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xiv. 31 Deut. i. 39. to be circumcised.

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The reason why Joshua

JOSHUA.

circumcised the Israelites. A. M. 2553,

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Egypt that were males, even all, he would give us, * a land that
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B. C. 1451. An. Exod. Isr. the men of war, died in the floweth with milk and honey. An. Exod. Isí. 40,

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wilderness by the way, after they 7. And their children, whom Anño ante I. Olymp. 675. came out of Egypt. he raised up in their stead, them

I. Olymp. 675. 5 Now all the people that came out were Joshua circumcised : for they were uncircumcircumcised: but all the people that were born cised, because they had not circumcised them in the wilderness by the way as they came by the way. forth out of Egypt, them they had not circum

8 And it came to pass,

m when they had done cised.

circumcising all the people, that they abode in
6 For the children of Israel walked h forty their places in the camp till they were whole.
years in the wilderness, till all the people that 9 And the LORD said unto Joshua, This
were men of war, which came out of Egypt, day have I rolled away • the reproach of Egypt
were consumed, because they obeyed not the from off you. Wherefore the name of the
voice of the LORD: unto whom the LORD place is called Gilgal 4 unto this day.
sware that i he would not show them the land 10. And the children of Israel encamped in
which the Lord sware unto their fathers that Gilgal, and kept the passover 'on the four-

h Num. xiv. 33 ; Deut. 1. 3 ; ii. 7, 14; Psa. xcv. 10. i Num. n See Gen. xxxiv. 25. Lo Gen. xxxiv. 14; I Sam. xiv. 6;
xiv. 23. Psa. xcv. 11 ; Heb. iii. 11., Lk Exod. jii. 8. - Num. see Lev. xviij. 3; chap. xxiv. 14; Ezek. xx. 7; xxni. 3, 8;
um Heb. when the people had made an end Mac. iv. 58. :-P That is, rolling. Chap. iv. 19,- Exod.

xii. 6; Num. ix. 5.
passover, which was the seal of that covenant. As bap- it was low and easily fordable, that he might have the
tism is generally understood to have succeeded to cir- better opportunity to show them that they were under
cumcision, and the holy eucharist #o the passover ; his immediate care and protection; and convince them
hence, in the Church of England, and probably in most of his almighty power, that they might trust in him for
others, no person is permitted to receive the sacra- ever, and not fear the force of any adversaries.
ment of the Lord's Supper till he has been baptized. both cases how apparent are the wisdom, power, and

Verse 8. They abodein the camp, till they were goodness of God! whole. This required several days; see the notes on Verse 9. The reproach of Egypt] Their being, Gen. xxxiv. Sir J. Chardin' informs us that when uncircumcised made them like the uncircumcised adults were circumcised they were obliged to keep Egyptians; and the Hebrews ever considered all those their beds for about three weeks, or at least during who were uncircumcised as being in a state of the that time they are not able to walk about but with great grossest impurity. Being now circumcised, the reproach difficulty. The account he had from several renega- of uncircumcision was rolled away. This is another does, who had received circumcision among the Mo- proof that the Israelites did not receive circumcision hammedans. Is it not strange that during this time from the Egyptians ; for they could not have considered they were not attacked by the inhabitants of the land, those in a state of abomination, from whom they reand utterly destroyed, which might have been easily ceived that rite by which they conceived themselves effected ? See the case of the poor Shechemites, as to be made pure. The Israelites had this rite from related in Gen. xxxiv., with the notes there. Joshua, Abraham; and Abraham had it from the express order as an able generał, would at once perceive that this of God himself, . See Gen. xvii. 10, and the note very measure must expose his whole host to the dan- there. ger of being totally annihilated ; but he knew that GOD The place is called Gilgal] A rolling away or could not err, and that it was-his. duty to obey ; there olling off. See the note on ehap. iv. 19, where the fore in the very teeth of his enemies he reduced the word is largely explained. major part of his army to a state of total helplessness, Verse 10. Kept the passover on the fourteenth day simply trusting for protection in the arm of Jehovah ! of the month] If the ceremony of circumcision was The sequel shows that his confidence was not misplaced; performed on the eleventh day of the month, as many during the whole time God did not permit any of their think; and if the sore was at the worst on the thirenemies to disturb them. The path of duty is the teenth, and the passover was celebrated on the fourpath of safety; and it is impossible for any soul to be teenth, the people being then quite recovered ; it must injured while walking in the path of obedience. But have been rather a miraculous than a natural healing, why did not God order them to be circumcised while We have already seen from the account of Sir. J. they were on the east side of Jordan in a state of Chardin, that it required about three weeks to restore great security? Because he chose to bring them into to soundness adults who had submitted to circumcision : straits and difficulties where no counsel or might but if any thing like this took place in the case of the Ishis own could infallibly direct and save them; and this raelites at Gilgal, they could not have celebrated the he did that they might see that the excellence of the passover on the third or fourth day after their circumpower was of God, and not of man. For the same cision. The apparent impossibility of this led Mr. reason he caused them to pass the Jordan at the time Harmer to suppose that they kept the passover on the that it overflowed its banks, and not at the time when fourteenth day of the second month, the preceding time

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a man

The captain of the Lord's

CHAP. V.

host appears to Joshua. A. M. 2553.

teenth day of the month at even, 13 And i: came to pass, when An. Exod. Isr.

in the plains of Jericho. Joshua was by Jericho, that he

11 And they did eat of the old lifted up his eyes and looked, 1. Olymp. 675. corn of the land on the morrow and, behold, there stood +

I. Olymp. 675. after the passover, unleavened cakes, and over against him, "with his sword drawn parched corn in the self-same day.

in his hand : and Joshua went unto him, and 12 And s the manna ceased on the morrow said unto him, Art thou for us, or for our after they had eaten of the old corn of the adversaries? land ; neither had the children of Israel manna 14. And he said, Nay; but as captain of any more ; but they did eat of the fruit of the host of the Lord am I now come. And the land of Canaan that year.

Joshua w fell on his face to the earth, and did

• Exod. xvi. 35. — Gen. xvii. 2; xxxii. 24; Exod. xxiii. 23; Or, prince ; see Exod. xxni. 20; Dan. x. 13, 21 ; xii. 1; Rev. Zech. i. 8; Acts i. 10.-_ Num. xxii. 23.

xii. 7 ; xix. 11, 14. —-W Gen. xvii. 3.

having been employed in the business of the circum- and the seventeenth, the manna ceased to fall from cision. See his Observations, vol. iv., p. 427, &c. "heaven. What supports this calculation is, that the

Verse 11. They did eat of the old corn of the land] | homer or sheaf was offered the sixteenth of Nisan, in The Hebrew word ny abur, which we translate old broad daylight, though pretty late. Now the manna corn, occurs only in this place in such a sense, if that did not fall till night, or very early in the morning ; sense be legitimate. The noun, though of doubtful so that it cannot be said to have ceased falling the signification, is evidently derived from ny abar, to same day that the Israelites began to eat of the propass over, to go beyond ; and here it may be translated duce of the country.”Dodd. simply the produce, that which passes from the land Verse 13.- When Joshua was by Jericho] The sixth into the hands of the cultivalor ; or according to Coc- chapter should have commenced here, as this is an enceius, what passes from person to person in the way tirely new relation; or these two chapters should have of traffic; hence bought corn, what they purchased made but one, as the present division has most unnatufrom the inhabitants of the land.

rally divided the communication which Joshua had On the morrow after the passover] That is, on the from the angel of the Lord, and which is continued to fifteenth day; for then the feast of unleavened bread ver. 5 of chap. vi.. It is very likely that Joshua had began. But they could neither eat bread, nor parched gone out privately to reconnoitre the city of Jericho corn, nor green ears, till the first-fruils of the harvest when he had this vision ; and while contemplating the had been waved at the tabernacle ; (see Lev. xxiii. 9, strength of the place, and probably reflecting on the &c.;) and therefore in this case we may suppose that extreme difficulty of reducing it, God, to encourage the Israelites had offered a sheaf of the barley-harvest, him, granted hi vision, and instructed him in the the only grain that was then ripe, before they ate of means by which the city should be taken. the unleavened cakes and parched corn.

There stood a man over against him] It has been Verse 12. And the manna ceased-after they had a very general. opinion, both among the ancients and eaten of the old corn} This miraculous supply con- moderns, that the person mentioned here was no other tinued with them as long as they 'needed it. While than the Lord Jesus in that form which, in the fulness they were in the wilderness they required such a pro- of time, he was actually to assume for the redemption vision ; nor could such a multitude, in such a place, of man. That the appearance was supernatural is be supported without a miracle. Now they are got agreed on all hands; and as the name Jehovah is given into the promised land, the anathematized inhabitants him, (chap. vi. 2,) and he received from Joshua of which either fall or flee before them, they find an Divine adoration, we may presume that no created old slock, and they are brought in just at the commence- angel is intended. ment of the harvest ; hence, as there is an ample pro And Joshua went unto him] This is a very natural vision made in the ordinary way of Providence, there relation, and carries with it all the appearances and is no longer any need of a miraculous supply; there characteristics of a simple relation of fact. The whole fore the manna ceased which they had enjoyed for forty history of Joshua shows him to have been a man of years. The circumstances in which it was first given, the most undaunted mind and intrepid courage-a its continuance with them through all their peregrina- | genuine hero. An ordinary person, seeing this man tions in the wilderness, its accompanying them over armed, with a drawn sword in his hand, would have Jordan, and ceasing as soon as they got a supply in endeavoured to have regained the camp, and sought the ordinary way of Providence, all prove that it was safety in flight; but Joshua, undismayed, though proa preternatural gift.

bably slightly armed, walks up to this terrible person “ On the fourteenth of Nisan they sacrificed the and immediately questions him, Art thou for us or for paschal lamb : on the fifteenth, i. e., according to our our adversaries ? probably at first supposing that he calculation, the same day after sunset, they disposed might be the Canaanitish general, coming to reconthemselves for eating it, and actually did eat it. On noitre the Israelitish camp, as himself was come out to the morrow, the sixteenth, after having offered to God examine the city of Jericho. the homer, they began eating the corn of the country; I, Verse 14. But as captain of the host of the Lord am

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The captain of the Lord's

JOSHUA.

host instructs Joshua, worship, and said unto him, LORD's host said unto Joshua, An. Exod. Isr. What saith my lord unto his - Loose thy shoe from off thy foot; An. Exod. Isr. servant ?

for the place whereon thou standI. Olymp. 675. 15 And the captain of the est is holy. And Joshua did so.

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» Exod. iji. 5; | Acts vii. 33.

I now come.] By this saying Joshua was both en- zled to know what was intended by this extraordinary couraged and instructed. As if he had said, “Fear appearance, because they supposed that the whole bunot ; Jehovah hath sent from heaven to save thee and siness ends with the chapter, whereas, it is continued thy people from the reproach of them that would swal- in the succeeding one, the first verse of which is a low thee up.

Israel is the Lord's host; and the Lord mere parenthesis, simply relating the state of Jericho of hosts is Israel's Captain. Thou thyself shalt only at the time that Joshua was favoured by this encoube captain under me, and I am now about to instruct raging vision. We may draw two useful reflections thee relative to thy conduct in this war."

from the subjects of this chapter And Joshua-did worship] Nor was he repre 1. As the manna had now failed, the people, always hended for offering Divine worship to this person, greatly addicted to incredulity, might have been led to which he would not have received had he been a cre- imagine that God had now given them up, and would aled angel. See Rev. xxii. 8, 9..

be no longer in their armies, had he not given them Verse 15. Loose thy shoe from off thy food, fc.] this strong assurance, that the Angel of his presence These were the same words which the angel, on should be with them as the guide and protector of the Mount Sinai, spoke to Moses ; (see Exod. iii. 5–8;) and whole camp; for Joshua undoubtedly informed them from this it seems likely that it was the same person of the encouragement he had received from the capthat appeared in both places : in the first, to encourage tain of the Lord's host. Moses to deliver the oppressed Israelites, and bring 2. By this vision he showed them that their help them to the promised land ; in the second, to encou came from himself, and that it was not by human might rage Joshua in his arduous labour in expelling the an- or power, but by the Lord of hosts, they were to have cient inhabitants, and establishing the people in the the victory over all their adversaries ; and he gave inheritance promised to their fathers.

them the most convincing proof of this in the miracu

lous destruction of Jericho. By this means he conThere is scarcely a more unfortunate division of tinued to keep them dependent on his arm alone, withchapters in the whole Bible than that here. Through out which dependence the spirit of religion could not this very circumstance many persons have been puz- ) have been preserved among them.

CHAPTER VI. The inhabitants of Jericho close their gates, 1. Continuation of the discourse between the captain of the

Lord's host and Joshua. He commands the people to march round the city six days, the seven priests blowing with their trumpets ; and to give a general shout, while marching round it on the seventh, and promises that then the walls of the city shall fall down, 2-5. Joshua delivers these directions to the priests and to the people, 6, 7. The priests and people obey ; the order of their procession, 8–16. He commands them to spare the house of Rahab, 17, and not to touch any part of the property of the city, the whole of which God had devoted to destruction, 18, 19. On the seventh day the walls fall down, and the Israel. ites take the city, 20, 21. The spies are ordered to take care of Rahab and her familythe city is burnt, but the silver, gold, brass, and iron, are put into the treasury of the house of the Lord, 22–24. Rahab dwells among the Israelites, 25; and the city is laid under a curse, 26. 8: M. 253. NOW Jericho

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dren of Israel : none went out, hand Jericho, and the C king there1. Olymp. 675. and none came in.

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of, and the mighty men of valour. a Heb. did shut up, and was shut up.

Chap. ii. 9, 24 ; viii. 1.

.-e Deut. vii. 24. NOTES ON CHAP. VI.

Verse 2. And the Lord said unto Joshua) This is Verse 1. Now Jericho was straitly shut up] The the same person who in the preceding chapter is called king of Jericho, finding that the spies had escaped, the captain or prince of the Lord's host, the discourse though the city was always kept shut by night, took being here continued that was begun at the conclusion the most proper precaution to prevent every thing of of the preceding chapter, from which the first verses the kind in future, by keeping the city shut both day of this are unnaturally divided. and night, having, no doubt, laid in a sufficiency of I have given into thine hand Jericho, fc.] From provisions to stand a siege, being determined to defend ver. 11 of chap. xxiv. it seems as if there had been himself to the uttermost.

persons of all the seven Canaanitish nations then in

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Joshua is commanded to

CHAP. VI.

compass Jericho seven days. A. M. 2553.

3 And ye shall compass the city, bearing the seven trumpets of 'A M. 2553. B. C. 1451. An. Exod Isr. all ye men of war, and go round rams' horns passed on before An. Exod. Isr.

about the city once. Thus the LORD, and blew with the & Olymp. 675, shalt thou do six days.

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trumpets : and the ark of the 4 And seven priests shall bear before the covenant of the Lord followed them. ark seven d trumpets of rains' horns : and the 9 And the armed men went before the priests seventh day ye shall compass the eity seven that blew with the trumpets, 8 and the h times, and the priests shall blow with the ward came after the ark, the priests going on, trumpets.

rere

and blowing with the trumpets. 5 And it shall come to pass, that when they 10 And Joshua had commanded the people, make a long blast with the ram's horn, and saying, Ye shall not shout, nor i make any when ye hear the sound of the trumpet, all noise with your voice, neither shall any word the people shall shout with a great shout; and proceed out of your mouth, until the day I bid the wall of the city shall fall down ! flat, and you shout; then shall ye shout. the people shall ascend up, every man'straight | 11 So the ark of the LORD compassed the before him.

city, going about it once : and they came into 6 And Joshua the son of Nun called the the camp, and lodged in the camp. priests, and said unto ibem, Take up the ark 12 And Joshua rose early in the morning, of the covenant, and let seven priests bear and the priests took up the ark of the LORD. seven trumpets of rams' horns before the ark 13 And seven priests bearing seven trumof the LORD.

pets of rams' horns before the ark of the LORD, 7 And he said unto the people, Pass 'on, and went on continually, and blew with the trumcompass the city, and let him that is armed pets : and the armed men went before them; pass on before the ark of the Lord.

but the rereward came after the ark of the 8 And it came to pass, when Joshua had LORD, the priests going on, and blowing with spoken unto the people, that the seven priests the trumpets. & See Judy. vi. 16, 22. Num. X. 8.

b Heb. gathering host. -i Heb. make your voice to be heard.

Heb. under it.

& Num. X. 25.

k Deut. xxxi. 25.

Jericho, who might have come together at this time to Verse 5. The wall of the city shall fall down flat] help the king of Jericho against the invading Israel. Several commentators, both Jews and Christians, have ites. The Targum intimates that the place was very supposed that the ground under the foundation of the strong, having a gates of iron and bars of brass; and walls opened, and the wall sunk into the chasm, so that was shat up so closely that none came out, either to there remained nothing but plain ground for the Israelcombat or make offers of peace.”

ites to walk over. of this the text says nothing : Verse 3. Ye shall compass the city). In what order anno Tyn niin ahdi venaphelah chomath hair tachthe people marched round the city does not exactly teyha, literally translated, is, The wall of the city shall appear from the text. Some think they observed the fall down uŅDER ITSELF; which appears to mean no same order as in their ordinary marches in the desert; more than, The wall shall fall down from ITS VERY (see the note on Num. X. 14, and see the plans, Num. FOUNDATIONS. And this probably was the case in every ü. ;) others think that the soldiers marched firs then part, though large breaches in different places might be the priests who blew the trumpets, then those who car- amply sufficient to admit the armed men first, after whom ried the ark, and lastly the people.

the whole. host might enter, in order to destroy the city. Verse 4. Seven trumpels of rams' horns] The Verse 9. The rereward came after the ark] The Hebrew word d'baryobelim does not signify rams' word 9089 measseph, from 90x asaph, to collect or horns; (see the note on Lev. xxv. 11;) nor do any of the gather up, may signify either the rereward, as our ancient versions, the Chaldee excepted, give it this translation understands it, or the people who carried meaning. The instruments used on this occasion were the baggage of the army; for on the seventh day this evidently of the same kind with those used on the ju- was necessary, as much fighting might be naturally bileé, añd were probably made of horn or of silver; expected in the assault, and they would need a supply and the text in this place may be translated, And seven of arms, darts, &c., as well as conveniences for those priests shall bear before the ark the seven jubilee trum- who might happen to be wounded : or the persons here pels, for they appear to have been the same kind as intended might be such as carried the sacred articles those used on the jubilee.

belonging to the ark, or merely such people as might Seven times) The time was thus lengthened out follow in the procession, without observing any parthat the besiegers and the besieged might be the more ticular order. The Jews think the division of Dan deeply impressed with that supernatural power by which is meant, which always brought up the rear. See alone the walls fell.

Num. x.

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On the seventh day the

JOSHUA.

walls of Jericho fall down. 14 And the second day they| 18 And ye, rin any wise An. Exod. Isr. compassed the city once, and keep yourselves from the ac An. Exod. Isr.

Anno ante returned into the camp: so they cursed thing, lest ye make your-
J Olymp. 675. did six days.

selves accursed, when ye take of 1. Olymp. 675. 15 And it came to pass on the seventh day, the accursed thing, and make the camp

of that they rose early about the dawning of the Israel a curse, ° and trouble it. day, and compassed the city after the same 19 But-all the silver, and gold, and vessels manner seven times : only on that day they of brass and iron, are P consecrated unto the compassed the city seven times.

LORD: they shall come into the treasury of 16 And it came to pass at the seventh time, the Lord. when the priests blew with the trumpets, 20 So the people shouted when the priests Joshua said unto the people, Shout; for the blew with the trumpets : and it came to pass, LORD hath given you the city.

when the people heard the sound of the trum17 And the city shall be laccursed, even it, pet, and the people shouted with a great shout, and all that are therein, to the Lord: only that the wall fell down flat, so that the peoRahab the harlot shall live, she and all that ple went up into the city, every man straight are with her in the house, because mshe hid before him, and they took the city. the messengers that we sent.

21 And they s utterly destroyed all that was 1 Or, devoted, Lev. xxvii. 28; Mic. iv. 13.- Chap. ii. 4.1 Kings xviii. 17, 18; Jonah i. 12. -P Heb. holiness. Deut. vii. 26; xiii. 17; chap. vii. 1, 11, 12. Chap. vii. 25; 5; Heb. xi. 30.--Heb. under it. - Deut. vii. 2.

Verse 14. So they did six days:] It is not likely commanded the Sabbath to be set apart for rest and that the whole Israelitish host went each day round religious purposes, has always authority to suspend for the city.

This would have been utterly impossible : a season the operation of merely ceremonial laws, or the fighting men alone amounted to nearly 600,000, to abrogate them entirely, when the purpose of their independently of the people, who must have amounted institution is fulfilled. The Son of man is Lord even at least to two or three millions; we may therefore of the Sabbath. safely assert that only a select number, such as was Verse 17. The city shall be accursed] That is, it deemed nécessary for the occasion, were employed: shall be devoted to destruction; ye shall take no spoils, Jericho could not have been a large city; and to re- and put all that resist to the sword. Though this may duce it could not have required a hundredth part of the be the meaning of the word onn cherem in some places, armed force under the command of Joshua.

see the note on Lev. xxvii. 29, yet here it seems to Verse 15. The seventh daythey rose early] · Be- imply the total destruction of all the inhabitants, see cause on this day they had to encompass the city seven ver. 21 ; but it is likely that peace was offered to this times ; a proof that the city could not have been very city, and that the extermination of the inhabitants was extensive, else this going round it seven times, and in consequence of the rejection of this offer. having time sufficient left to sack and destroy it, would Verse 19. But all the silver, and gold-shall come have been impossible.

into the treasury] The Brahmins will receive from It is evident that in the course of these seven days any caste, however degraded, gold, silver, &c. ; but to there must have been a Sabbath, and that on this Sab- receive from Shoodras- food, garments, &c., would be bath the host must have encompassed the city as on considered a great degradation:—Ward. the other days : the Jews themselves allow this, and Verse 20. The people shouted with a great shout, Rab. De Kimchi says, “He who had ordained the ob- that the wall fell down] There has been much learned servance of the Sabbath commanded it to be broken labour spent to prove that the shouting of the people for the destruction of Jericho.” But it does not ap- might be the natural cause that the wall fell down ! pear that there could be any breach in the Sabbath by To wait here, either to detail or refute any such arguthe people simply going round the city, the ark in comments, would be lost time : enough of them may be pany, and the priests sounding the sacred trumpets. seen in Scheuchzer. The whole relation evidently This was a mere religious procession, performed at supposes it to have been a supernatural interference, the command of God, in which no servile work was as the blowing of the trumpets, and the shouting of done. Therefore Marcion's objection, that the God the people, were too contemptible to be used even as of the Hebrews showed a changeableness of disposi- instruments in this work, with the expectation of action in commanding the Sabbath to be kept sacred at complishing it in a natural way. one time, and then to be broken at another, is without Verse 21. They utterly destroyed both man, and foundation ; for I must contend that no breach took woman, fc.). As this act was ordered by God himself, place on this occasion, unless it could be made to ap- who is the Maker and Judge of all men, it must be pear that the day on which Jericho was taken was the right : for the Judge of all the earth cannot do wrong. Sabbath, which is very unlikely, and which none can Nothing that breathed was permitted to live; bence prove. But if even this were to be conceded, it is a the oxen, sheep, and asses, were destroyed, as well as sufficient answer to all such cavils, that the God who the inhabitants.

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