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The spies are concealed

JOSHUA.

on the top of the house. house: for they be come to search | 9 And she said unto the men, An. Exod. Isr, out all the country.

I know that the Lord hath given 4 h And the woman took the you the land, and that your terI. Olymp. 675.

two men, and hid them, and said ror is fallen upon us, and that all 1. Olymp. 675. thus, There came men unto me, but I wist the inhabitants of the land 'faint because of you. not whence they were :

10 For we have heard how the Lord m dried 5 And it came to pass about the time of up the water of the Red Sea for you,

when shutting of the gate, when it was dark, that ye came out of Egypt ; and what ye did the men went out : whither the men went, I unto the two kings of the Amorites, that were wot not: pursue after them quickly; for ye on the other side Jordan, Sihon and Og, whom shall overtake them.

ye utterly destroyed. 6 But i she had brought them up to the roof 11 And as soon as we had heard these of the house, and hid them with the stalks of things, Pour hearts did melt, neither 9 did there flax, which she had laid in order upon

the roof. remain
any more courage

in

any man, because 7 And the men pursued after them, the way of you : for 'the LORD your God, he is God to Jordan, unto the fords : and as soon as they in heaven above, and in earth beneath. which pursued after them were gone out, they .12 Now therefore, I pray you,

swear unto

me by the Lord, since I have showed you 8 And before they were laid down, she kindness, that ye will also show kindness unto came up unto them upon the roof;

my father's house, and give me a true token:

shut the gate.

· See 2 Sam. xvii, 19, 20. See Exod. i. 17; 2 Sam. xvii. 19. xxi. 24, 34, 35. Exod. xv. 14, 15. -p Chap. v. 1; vii. 5; Gen. xxxv. 5; Exod. xxiii. 27; Deut. ii. 25; xi. 25.—Heb. Isa. xiii. 7.

-4 Heb. rose up:

- Deut. iv, 39. See 1 Sam. melt ; Exod. xv. 15. m Exod. xiv. 21 ; chap. iv. 23.-Num. xx, 14, 15, 17.— See 1 Tim. v. 8. u Ver. 18.

at once have sent officers to have seized the persons houses in the east were made flat-roofed ; for which lodged with her as vagabonds; but if she kept a house a law is given Deut. xxii. 8. On these flat roofs the of entertainment, the persons under her roof were sa- Asiatics to this day walk, converse, and oftentimes cred, according to the universal custom of the Asiatics, even sleep and pass the night. It is probable that this and could not be molested on any trifling grounds. A hiding was after that referred to in the fourth verse. guest or a friend is sacred in whatever house be may Verse 9. I know that the Lord hath given you the be received, in every part of the east to the present Land] It is likely she had this only from conjecture, day.

having heard of their successes against the Amorites, Verse 4. And hid them] Probably she secreted their prodigious numbers, and seeing the state of terthem for the time being in some private corner, till she ror and dismay to which the inhabitants of her own had the opportunity of concealing them on the house- land were reduced. top in the manner mentioned ver. 6.

Verse 11. He is God in heaven above, and in earth Verse 5. When it was dark] So it appears that it beneath.] This confession of the true God is amazingly was after night that the king of Jericho sent to Rahab, full, and argues considerable light and information, ordering her to produce the persons who lodged with As if she had said, " I know your God to be omniher. The season itself was friendly to the whole plot : potent and omnipresent:" and in consequence of this had these transactions taken place in day-light, it is faith she hid the spies, and risked her own life in doscarcely possible that the spies could have escaped. ing it. But how had she this clear knowledge of the But this is no excuse for the woman's prevarication ; Divine nature ? 1. Possibly the knowledge of the true for God could have saved his messengers independently God was general in the earth at this time, though conof her falsity. God never says to any, Do evil that nected with much superstition and idolatry; the people good may come of it. See at the end of the chapter. believing that there was a god for every district, and

Verse 6. Hid them with the stalks of flax] It is a for every people ; for the mountains and for the valmatter of little consequence whether we translate nuo leys; see 1 Kings xx. 23. 2. Or she received this pro pistey haets stalks of flax, or stalks of hemp: the instruction from the spies, with whom she appears to word ry ets, which signifies wood, serves to show that have had a good deal of conversation ; or, 3. She had whether it was hemp or flar, it was in its rough, un- it from a supernatural influence of God upon her own manufactured state; and as this was about the season, soul. She probably made a better use of the light she viz., the end of March or the beginning of April, in had received than the rest of her countrymen, and God which the flax is ripe in that country, consequently increased that light. Rahab's flar might have been recently pulled, and was Verse 12. Swear unto me by the Lord] This is a now drying on the roof of her house. The reader farther proof that this woman had received considermay find some useful remarks upon this subject in Har-able instruction in the Jewish faith ; she acknowledged mer's Observations, vol. iv., p. 97, &c.

the true God by his essential character Jehovah; and Upon the roof.) We have already seen that all the knew that an oath in his name was the deepest and

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They promise to spare Rahab, CHAP. II.

and return unto Joshua. 13 And that ye will save alive 19 And it shall be that whosoAn. Exod. Isr. my father, and my mother, and ever shall go out of the doors of

my brethren, and my sisters, thy house into the street, his I. Olymp. 675.

and all that they have, and de- blood shall be upon his head, and 1. Olymp. 675. liver our lives from death.

we will be guiltless : and whosoever shall be 14 And the men answered her, Our life for with thee in the house, his blood shall be on yours, if ye utter not this our business. And our head if any hand be upon him. it shall be, when the Lord hath given us the 20 And if thou utter this our business, then land, that we will deal kindly and truly with we will be quit of thine oath which thou hast thee.

made us to swear: 15 Then she ; let them down by a cord 21 And she said, According unto your words, through the window: for her house was upon so be it. And she sent them away, and they the town wall, and she dwelt upon the wall. departed : and she bound the scarlet line in

16 And she said unto them, Get you to the the window. mountain, lest the pursuers meet you; and 22 And they went, and came unto the moun. hide yourselves there three days, until the tain, and abode there three days, until the pursuers be returned : and afterward may ye pursuers were returned : d and the pursuers go your way.

sought them throughout all the way, but found 17 And the men said unto her, We will be them not. blameless of this thine oath which thou hast 23. So the two men returned, and descended made us swear ;

from the mountain, and passed over, and came 18 2 Behold, when we come into the land, to Joshua the son of Nun; and told him all thou shalt bind this line of scarlet thread in things that befell them : the window which thou didst let us down by : 24 And they said unto Joshua, Truly the a and thou shalt bring thy father, and thy Lord hath delivered into our hands all the mother, and thy brethren, and all thy father's land; for even all the inhabitants of the counhousehold, home unto thee.

try do f faint because of us.

* Heb. instead of you to die. - Judg. i. 24; Matt. v. 7. 1 Acts ix. 25.-ý Exod. xx. 7.- Ver. 12. Chap. vi. 23. Heb. gather.

c Matthew xxvii. 25.02 Sam. xvii. 20; Psa. xxxii. 6. • Exodus xxiii. 31; chap. vi. 2; xxi. 44.

Heb. melt; Verse 9.

most solemn obligation under which a Jew could pos- through the window in a basket suspended by a cord, sibly come. Does not this also refer to the command till they reached the ground on the outside of the wall. of God, Thou shall fear the Lord, and shalt swear by Verse 16. Hide yourselves there three days] They his name? See the note on Deut. vi. 13.

were to travel by night, and hide themselves in the Verze 13. Deliver our lives from death.] She had day-time; otherwise they might have been discovered learned, either from the spies or otherwise, that all the by the pursuers who were in search of them. inhabitants of the land were doomed to destruction, Verse 18. This line of scarlet thread] 'un vin nipn and therefore she obliges them to enter into a covenant tikvath chut hashshani. Probably this may mean, with her for the preservation of herself and her house this piece of scarlet cloth, or, this cloth (made) af hold.

scarlet thread. When the Israelites took the city this Verse 14. Our life for yours] “ May our life be piece of red cloth seems to have been hung out of the destroyed if we suffer yours to be injured!" This is window by way of flag ; and this was the signioti what was anciently called in our country pledging, which she and the spies had agreed. staking, a man's life for that of his neighbour or friend. Verse 20. If thou utter this our business) It was

Verse 15. Then she let them down by a cord, $c.) prudent to make her life depend on her secresy; had The natural place of this verse is after the first clause it been otherwise she might have been tempted to give of ver. 21; for it is certain that she did not let them information, not only concerning the spies, but concerndown in the basket till all those circumstances marked ing the designs of the Israelites. But her life being from ver. 16 to 20 inclusive had taken place. at stake, added to every other motive, she kept the

She dwelt upon the wall.] That is, either the wall of secret for the sake of her own personal safety and that the city made a part of her house or her house was of all her relatives. built close to the wall, so that the top or battlements Verse 23. So the two men returned] Having conof it were above the wall, with a window that looked cealed themselves in the mountains that night, all the out to the country. As the city gates were now shut next day, and the night ensuing, on the third day they there was no way for the spies to escape but through returned to Joshua. this window; and in order to this she let them down Verse 24. Truly the Lord hath delivered into our

Observations on the

JOSHUA.

preceding chapter.

hands all the land] How different was this report from Then she : “Before thy sight the guilty stands;
that brought by the spies on a former occasion! They The theft, O King, committed by these hands.
found that all the inhabitants of the land were panic In me the thief who stole the image view!
struck. The people had heard of the great exploits To me the punishment decreed is due.”
of the Israelites on the other side of Jordan; and as

filled with public zeal, the generous dame
they had destroyed the potent kings of the Amorites, A victim for her people's ransom came.
they took it for granted that nothing could stand be O great deceit! O lie divinely fair !
fore them. This information was necessary to Joshua What truth with such a falsehood can compare!
to guide him in forming the plan of his campaign.

HOOLE. 1. It may be asked, Did not Rahab lie in the ac Thus a lie is ornamented with splendid decorations count she gave to the officers of the king of Jericho, both by the Italian and English poet, and the whole (ver. 4, 5,) There came men unto me, &c. ? I answer, formed into an anti-apostolic maxim, Let us do evil, She certainly did; and the inspired writer sets down that good may come of it. the fact merely as it stood, without making the Spirit

A purer morality was taught by one of the most of God responsible for the dissimulation of the woman.

ancient heathen writers than is here preached by these But was she not rewarded, &c. ? Yes; for her hos- demi-christians :pitality and faith, not for her lie. But could she have Εχθρος γαρ μοι κεινος, όμως αϊδαο πυλησιν, saved the spies without telling a lie? Yes, she cer

“Ος χ' έτερον μεν κευθει ενι φρέσιν, αλλο δε βαζει. tainly might; but what notion could a woman of her

Iliad. l. ix., v. 312. occupation, though nothing worse than an inn-keeper, have of the nicer distinctions between truth and false My soul detests him as the gates of hell, hood, living among a most profligate and depraved peo Who knows the truth and dares a falsehood tell. ple, where truth could scarcely be known?

The following is the advice of a genuine Christian 2. There is a lax morality in the world that recom- poet, and one of the holiest men of his time :mends a lie rather than the truth, when the purposes of religion and humanity can be served by it. But Lie not; but let thy heart be true to God; when can this be? The religion of Christ is one eter Thy tongue to it, thy actions to them both. nal system of truth, and can neither be served by a lie Cowards tell lies, and those who fear the rod; nor admit of one. On this vile subject fine words have The stormy working soul spits lies and froth. been spoken. Tasso, in his elegant episode of So DarE TO BE TRUE! nothing can NEED a lie. phronia and Olindo, in the Gerusalemme Liberata, b.

The fault that needs it most grows two thereby. ii., v. 22, represents the former as telling a lie to Sa

HERBERT. laddin, relative to the stealing of an image, for which,

For other observations on this subject, see the notes as he could not discover the culprit, he doomed all the on Gen. xii. at the end, and xx. 12. Christians in his power to death. Sophronia, a pious 3. Though the hand of God was evidently in every Christian virgin, getting into the presence of the tyrant, thing that concerned the Israelites, and they were in order to save her people, accuses herself

, though taught to consider that by his might alone they were perfectly innocent, of the theft. Her conduct on this

to be put in possession of the promised land; yet they occasion the poet embellishes in the following manner, were as fully convinced that if they did not use the for which the religion of that time, which dealt in holy counsel, prudence, and strength which they had refrauds, would no doubt applaud him.

ceived from him, they should not succeed. Hence, “ Ed ella : il reo si trova al tuo cospetto ;

while they depended on the Divine direction and power, Opra è il furto, Signor, di questa mano

they exercised their own prudence, and put forth their Io l'immagine tolsi; Io son colei

own strength; and thus they were workers together Che tu ricerchi, e me punir tu dei.

with him, and did not receive the grace of God in vain. Cosi al pubblico fato il capo altero

The application of this maxim is easy; and we canOfferse, e 'l volle in se sol racorre.

not expect any success, either in things spiritual or MAGNANIMA MENZOGNA! or quando è il vero temporal, unless we walk by the same rule, and mind Si bello, che si possa a te preporre ?"

the same thing.

CHAPTER III.

The Israelitish camp removes from Shittim to Jordan, 1. The officers inform them how they are to pass the

river, and the distance they are to keep from the ark, 2-4. Joshua directs the people, 5, 6; and the Lord gives directions to Joshua, 7, 8. He delivers the Lord's message to the people, and foretells the miraculous passage and division of Jordan, 9-13. The priests, bearing the ark, enter the river, and immediately the waters are cut off, and the priests stand on dry ground, in the bed of the river, till all the camp passes over, 14-17,

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Joshua prepares to bring

CHAP. III.

the Israelites over Jordan. A. M. 2553

5 And Joshua said unto the

A. M. 2553. AND Joshua rose early in the B. C. 1451.

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morning; and they removed people, Sanctify yourselves : An. Exod. Isr. from Shittim, and came to Jor- for to-morrow the Lord will do

Anno ante 1. Olymp. 673. dan, he and all the children of wonders among you:

1. Olymp. 675. Israel, and lodged there before they passed

6 And Joshua spake unto the priests, saying, over.

b Take up the ark of the covenant, and pass 2 And it came to pass after three days, over before the people. And they took up that the officers went through the host; the ark of the covenant; and went before the

3 And they commanded the people, saying, people. • When ye see the ark of the covenant of the 7 And the LORD said unto Joshua, This day LORD your God, 1 and the priests the Levites will I begin to i magnify thee in the sight of bearing it, then ye shall remove from your all Israel, that they may know that, k as I was place, and go after it.

with Moses, so I will be with thee. 4 Yet there shall be a space

between

you

8 And thou shalt command 'the priests that and it, about two thousand cubits by measure : bear the ark of the covenant, saying, When yé come not near unto it, that ye may know the are come to the brink of the water of Jordan way by which ye must go : for have not m

ye

shall stand still in Jordan. passed this way theretofore.

9 And Joshua said unto the children of 1 Chap. i. I Chap. i. 10, 11. - See Num. X. 33. xi. 18; chap. vii. 13; 1 Sain. xvi. 5; Joel ii. 16.- Num. iv Deut. xxxi. 9, 25. Exod. xix. 12. - Heb. since yesterday, 15.-i Chap. iv. 14; 1 Chron. xxix. 25; 2 Chron. i. 1.

Chap and the third day. - Exod. xix. 10, 14, 15; Lev. xx. 7; Num. i. 5. _Ver3. NOTES ON CHAP. III.

to Ver. 17.

of the Levites, the sons of Kohath, to carry the ark; Verse 1. Joshua rose early] Archbishop Usher sup- yet on certain occasions the priests alone performed poses that this was upon Wednesday, the 28th of April, this office. 1. In the present case.

2. When they A. M. 2553, the fortieth year after the exodus from encompassed Jericho, chap. vi. 6. 3. When it was Egypt. From Shittim, where they had lately been carried to the war against the Philistines by the priests, encamped, to Jordan, was about sixty stadia, according the sons of Eli, 2 Sam. xv. 25. 4. When David sent to Josephus; that is, about eight English miles. it back to Jerusalem, at the time he was obliged to fly

Verse 2. After three days] These three days are from it, through the rebellion of his son Absalom, 2 probably to be thus understood : As soon as Joshua Sam. xv. 25; and, 5. At the time that it was taken took the command of the army, he sent the spies to out of the tabernacle, to be deposited in the temple ; ascertain the state of Jericho; as we have seen chap. see Kings viii. 6-11. These were the most i. 12. They returned at the end of three days, or solemn occasions, and on such alone, we may prerather on the third day, and made their 'report. It sume, the priests performed this office instead of the was at this time, immediately on the return of the spies, Leviles. that he made the proclamation mentioned here ; in con In all their former marches the ark was carried in sequence of which the people immediately struck their the centre of this immense camp; (see the scheme at tents, and marched forward to Jordan.

the end of chap. ii. of the book of Numbers ;) but now it Verse 4. About two thousand cubits] This distance was to proceed at the head of the army, and to go before they were to keep, 1. For the greater respect, because them, and at such a distance, about three quarters of the presence of the ark was the symbol and pledge of a mile, that the whole camp might see it as their guide. the Divine presence.

2. That the ark, which was to Verse 7. This day will I begin to magnify thee) be their pilot over these waters, might be the more By making him the instruinent in this miraculous pascospicuous, which it could not have been had the peo-sage, he did him honour and gave him high credit in ple crowded upon it.

the sight of the people : hence his authority was esVerse 5. Sanctify yourselves] What was implied tablished, and obedience to him as their leader fully in this command we are not informed ; but it is likely secured. What must have confirmed this authority that it was the same as that given by Moses, Exod. was, his circumstantially foretelling how the waters xix. 10-14. They were to wash themselves and their should be cut off as soon as the feet of the priests had garments, and abstain from every thing that might in touched them, ver. 14. This demonstrated that the dispose their minds from a profitable attention to the secret of the Lord was with him. miracle about to be wrought in their behalf.

Verse 8. Ye shall stand still in Jordan.) The Verse 6. Spake unto the priests, saying, Take up priests proceeded first with the ark, and entered into the ark] It is remarkable that the priests, not the Le- the bed of the river, the course of which was immesites, whose ordinary business it was, were employed diately arrested, the waters collecting above the place to carry the ark on this occasion.

Calmet conjectures where the priests stood, while the stream fell off tothat this was because it was probably carried without wards the Dead Sea ; so that the whole channel below being wrapped up in its curtains, as it always was when where the priests were standing became dry. The the Levites carried it. Though it was the business | whole camp, therefore, passed over below where the

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Division of Jordan foretold.

JOSHUA.

The priests enter with the ark Israel, Come hither, and hear the earth, shall rest in the waters of An. Exod. Isr. words of the LORD God. Jordan, thut the waters of Jordan An. Exod. Isr.

10 And Joshua said, Hereby shall be cut off from the waters I. Olymp. 675. ye shall know that n the living that come down from above; and

1. Olymp. 675. God is among you, and that he will without they shall stand upon a heap. fail • drive out from before you the Canaanites, 14 And it came to pass, when the people and the Hittites, and the - Hivites, and the removed from their tents, to pass over Jordan, Perizzites, and the Girgashites, and the Amor- and the priests bearing the "ark of the covenant ites, and the Jebusites.

before the people; 11 Behold, the ark of the covenant of P the 15 And

as they that bare the ark were LORD of all the earth passeth over before you come unto Jordan, and the feet of the priests into Jordan.

that bare the ark were dipped in the brim of 12 Now therefore I take you twelve men out the water, (for w Jordan overfloweth all his of the tribes of Israel, out of every tribe a banks * all the time of harvest,) man;

16 That the waters which came down from 13 And it shall come to pass, ' as soon as above stood and rose up upon a heap, very the soles of the feet of the priests that bear far from the city Adam, that is beside y Zarethe ark of the LORD, s the Lord of all the tan : and those that came down ? toward the

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n Deut. v. 26; 1 Sam. xvii. 26; 2 Kings xix. 4; Hos. i. 10; Psa. lxxviii. 13; cxiy. 3. Acts vii. 45.- Ver. 12, Matt. xvi. 16; 1 Thess. i. 9. Exod. xxxiii. 2; Deut. vii. l; w 1 Chron. xii. 15; Jer. xii. 5; xlix. 19; Ecclus. xxiv, 26. Psa. xliv. 2. —p Ver. 13; Mic. iv. 13; Zech. iv. 14; vi. 5. Chap. iv. 18; v. 10, 12.-31 Kings iv. 12; vii. 46.- Deut. 9 Chap. iv. 2. Ver. 15, 16. - Ver. 11.

lli. 17.

priests were standing, keeping at the distance of two Verse 12. Take you twelve men] See the note on thousand cubits from the ark; this they could readily chap. iv. 2. do, as the whole bed of the river was dry for many Verse 15. And the feet of the priestswere dipped miles below the place where the priests entered. in the brim of the water] Thus we find that every

Verse 10. Hereby ye shall know that the living God thing occurred exactly in the way in which Joshua had is among you] The Israelites were apt to be discou- foretold it. This must have greatly increased his credit raged, and to faint at even the appearance of danger ; among the people. it was necessary, therefore, that they should have the For Jordan overfloweth all his banks, fc.] It has fullest assurance of the presence and assistance of often been remarked that there was no need of a miGod in the important enterprise on which they were racle in crossing Jordan, as it is but an-inconsiderable now entering. They are to combat idolaters, who have stream, easily fordable, being but about twenty yards nothing to trust in and help them but gods of wood, in breadth. But the circunstance marked here by the stone, and metal : whereas they are to have the living sacred historian proves that there was a time in the God in the midst of them—He who is the author of year, viz., in the harvest, that this said river overflowed life and of being—who can give, or take it away, at its banks ; and this is confirmed by another place in his pleasure; and who by this miracle proved that Scripture, 1 Chron. xii. 15. As the miracle reported he had undertaken to guide and defend them : and here took place about the beginning of April, a time Joshua makes this manifestation of God the proof that in which rivers in general are less than in winter, it he will drive out the Hittites, Hivites, &c., before may be asked how there could be such an increase of them.

waters at this time? The simple fact is, that the JorWith regard to the situation of each of these na- dan, as we have already seen, has its origin at the foot tions in the land of Canaan, Calmet remarks, that those of Mount Lebanon, which mountain is always covered called CANAANITEs chiefly inhabited what is called Pha- with snow during the winter months; in those months nicia, the environs of Tyre and Sidon : the HITTITES therefore the river is low: but when the suminer's sun occupied the mountains, southward of the promised has melted these snows, there is consequently a proland : the Hivites dwelt by Ebal and Gerizim, Sichem digious increase of waters, so that the old channel is and Gibeon, towards the mountains of Hermon : the not capable of containing them ; this accounts for the PERIZZITES were probably not a distinct nation or tribe, statement in the text that the Jordan overfloweth his but rather villagers, scattered through the country in banks all the time of harvest; and this was the time general : the GirGASHITES possessed the country be- which God chose they should pass over it, that a miyond the Jordan, towards the lake of Gennesareth : raculous interposition might be necessary, and that by the JEBUSITES possessed Jerusalem : and the Amorites the miracle they should be convinced of his omnipooccupied the mountainous country in the vicinity of tence, who was not only their guide, but had promised the western part of the Dead Sea, and also that part to put them in possession of this good land. of the land of Moab which the Israelites conquered Verse 16. Rose up upon a heap] That is, they from Sihon and Og.

continued to accumulate, filling up the whole of the

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