm (ver. 17—26) until Hezekiah's reign.

Without doubt there was a faithful remnant in Ahaz's days, who might have entertained the sentiments expressed in this psalm ; but we,” at verse 17, would in that case only have represented that “remnant:" whereas it is clear that the writer of this psalm, in using the word “we,” could speak for the nation that had been originally brought out of Egypt, and planted in the Lord's land. No one could more appropriately use such language on behalf of the nation than Hezekiah, who, according to 2 Chron. xxix. 10, was minded to “ make a covenant with the Lord;” and who, in

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