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Samuel is sent


to anoint David,


A. M. 2925.

A. M. 2925. 29 And also the Strength of said, Surely the bitterness of death B. C. 1079.

B. C. 1079. An Exod. Isr. Israel I will not lie nor repent; for is past.

An. Exod. Isr.

412. Anno ante he is not a man, that he should 33 And Samuel said, " As thy Anno ante I. Olymp. 303. repent. sword hath made women childless,

I. Olymp. 303. 30 Then he said, I have sinned: yet m honour şo shall thy mother be childless among women. me now, I pray thee, before the elders of my And Samuel hewed Agag in pieces before the people, and before Israel, and turn again with Lord in Gilgal. me, that I may worship the Lord thy God. 34 Then Samuel went to Ramah ; and Saul

31 So Samuel turned again after Saul; and went up to his house to Gibeah of Saul. Saul worshipped the Lord.

35. And P Samuel came no more to see Saul 32 Then said Samuel, Bring ye hither to until the day of his death : nevertheless Samme Agag the king of the Amalekites.' And uel. 9 mourned for Saul : and the LORD 'reAgag came unto him delicately. And Agag pented that he had made Saul king over Israel.

* Or, eternity, or victory. Num. xxiv. 19; Ezek. xxiv. 14; 1 xvii. 11; Num. xiv. 45 ; see Judg. i. 7.- Ch. xi. 1.- See 2 Tim. ii. 13; Tit. i. 2. John v. 44 ; xii. 43.- Exodus chap. xix, 24.-9 Ver. 11; chap. xvi. 1. Ver. 11.

Verse 29. The Strength of Israel will not lie) What It appears that Agag had forfeited his life by his own God has purposed he will bring to pass, for he has all personal transgressions, and that his death now was power in the heavens and in the earth ; and he will not the retribution of his cruelties. repent—change his purpose-concerning thee. - And Samuel hewed Agag in pieces] 1. What Samuel

We may say it was some extenuation of Saul's fault did here he did in his magisterial capacity; and, 2. It that the people insisted on preserving the best of the is not likely he did it by his own sword, but by that of prey ; for who could resist the demands of a victorious an executioner. What kings, magistrates, and geņemob? But his crime was in consenting; had he not, rals do, in an official way, by their subjects, servants, the crime would have been theirs alone.

or soldiers, they are said to do themselves ; qui facit Verse 32. Agag came unto him delicately.] The per alterum, facit per se. Septuagint have tpeuwv, trembling ; the original, niyə Verse 35. And Samuel came no more to see Saul] maadannoth, delicacies ; probably V'X ish, man, under- But we read, chap. xix. 22–24, that Saul went to stood; a man of delights, a pleasure-laker: the Vulgate, see Samuel at Naioth, but this does not affect what is pinguissimus et tremens, very fat and trembling." said here. From this time Samuel had no connection

Surely the bitterness of death is past.) Almost all with Saul; he never more acknowledged him as king; the versions render this differently from ours. Surely he mourned and prayed for him, and continued to per. death is bitter, is their general sense ; and this seems form his prophetịc functions at Ramah, and at Naioth, to be the true meaning.

superintending the school of the prophets in that Verse 33. As thy sword hath made women childless] place.


CHAPTER XVI. Samuel is sent from Ramah to Beth-lehem, to anoint David, 1-13. The Spirit of the Lord departs from

Saul, and an evil spirit comes upon him, 14. His servants exhort him to get a skilful harper to play before him, 15, 16. He is pleased with the counsel, and desires them to find such a person, 17. They recommend David, 18. . He is sent for, comés, plays before Saul, and finds favour in his sight, 19–23. A. M. 2941.

A. M. 2941. B. C. 1063.

ND ihe Lord said unto Sam- send thee to Jesse the Beth-lehem-

B. C. 1063 An. Erod. Isr. uel, a How long wilt thou ite : for • I have provided me a An. Exod. Isr.

. Anno ante mourn for Saul, seeing b I have king among his sons.

Anno ante I. Olymp. 287. rejected him from reigning over 2 And Samuel said, How can

I. Olymp. 287. Israel ? « fill thine horn with oil, and go, I will í go? if Saul hear it, he will kill me. And Chap. xv. 35.-_ Chap. xv. - Chap. ix. 16; 2 Kings ix. 1. d Psa. lxxviii. 70; lxxxix. 19, 20; Acts xiii. 22. NOTES ON CHAP. XVI,

purpose of consecrating a king over Israel from among Verse 1. Fill thine horn with oil] Horns appear to the sons of Jesse. have been the ancient drinking vessels of all nations ; Verse 2. Take a heifer with thee, and say, and we may suppose that most persons who had to come to sacrifice] This was strictly true ; Samuel did travel much, always carried one with them, for the offer a sacrifice; and it does not appear that he could purpose of taking up water from the fountains to quench have done the work which God designed, unless he their thirst. Such a horn had Samuel; and on this had offered this sacrifice, and called the elders of the occasion he was commanded to fill it with oil, for the people together, and thus collected Jesse's sons. But Vol. II. ( 17 )



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428. Anno ante

Samuel comes to Bethlehem,


amd anoints David. the LORD said, Take a heifer 8 Then Jesse called "Abinadab,

A. M. 2911. An. Exod. Isr. e with thee, and say, 'I am come and made him pass before Sam An. Exod. Isr. Anno ante to sacrifice to the LORD.

uel. And he said, Neither hath 1. Olymp. 287. 3 And call Jesse to the sacrifice, the LORD chosen this.

1. Olymp. 287. and 5 I will show thee what thou shalt do: and 9 Then Jesse made Shammah w to pass by. h thou shalt anoint unto me him whom I name And he said, Neither hath the Lord chosen this. unto thee.

10 Again, Jesse made seven of his sons to 4 And Samuel did that which the LORD pass before Samuel. And Samuel said unto spake, and came to Beth-lehem. And the Jesse, The Lord hath not chosen these. elders of the town i trembled at his & coming, 11 And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all and said, 'Comest thou peaceably?

thy children? And he said, - There remaineth 5 And he said, Peaceably: I am come to yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sacrifice unto the LORD: msanctify yourselves, sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and come with me to the sacrifice. And he and fetch him : for we will not sit z down till sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called them he come hither. to the sacrifice.

12 And he sent, and brought him in. Now 6 And it came to pass, when they were come, he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful that he looked on " Eliab, and · said, Surely countenance, and goodly to look to. And the the Lord's anointed is before him.

LORD said, Arise, anoint him for this is he. 7 But the Lord said unto Samuel, Look not 13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and on ” his countenance, or on the height of his 4 anointed him in the midst of his brethren: stature ; 'because I have refused him : 9 for the and e the Spirit of the Lord came upon David LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man from that day forward.

So Samuel rose up, I looketh on the soutward appearance, but the and went to Ramah. Lord looketh on the heart.

14 But the Spirit of the Lord departed e Heb. in thine hand, - Chap. ix. 12 ; xx. 29.-- Exod. iv. u Chap. xvi, 13.-~* Chap. xvii. 13. -# Shimeah, 2 Sam.

-- Chap. ix. 16. Li Chap. xxi. 1. Lk Hebrew, meeting. xiii. 3; Shimma, 1 Chron. ii. 13. — – Chap. xvi 12._y 2 Sum. 11 Kings ii. 13; 2 Kings ix. 22. - Exod. xix. 10, 14. un Ch. vii. 8: Psa. lxxviii. 70.- Heb. round. Chap. xvii. 42; xvii. 13; called Elihu, i Chron. xxvii, 18. Lol Kings xii. 26. Cant. v. 10 — Heb. fair of eyes. - So chap. ix 17.P Psa. cxlvii. 10, II.-->]sa. Iv. 8.—2 Cor. x. 7.--Heb. x. l; Psa. lxxxix. 20. See Num. xxvii. 18 ; Judg. xi. 29;

- I Kings viii. 39; 1 Chron. xxviii. 9 ; Psa. vii, 9 ; Jer. , xiii. 25; xiv. 6; chap. x. 6, 10. - Chap. xi. 6; xviii. 12; xi. 20 ; xvii. 10 ; xx. 12; Acts i. 24.

axviii. 15; Judy. xvi. 20; Psa. li. 11.. he did not tell the principal design of his coming ; had In what way were these communications made from he done so, it would have produced evil and no good : God to Samuel ? It must have been by direct inspiraand though no man, in any circumstances, should ever tions into his heart. But what a state of holy familiarity tell a lie, yet in all circumstances he is not obliged to does this argue between God and the prophet! I betell the whole truth, though in every circumstance he lieve Moses himself was not more highly favoured than must tell nothing but the truth, and in every case so Samuel. tell the truth that the bearer shall not believe a lie by it. Verse 10. Seven of his sons) This certainly was

Verse 3. Call Jesse to the sacrifice] The common not done publicly; Samuel, Jesse, and his children, custom was, after the blood of the victim had been must have been in a private apartment, previously to poured out to God, and the fat burnt, to feast on the the public feast on the sacrifice; for Samuel says, ver. flesh of the sacrifice. This appears to have been the 11, We will not sit down till he (David) come. case in all, except in the whole burnt-offering ; this Verse 12. He was ruddy) I believe the word here was entirely consumed.

means red-haired, he had golden locks. Hair of this Verse 4. The elders of the town trembled at his kind is ever associated with a delicate skin and florid coming] They knew he was a prophet of the Lord, complexion. and they were afraid that he was now come to de Verse 13. The Spirit of the Lord came upon David] nounce some judgments of the Most High against their God qualified him to be governor of his people, by incity.

fusing such graces as wisdom, prudence, counsel, couVerse 5. Sanctify yourselves] Change your clothes, rage, liberality, and magnanimity. and wash your bodies in pure water, and prepare your Verse 14. The Spirit of the Lord departed from minds by meditation, reflection, and prayer; that, being Saul] He was thrown into such a state of mind by in the spirit of sacrifice, ye may offer acceptably to the the judgments of God, as to be deprived of any regal Lord.

qualities which he before possessed. God seems to Verse 7. Man looketh on the outward appearance] have taken what gifts he had, and given them to DaAnd it is well he should, and confine his looks to that; vid; and then the evil spirit came upon Saul; for what for when he pretends to sound the heart, he usurps the God fills not, the devil will. prerogative of God.

An evil spirit from the Lord] The evil spirit was b 258

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An evil spirit troubles Saul.

CHAP. XVI. He desires David to be brought A M. 2941.

A. M. 2941. from Saul, and an evil spirit said, Behold, I have seen a son B. C. 1063

B. C. 1063. An. Exod. Isr. from the LORD troubled him. of Jesse the Beth-lehemite that An. Exod. Isr.

15 And Saul's servants, said is cunning in playing, and la 1. Olymp. 287.

I. Olymp. 287. unto him, Behold now, an evil mighty valiant man, and a man spirit from God troubleth thee.

of war, and prudent in m matters, and a comely 16 Let our lord now command thy servants, person, and the Lord is with him. which are i before thee, to seek out.a-man, 19 Wherefore Saul sent messengers unto who is a cunning player on a harp: and it Jesse, and said, Send me David thy son, 'which shall come to pass, when the evil spirit from is with the sheep. God is upon thee, that he shall play with his 20 And Jesse P took an ass laden with bread, hand, and thou shalt be well.

and a bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them 17 And Saul said unto his servants, Provide by David his son unto Saul. me now a man thạt can play well, and bring 21 And David came to Saul, and I stood behim to me.

fore him: and he loved him greatly ; and he 18 Then answered one of the servants, and became his armour-bearer. & Judg. ir. 23; chap. xviii. 10; xix. 9. - Or, terrified. Chap. iii. 19; xviii. 12, 14. Ver. 11 ; chap. xvii. 15, 34. i Gen. xli. 46 ; ver. 21, 22; 1 Kings x. 8. k Ver. 23; 2 Kings PSee chap. x. 27 ; xvii. 18; Gen. xliii. 11; Prov. xviii. 16. 1.15.-Chrap. xvii. 32, 34, 35, 36.

_m Or, speech.

4 Gen. xli. 46; 1 Kings x. 8; Prov. xxii. 29. either immediately sent from the Lord, or permitted to self affected by the music. The musician ceased, and come. Whether this was a diabolic possession, or a mere the lion returned to his food; he recommenced, and the mental malady, the learned are not agreed; it seems lion left off his prey, and was so affected as to seem by to have partaken of both. That Saul had fallen into his motions to dance with delight. This was repeatedly a deep melancholy, there is little doubt; that the devil' tried, and the effects were still the same. might work more effectually on such a state of mind, Verse 18. I have seen a son of Jesse) Dr. Warthere can be but little question. There is an old pro- burlon supposes the story is anticipated from ver. 14 verb, Satan delights to fish in troubled waters; and to 23, and that the true chronology of this part of Saul's situation of mind gave him many advantages. David's life is the following :- 1. David is anointed

The theory of Dr. Scheuchzer, in his Physica Sacra, by Samuel ; 2. Carries provisions to his brethren in on the malady of Saul, is allowed to be very ingenious. the army ; 3. Fights with and kills Goliath ; 4. Is It is in substance as follows: Health consists in a received into the king's court; 5. Contracts a friendmoderate tension of the fibres, which permits all the ship with Jonathan; 6. Incurs Saul's jealousy ; 7. Refluids to have an entire freedom of circulation, and to tires to his father's house ; 8. Is after some time sent the spirits, that of diffusing themselves through all the for by Saul to sooth his melancholy with his harp; 9. limbs; on the contrary, disease consists in tensions of Again excites Saul's jealousy, who endeavours to smite the fibres morbidly weak or morbidly strong. : This him with his javelin. *This anticipation between the latter seems to have been the case of Saul; and as the 14th and 23d verse comes in, in the order of time, beundulations of the air which convey sound communicate tween verses 9 and 10 of chap. xviii., where the breach themselves to and through the most solid bodies, it is , is apparent. easy to suppose that by the modulations of music all Verse 20. Took an ass laden with bread] He must the fibres of his body, which were under the influence send a present to Saul to introduce his son, and this of their morbidly increased tension, might be so re- was probably the best he had. Dr. Warburton pleads laxed as to be brought back into their natural state, still farther on the propriety of his rectification of the and thus permit the re-establishment of a free and gen-chronology in this place. David had at this time vantle circulation of the fluids, and consequently of the quished the Philistine, was become a favourite with the animal spirits, and thus induce calmness and tranquil- people, had excited Saul's jealousy, and retired to shun lity of mind. I believe this theory to be correct, and its bad effects. In the interim Saul was seized with I should find no difficulty to amplify and to illustrate the disorder in question, and is recommended by his the subject. Even a skilful playing upon the harp was servants to try the effects of music. They were acone means to bring a disordered state of the nervous quainted with David's skill on the harp, and likewise and fibrous system into a capacity of affording such with Saul's bad disposition towards him; the point was uninterrupted tranquillity to the mind as to render it delicate, it required to be managed with address, and capable of receiving the prophetic influence; see the therefore they recommend David in this artful manner : case of Elisha, 2 Kings iii. 14, 15. It has been said — “ As you must have one constantly in attendance, both

in court and on your military expeditions, to be always “ Music hath charms to sooth the savage breast.”

at hand on occasion, the son of Jesse will become both This has been literally proved : a musician was brought stations well; he will strengthen your camp and adorn to play on his instrument while they were feeding a your court, for he is a tried soldier and of a graceful savage lion in the tower of London ; the beast imme- presence. You have nothing to fear from his ambidiately left his food, came towards the grating of his lion, for you saw with what prudence he went into volun. den, and began to move in such a way as to show him-tary banishment when his popularity had incurred your

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The Philistines prepare to


make war on the Israelites, A. M. 294). 22 And Saul sent to Jesse, spirit from God was upon Saul,

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An. Exod. Isr. saying, Let David, I pray thee, that David took a harp, and An. Exod. Ist.

Anno ante stand before me; for he hath played with his hand : so Saul Anno ante
1. Olymp. 287. found favour in my sight.

was refreshed, and was well, and 1. Olymp. 287. 23 And it came to pass, when the evil the evil spirit departed from him.

ri Samuel, chap. xvi. 14, 16. displeasure.” Accordingly Saul is prevailed on, David have avevjua Tovnpov, the evil spirit. The Targum is sent for, and succeeds with his music ; this dissipates says, The evil spirit from before the Lord ; and the all former umbrage, and, as one who is ever to be in Arabic has it, The evil spirit by the permission of God: attendance, he is made Saul's armour-bearer. This this is at least the sense. sunshine still continued till his great successes awaken And the evil spirit departed from him.] The Tared Saul's jealousy afresh, and then the lifted javelin gum says, And the evil spirit descended up from off was to strike off all obligations. Thus we see what him. This considers the malady of Saul to be more light is thrown upon the whole history by the supposi- than a natural disease. tion of an anticipation in the latter part of this chapter; an anticipation the most natural, proper, and There are several diffieulties in this chapter; those necessary, for the purpose of the historian. Thus rea of the chronology are pretty well cleared, in the sons Bishop Warburton, and with very considerable opinion of some, by the observations of Bishop War, plausibility, though the intelligent reader may still havę burton; but there is still something more to be done his doubts.

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to make this point entirely satisfactory. Saul's evil Verse 23. The evil spirit from God] The word spirit, and the influence of music upon it, are not easily evil is not in the common Hebrew text, but it is in the accounted for. I have considered his malady to be Vulgate, Septuagint, Targum, Syriac, and Arabic, of a mixed kind, natural and diabolical ; there is too and in eight of Kennicoti's and De Rossi's MSS., much of apparent nature in it to permit us to believe which present the text thus': gyn onbe nin ruach it was all spiritual, and there is too much of apparent Elohim raah, spiritus Domini malus, the evil spirit of supernatural influence to suffer us to believe that it God. The Septuagint leave out Osov, of God, and I was all natural.


The Philistines gather together against Israel at Ephes-dammim, and Saul and his men pilch their camp near

the valley of Elah, 1-3. Goliath of Gath, a gigantic man, whose height was six cubits and a span, defies the armies of Israel, and proposes to end all contests by single combat ; his armour is described, 4-11. Saul and his host are greatly dismayed, 12. David, having been sent by his father with provisions to his brethren in the army, hears the challenge, inquires into the circumstances, thinks it a reproach to Israel that no man can be found to accept the challenge, is brought before Saul, and proposes to undertake the combat, 13-32. Saul objects to his youth and inexperience, 33. David shows the grounds on which he undertakes it, 34-37. Saul-arms him with his own armour ; but David, finding them an encumbrance, puts them off, and takes his staff, his sling, and five stones out of the brook, and goes to meet Goliath, 38–40. The Philistine draws near, despises, defies; and curses him, 41–44. Darid retorts his defiance, 45-47. They draw near to each other, and David slings a stone, hits Goliath in the forehead, slays him, and cuts off his head with his own sword, 48–51. The Philistines flee, and are pursued by the Israelites, 52, 53. David brings the head of the Philistine to Jerusalem, 54. Conversation between Saul and Abner concerning David, who is in consequence brought before Saul, 55–58. A. M. 2941.

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NOW the Philistines gathered Judah, and pitched between Sho

together their armies to battle, choh and Azekah, in Ephes- An. Exod. Isr.

and were gathered together at dammim. 1. Olymp. 287. Shochoh, which belongeth to 2 And Saul and the men of 1. Olymp. 287. a Chap. xiii. 5. _ Josh. xv. 35; 2 Chron. xxviii. 18. c Or, the coast of Dammim; called Pas-dammim, 1 Chron. xi. 13. NOTES ON CHAP. XVII.

south of Jerusalem and to the west of Beth-lehem; Verse 1. Now the Philistines gathered together) about five leagues from the former.

Ephes-dammim Calmet thinks that this war happened eight years after was somewhere in the vicinity, but it is not known the anointing of David, and ten or twelve years after where. See Calmet. the war with the Amalekites. We have already seen Verse 2. The valley of Elah] Some translate this that there was war between Saul and the Philistines the turpentine valley, or the valley of the terebinth all his days. See chap. xiv. 52.

trees; and others, the valley of oaks. Shochoh and Azekah] Places which lay to the l of this valley is well known.

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428. Anno ante

42e. Anno ante

The situation

A description of Goliath

and his armour. A. M. 2941. Israel were gathered together,camp of the Philistines, named

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B. C. 1063. An. Exod. Isr. and pitched by the valley of Elah, Goliath, of 'Gath, whose height An. Exod. Isr. 428.

428. Anno ante and d set the battle in array was six cubits and a span.

Anno ante 1. Olymp. 287. against the Philistines.

5 And he had a helmet of I. Olymp. 287. 3 And the Philistines stood on a mountain brass upon his head, and he was 5 armed with on the one side, and Israel stood on a moun- a coat of mail ; and the weight of the coat tain on the other side : and there was a valley was five thousand shekels of brass. between them.

6 And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, 4 And there went out a champion out of the and a h target of brass between his shoulders. Heb. ranged the battle.- 2 Sam. xxi. 19.

Josh. xi. 22. - Heb. clothed.-h Or, gorget. Verse 3. The Philistines stood on a mountain) gate and others, he was ten feel seven inches and a These were two eminences or hills, from which they half ; if we take the last, which is the estimate of could see and talk with each other.

Grævius, with the span, he was eleven feet three inches; Verse 4. There went out a champion) Our word or if we go to the exactest measurement, as laid down champion comes from campus, the field ; Campio est in Bishop Cumberland's tables, where he computes the enim ille qui pugnat in campo, hoc est, in castris, cubit at 21.888 inches, the span at 10:944 inches, and “ Champion is he, properly, who fights in the field ; 4 the palm at 3.684 inches, then the six cubits and the i. e., in camps.” A man well skilled in arms, strong, span will make exactly 11 feet 10.272 inches. If brave, and patriotic.

we take the palm instead of the span, then the height But is this the meaning of the original D'dan V*X will be 11 feet 3-012 inches. But I still think that ish habbenayim, à middle man, the man between two; the nine feet nine inches is the most reasonable. that is, as here, the man who undertakes to settle the

· Verse 5. He was armed with a coat of mail] The disputes between two armies or nations. So our an- words in the original, d'vpup.pino shiryon kaskassim, cient champions settled disputes between contending mean a coat of mail formed of plates of brass overlapparties by what was termed camp fight; hence the ping each other, like the scales of a fish, or tiles of a campio or champion. The versions know not well house. This is the true notion of the original terms. what to make of this man. The Vulgate calls him vir

With thin plates of brass or iron, overlapping each spurius, “a bastard;" the Septuagint, avnp duvaras, other, were the ancient coats of mail formed in differ"a strong or powerful man ;"' the Targum, x731ent countries; many formed in this way may be now 11793'30 gabra mibbeyneyhon, " a man from between seen in the tower of London. them;" the Arabic, ja daj rujil jibar; “ a great The weight-five thousand shekels] Following or gigantic man;" the Syriac is the same; and Jose- Bishop Cumberland's tables, and rating the shekel at phus terms him avno najjeyedlotatos; “ an immensely two hundred and nineteen grains, and the Roman ounce great man.” The Vulgate has given him the notation at four hundred and thirty-eight grains, we find that of spurius or bastard, because it considered the ori- Goliath's coat of mail, weighing five thousand shekels, ginal as expressing a son of two, i. e.; a man whose was exactly one hundred and fifty-six pounds four parents are unknown. Among all these I consider ounces avoirdupoise. A vast weight for a coat of mail, our word champion, as explained above, the best and but not at all out of proportion to the man. most appropriate to the original terms.

Verse 6. Greaves of brass upon his legs) This Whose height was six cubits and a span.) The species of armour may be seen on many ancient word cubit signifies the length from cubitus, the elbow, monuments. It was a plate of brass (though perhaps to the top of the middle finger, which is generally sometimes formed of laminæ or plates, like the mail) rated at one foot six inches. The span is the distance which covered the shin or fore part of the leg, from from the top of the middle finger to the end of the the knee down to the instep, and was buckled with thumb, when extended as far as they can stretch on a straps behind the leg. From ancient monuments we plain; this is ordinarily nine inches. Were we sure find that it was commonly worn only on one leg. that these were the measures, and their extent, which Vegetius, de Re Militari, says, Pedites Scutati etiam are intended in the original words, we could easily ferreas òcreas in dextris cruribus cogebantur accipere. ascertain the height of this Philistine; it would then“ The foot soldiers, called Scutati, from their partibe nine feet nine inches, which is a tremendous height cular species of shield, were obliged to use iron for a man.

greaves on their right legs." One of these may be But the versions are not all agreed in his height. seen in the monument of the gladiator Buto, in MontThe Septuagint read tegcapWV TNXEWV kai' omibajıns, faucon ; and another in the Mosaic pavement at Bogfour cubits and a span; and Josephus reads the same. nor, in Surrey. It is necessary however to observe that the Septuagint, A target of brass between his shoulders.) When in the Codex Alerandrinus, read with the Hebrew text

. not actually engaged, soldiers threw their shields beBut what was the length of the ancient cubit ? This hind their back, so that they appeared to rest or hang has been variously computed; eighteen inches, twenty between the shoulders. inches and a half, and twenty-one inches. If we take There are different opinions concerning this piece the first measurement, he was nine feet nine; if the of armour, called here 1177) kidon. Some think it was second, and read palm instead of span, with the Vul- | a covering for the shoulders; others, that it was a

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