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Joshua spares Rahab,
and her whole family. A. M. 2553. in the city, both man and woman, s they put into the treasury of the B. C. 1451. An. Exod. Isr. young and old, and ox, and sheep, house of the Lord.
and ass, with the edge of the 25 And Joshua saved Rahab 1. Olymp. 675. sword.
the harlot alive, and her father's 1. Olymp. 675. 22 But Joshua had said unto the two men household, and all that she had ; and she that had spied out the country, Go into the dwelleth in Israel even unto this day ; beharlot's house, and bring out thence the woman, cause she hid the messengers which Joshua and all that she hath, 'as ye sware unto her. sent to spy out Jericho.
23 And the young men that were spies went 26 And Joshua adjured them at that time, in, and brought out Rahab, u and her father, saying, y Cursed be the man before the Lord, and her mother, and her brethren, and all that that riseth up and buildeth this city Jericho : she had; and they brought out all her kin- he shall lay the foundation thereof in his firstdred, and left them without the camp of Israel. born, and in his youngest son shall he set up * 24 And they burnt the city with fire, and the gates of it. all that was therein: w only the silver, and 27. So the Lord was with Joshua ; and a his the gold, and the vessels of brass and of ironi, fame was noised throughout all the country. Chap. ii. 14; Heb. xi. 31. Chap. ii. 13.
Heb. families. * See Matt. 1. 5. - 1 Kings xvi. 34. —? Chap. i. 5.- Ch.
w Ver. 19.
ix. 1, 3.
Verse 23. Brought out Rahab, and her father, fc.) who should attempt it. The ruins of this city conRahab having been faithful to her vow of secrecy, the tinuing would be a permanent proof, not only of God's Israelites were bound by the oath of the spies, who displeasure against idolatry, but of the miracle which acted as their representatives in this business, to pre- he had wrought in behalf of the Israelites ; and for serve her and her family alive.
these reasons God willed that it should not be rebuilt : And left them without the camp] They were con- nevertheless, he left men to the operation of their sidered as persons unclean, and consequently left with own free will, and recorded the penalty which those out the camp; (see Lev. xiii. ' 46 ; Num. xii. 14.) must pay who should disobey him. When they had abjured heathenism, were purified, He shall lay the foundation thereof, &c.] This is a and the males had received circumcision, they were strange execration ; but it may rather be considered doubtless admitted into the camp, and became incorpo- in the light of a prediction. It seems to intimate that rated with Israel.
he who should attempt to rebuild this city, should lose Verse 24. Only the silver, and the gold—they put all his children in the interim, from laying the foundainto the treasury, 8c:] The people were to have no tion to the completion of the walls ;. which the author share of the spoils, because they had no hand in the of i Kings xvi. 34 says was accomplished in Hiel the conquest. God alone overthrew the city ;-'and into Beth-elite, who rebuilt Jericho under the reign of his treasury only the spoils were brought. This is Ahaz, and laid the foundation of it in Abiram, his one proof that the agitation of the air, by the sound first-born, and set up its gates in his youngest son of the people's voice, was not the cause of the fall of Segub: this was 550 years after Joshua pronounced the city walls.
But we are not sure that this means that Vessels of brass and of iron.—Instead of 957 keley, the children either died a natural or violent death on VESSELS, the Septuagint, in the Alexandrian copy, evi- this occasion, for we may understand the history as dently have read 53 col, all, with the omission of the relating to the slow progress of the work. Hiel having 'yod; for in ver. 19 they translate faç xahkoç kal. begun the work at the birth of his first-born, was not Gunpos, all the brass and iron : but this reading does able to conclude before the birth of his last child, who not appear in any of Ķennicott's or De Rossi's MSS. was born many years after : and as their names are
Verse 25. And she dwelleth in Israel even unto this mentioned, it is very likely that the distance of time day) This is one proof that the book was written in between the birth of each was well known when this the lime to which it is commonly referred; and cer- history was written ; and that the extraordinary length tainly might have been done by the hand of Joshua of time spent in the work, in which a multitude of himself, though doubtless manv marginal notes may vexations delays had taken place, is that to which the have since crept into the text, which, to superficial ob- prophetic execration relates. Yet the first opinion is servers, give it the appearance of having been written the most probable. We inust not suppose that Jericho after the days of Joshua. See the preface to this book. had been wholly neglected from its overthrow by
Verse 26. And Joshua adjured them at that time] Joshua to the days of Hiel; if it be the same with the It appears that he had received intimations from God city of palm trees, mentioned Deut. xxxiv. 3. We that this idolatrous city should continue a monument find it mentioned as an inhabited place in the beginof the Divine displeasure : and having convened the ning of Judg. i. 16, a short time after the death of princes and elders of the people, he bound them by an Joshua : And the children of the Kenite, Moses' Oath that they should never rebuild it; and then, father-in-law, went up out of the city of palm trees, in their presence, pronounced a curse upon the person I with the children of Judah, &c.; and this said city
the preceding chapter. (if the same with the city of palm trees) was taken | lot Rahab perished nol with them that believed not, from the Israelites by Eglon king of Moab, Judg. iii. when she had received the spies with peace, Heb. xi. 13. The ambassadors of David, who were disgrace- 31. She believed that the true God was on the side fully treated by Hanun king of the Ammonites, were of the Hebrews, and that all opposition to them must commanded to tarry at Jericho till their beards should be in vain ; and this faith led her to put herself under grow, 2 Sam. x. 4, 5. It appears, therefore, that the Divine protection, and in virtue of it she escaped there was a city, which went under this name "long the destruction that fell on her countrymen. Thus before the time of Hiel, unless we can suppose that God has ever chosen to put honour on faith, as the the city of palm trees was a different place from instrument' by which he will perform his greatest Jericho, or that the name Jericho was given to some miracles of justice and mercy. God, who cannot lie, part of the circumjacent country after the city was has given the promise ; he that believes shall have it destroyed, which is very probable.
accomplished ; for with God nothing shall be impossiAfter Hiel had rebuilt this city, it became of con- ble, and all things are possible to him that believes. siderable consequence in the land of Judea : the These are Scriptural maxims, and God cannot deny courses of priests lodged there, who served in their himself. turns at the temple ; see Luke x. 30. . There was a 3. On the curse pronounced by Joshua on those school of the prophets there, which was visited by who should rebuild Jericho, it may be necessary to Elijah and Elisha, 2 Kings ii. 4, 5, 18; and it was make a few remarks. In ancient history we have many at this city that our Lord miraculously healed blind instances of execrations against those who should reBartimeus, Mark x. 46 ; Luke xviii. 35, &c. At pre- build those cities which had been destroyed in war, sent, Jericho is almost entirely deserted,'having but the revival of whose power and influence was dreaded ; thirty or forty miserable cabins in it, which serve for especially such cities as had been remarkable for opa place of refuge to some wretched Moors and Arabs, pression, insolence, or perfidy. Strabo observes, lib. who live there like beasts. The plain of Jericho, xiii., p. 898, ed. 1707, that Agamemnon pronounced formerly so celebrated for its fertility, is at present execrations on those who should rebuild Troy, as uncultivated, producing nothing but a few wild trees, Cresus did against those who should rebuild Sidena, and some very indifferent fruits. See Calmet. in which the tyrant Glaucias had taken refuge ; and
Verse 27. So the Lord was with Joshua] Giving this mode of execrating cities, according to Strabo, him miraculous assistance in all his enterprises; and was an ancient custom-Eite kal karapao que vov Tov this was what he was naturally led to expect from the Αγαμέμνονος κατα παλαιον εθος: καθαπερ και ο Κροίσος communication made to him by the captain of the Lord's εξελων την Σιδηνην, εις ήν ο τυραννος κατέφυγε Γλαυκιας, host, chap. v. 14, &c.
αρας εθετο κατά των τειχιουντων παλιν τον τοπον. .
The Roman's made a decree full of execrations 1. Many attempts have been made either to deny against those who should rebuild Carthage, which had the miracle in the fall of Jericho, or to account for it been the rival of their empire ; and which, from its on natural causes. Reference has already been made advantageous situation, might again become formidable to some of these in the note on ver. 20. But to those should it be rebuilt. See Zonaras, Anal. who believe the Divine authenticity of the New Tes The Ionians, according to Isocrates, pronounced the tament, every objection of this kind is removed by the most awful execrations on those who should rebuild authority of the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the temples destroyed by the Persians, that they might chap. xi. 30 : BY FAITH the walls' of Jericho fell remain to posterity an endless monument of the impiety down, after they had been compassed about seven days. of those barbarians; and that none might put confidence Hence we find that it was a miraculous interference; in a people who were so wicked as to make war on and that Joshúa's faith in the promise made to him by the gods themselves. The other Greeks who had the captain of the Lord's host, was the instrument suffered by the Persians acted in the same way, leavwhich God chose to employ in the accomplishment of ing the desolated temples as a public monument of the this important purpose.
enmity that should ever subsist between the two na2. The same is said of Rahab: By Faith the har-l'tions. See Calmet, and see the notes on Num. xxii. 6.
The trespass of the Israelites, 1. Joshua sends men to view the state of Ai, 2. They return with a favour
able report, 3. Three thousand men are sent against it, who are defeated, and thirty-six killed, 4, 5. Joshua is greatly distressed, prostrates himself, and inquires of the Lord the reason why he has abandoned Israel to their enemies, 6-9. The Lord raises him, and informs him that, contrary to the command, some of the people had secreted some of the spoils of Jericho, 10–12. He is directed how to discover the delinquent, 13-15. Joshua inquires in-what TRIBE the guilt is found, and finds it to be in the tribe of Judah; in what FAMILY, and finds it to be among the Zarhites; in what HOUSEHOLD, and finds it to be in that of Zabdi ; in whal INDIVIDUAL, and finds it to be Achan son of Carmi, son of Zabdi, 16–18. Joshua exhorts him to confess his sin, 19. He does so, and gives a circumstantial account, 20, 21. Joshua sends for the stolen articles, 22, 23. And Achan and all that belonged to him are brought to the valley of Achor, stoned and burnt, 24-26.
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A. M. 2553. BUT the children of Israel, and smite Ai; and make not all An. Exod. Isr. committed a trespass in the the people to labour thither; for An. Exod. Isr. accursed thing: for Achan, they are but few.
Anno ante I. I. Olymp. 675. the son of Carmi, the son of 4 So there went up thither of
Olymp. 675. Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Ju- the people about three thousand men :. e and dah, took of the accursed thing: and the anger they fled before the men of Ai. of the LORD was kindled against the children 5 And the men of Ai smote of them about of Israel.
thirty and six men : for they chased them 2 And Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai, from before the gate even unto Shebarim, and which is beside Beth-aven, on the east side smote then fin the going down : wherefore of Beth-el, and spake unto them, saying, Go & the hearts of the people melted, and became up and view the country.
And the men went as water. up and viewed Ai.
6 And Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to 3 And they returned to Joshua, and said the earth upon his face before the ark of the unto him, Let not all the people go up; but LORD, until the eventide, he and the elders of let • about two or three thousand men go up Israel, and i put dust upon their heads.
* Chap. xxi. 20.51 Chron. ii. 7, Achar. Or, Zimri, "Or, in Morad. - Chap. ii. 9, 11 ; Lev. xxvi. 36; Psa. xxii. 1 Chron. ii. 6. -1 Heb. about two thousand men, or about three 14. -h Gen. xxxvii. 29, 34. il Sam. iv. 12; 2 Sam. i. 2; thousand men. e Lev. xxvi. 17 ; Deut. xxviii. 25.
xii. 19; Neh. ix. 1 ; Job ü. 12. NOTES ON CHAP. VII.
was meanly garrisoned, and that two or three thousand Verse 1. The children of Israel committed a tres- men would be sufficient to take it. These were accordpass] It is certain that one only was guilty ; and yet ingly sent up, and were repulsed by the Amorites. the trespass is imputed here to the whole congrega Verse 5. They chased them from before the gate tion; and the whole congregation soon suffered shame even unto Shebarim} They seem to have presumed and disgrace on the account, as their armies were de that the men of. Ai would have immediately opened feated, thirty-six persons slain, and general terror their gates to them, and therefore they marched up spread through the whole camp. Being one body, with confidence; but the enemy appearing, they were God attributes the crime of the individual to the whole put to flight, their ranks utterly broken, and thirty-six till the trespass was discovered, and by a public act of them killed. '90 Shebarim signifies breaches or of justice inflicted on the culprit the congregation had broken places, and may here apply to the ranks of the purged itself of the iniquity. This was done to ren- Israelites, which were broken by the men of Ai; for der every man extremely cautious, and to make the the people were totally routed, though there were but people watchful over each other, that sin might be no few slain. They were panic-struck, and fled in the where tolerated or connived at, as one transgression utmost confusion.' might bring down the wrath of God upon the whole The hearts of the people melted] - They were utterly camp. See on ver. 12.
discouraged; and by this gave an ample proof that The accursed thing] A portion of the spoils of the without the supernatural assistance of God they could city of Jericho, the whole of which God had com never have conquered the land. manded to be destroyed.
Verse 6. Joshua rent his clothes, Sc.) It was not For Achan, the son of Carmi, fc.) Judah had two in consequence of this slight discomfiture, simply consons by Tamar, Pharez and Zarah. Zarah was father sidered in itself, that Joshua laid this business so of Zabdi, and Zabdi of Carmi, the father of Achan. much to heart; but 1. Because the people melted, and These five persons extend through a period of 265 became as water, and there was little hope that they years ; and hence Calmet concludes that they could' would make any - stand against the enemy; and 2. not have had children before they were fifty or fifty- Because this defeat evidently showed that God had five years of age. This Achan, son of Zabdi, is call- turned his hand against them. Had it not been so, ed, in 1 Chron ii. 6, Achar, son of Zimri ; but this their eneinies could not have prevailed. reading is corrected into Achan by some MSS. in the Put dust upon their heads.) Rending the clothes, place above cited.
beating the breast, tearing the hair, pulting dust upon Verse 2. Sent men from Jericho to Ai] This is the head, and falling down 'prostrate, were the usual the place called Hai, Gen. xii. 8. It was in the east marks of deep affliction and distress. Most ·nations of Beth-el, north of Jericho, from which it was distant have expressed their sorrow in a similar way. The about ten or twelve miles. From verses 4 and 5 it example of the distressed family of King Latinus, so appears to have been situated upon a hill, and belonged affectingly related by Virgil, may be adduced in illusto the Amorites, as we learn from ver. 7. It is very tration of many passages in the history of the patrilikely that it was a strong place, as it chose to risk a archs, prophets, apostles, &c. siege, notwithstanding the extraordinary destruction of Regina ut teclis venientem prospicit hostemJericho which it had lately witnessed.
Purpureos moritura manu discindit amictus Verse 4. About three thousand men] The spies sent Filia prima manu flavos Lavinia crines, to reconnoitre the place (ver. 3) reported that the town El roseas laniata genas.
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JOSHUA. because the men of Ai prevailed. A. M. 2553. 7 And Joshua said, Alas, sembled also, and they have put An. Exod. Isr. Lord God, k wherefore hast thou it even among their own stuff. An. Exod. Isr.
at all brought this people over 12 « Therefore the children of I. Olymp. 675.
Jordan, to deliver us into the hand Israel could not stand before their 1. Olymp. 675. of the Amorites, to destroy us? would to God enemies, but turned their backs before their we had been content, and dwelt on the other enemies, because t they were accursed: neither side Jordan !
will I be with you any more, except ye destroy 8 O Lord, what shall I say, when Israel the accursed from among you. turneth
their backs before their enemies ? 13 Up, " sanctify the people, and "Sanc9 For the Canaanites and all the inhabitants tify yourselves against to-morrow: for thus saith of the land shall hear of it, and shall environ the LORD God of Israel, There is an accursed us round, and mcut off our name from the earth: thing in the midst of thee, O Israel : thou canst and " what wilt thou do unto thy great name? | not stand before thine enemies, until ye take
10 And the LORD said unto Joshua, Get thee away the accursed thing from among you. up; wherefore o liest thou thus upon thy face?] : 14 In the morning therefore ye shall be
11 P Israel hath sinned, and they have also brought according to your tribes : and it shall transgressed my covenant which I commanded be, that the tribe which w the LORD taketh them ; 9 for they have even taken of the ac- shall come according to the families thereof; cursed thing, and have also stolen, and dis- and the family which the LORD shall take shall k Exod. v. 22 ; 2 Kings ii. 10.- Heb. necks.
See Acts v. 1, 2.-- See Num. xiv. 45; Judg. i. 14. Ixxxiii. 4. - See Exod. xxxii. 12; Num. xiv. 13. Lo Heb. Deut. vii. 26 : chap. vi. 18. Exod. xix. 10.
:- Chapter :-P Ver. 1.9 Chap. vi. 17, 18.
iii. 5. _w Prov. xvi. 33.. It scissa veste Latinus for complaint; something else is indispensably necesCanitiem immundo perfusam pulvere turpans.
sary to be done. Æn. lib. xü., ver. 594. Verse 11. Israel hath sinned] It is impossible that “ The queen, who saw the foes invade the town,
God should turn against his people, if they had not And brands on tops of burning houses thrown,
turned away from him. They have taken of the ac
cursed thing, notwithstanding my severe prohibition. She raves against the gods, she beats her breast, And lears, with both her hands, her purple vest.
They have also stolen, supposing, if not seen by their The sad Lavinia rends her yellow hair,
brethren, I should either not see or not regard it. And rosy cheeks; the rest her sorrow share.
They have dissembled--pretended to have kept strictly Latinus tears his garments' as he goes, .
the command I gave them ; and have put il among Both for his pablic and his private woes;
their own stuf-considered it now as a part of their With filth his venerable beård besmears,
own property. And sordid dust deforms his silver hairs." Dryden.
Verse 12. Because they were accursed] From this
verse it appears that the nature of the execration or Verse 7. Alas, O Lord God] Particles of excla- anathema was such, that those who took of the thing mations and distress, or what are called interjections, doomed to destruction fell immediately under the same are nearly the same in all languages; and the reason condemnation. The inhabitants of Jericho and all that is because they are the simple voice of nature. The they had were accursed; therefore they and all their Hebrew word which we translate alas is 10x ahah. substance were to be destroyed. • The Israelites took The complaint of Joshua in this and the following of the accursed thing, and therefore became accursed verses seems principally to have arisen from his deep with it. This was certainly understood when the curse concern for the glory of God, and the affecting interest was pronounced : Every man who touches this prohe took in behalf of the people : he felt' for the thou-perty shall be involved in the same execration. Achan sands of Israel, whom he considered as abandoned' to therefore was sufficiently aware of the risk he ran in destruction and he felt for the glory of God, for he taking any part of the anathematized thing; and when knew should Israel be destroyed God's name would be viewed in this light, the punishment inflicted on him blasphemed among the heathen ; and his expostulations will appear to be perfectly just and proper. with his Maker, which have been too hastily blamed Verse 13. Up, šanctify the people] Joshua, all the by some, as savouring of too great freedom and impa-time that God spake, lay prostrate before the ark; he tience, are founded on God's own words, Deut. xxxii. is now commanded to get up, and sanctify the people, 26, 27, and on the practice of Moses himself, who had | i. e., cause them to wash themselves, and get into a used similar expressions on a siinilar occasion ; see proper disposition to hear the judgment of the Lord Exod.,v. 22, 23; Num. xiv. 13-18.
relative to the late transactions. Verse 10. Wherefore liest thou thus upon thy face ?] Verse 14. Ye shall be brought according to your It is plain there was nothing in Joshua's prayer or tribes) It has been a subject of serious inquiry in what complaint that was offensive to God, for here there is manner and by what means the culpable tribe, family, no reprehension : Why liest thou thus ? this is no time household, and individual, were discovered. The Jews
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Achan confesses his guilt. A. M. 2553. come by households; and the 18 And he brought his house
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B. C. 1451. Ån. Exod. Isr. household which the LORD shall hold man by man; and Achan, An. Exod. Isr.
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take shall come man by man. the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, I. Olymp. 675. 15 And it shall be, that he the son of Zerah, of the tribe of
I. Olymp. 675. that is taken with the accursed thing shall be Judah, was taken. burnt with fire, he and all that he hath : be 19 And Joshua said unto Achan, My son, cause he hath Y transgressed the covenant of give, I pray thee, glory to the Lord God of the Lord, and because he hath wrought Israel, d and make confession unto him; and a folly in Israel.
e tell me now what thou hast done ; hide it not 16 So Joshua rose up early in the morning, from me. and brought Israel by their tribes; and the 20 And Achan answered Joshua, and said, tribe of Judah was taken :
Indeed I have sinned against the LORD God 17 And he brought the family of Judah; and of Israel, and thus and thus have I done : he took the family of the Zarhites : and he 21 When I saw among the spoils a goodly brought the family of the Zarhites man by Babylonish garment, and two hundred shekels man; and Zabdi was taken:
of silver, and a 'wedge of gold of fifty shekels
* See 1 Sam. xiv. 38, 39.—y Ver. 11. — Gen. xxxiv. 7; Judg. vi. 5; Jer. xiii. 16; John ix. 24. — d Num. v. 6,7; 2 Chron. xxx. IL 6. — Or, wickedness.—1 Sam. xiv. 42. — See 1 Sam. 22; Psa. li. 3; Dan. ix. 4.—el Sam. xiv. 43. Heb. tongue.
-lag לגברים Instead of
have many conceits on the subject; the most rational fixed on ; secondly came the families of Judah, and is, that the tribes being, in their representatives, brought the family of the Zarhites was fixed on; thirdly came before the high priest, the stone on the breastplate the family, of the Zarhites Man by man, and Zabdi was gave immediate intimation by suddenly losing its lus- fixed on; and fourthly came the household of Zabdi tre. According to them, this is what is termed con- Man, by Man, and Achan was 'fixed on. So that in the sulting God by Urim and Thummim. It is however third article the word for by households is most cermost probable that the whole was determined by the tainly left out; and the fourth article, man by man, is lot; and that God chose this method to detect the improperly expressed -twice. guilty tribe, next the family, thirdly the household, and gebarim, Man by man, in ver. 17, the true word dinos lastly the individual. This was nearly the plan pur- labbottim, by HOUSEHOLDS, is preserved in six Hebrew sued in the election of Saul by Samuel. '“Now there- copies, and the Syriac version. By this method was fore," says he, “present yourselves before the Lord discovered Achan, as he is here five times called, by your tribes, and by your thousands. And when though the valley in which he was stoned is called Samael had caused all the tribes of Israel to come Achor. He is also called Achar in the text, and in near, the tribe of Benjamin was taken. When he had all the versions, in 1 Chron. ii. 7. He is called Achar caused the tribe of Benjamin to come near by their in the five places of Joshua in the Syriac version ; families, the family of Matri was taken, and Saul the also in all five in the Greek of the Vatican MS., and son of Kish was taken,” i Sam. x. 19, 20. If the twice in the Alexandrian. MS., and so in Josephus."'lot was used in the one case it was doubtless used in Kennicott's Observat. the other also, as the procedure in the main was en Verse 19. My son, give-glory to the Lord God) tirely similar. The same mode was used to find out The person being now detected, Joshua wishes him to who it was that transgressed the king's command, acknowledge the omniscience of God, and confess his when it was found that Jonathan had eaten a little crime. , And doubtless this was designed, not only for honey, 1 Sam. xiv. 40–43. It is well known that the the edification of the people, and a vindication of the promised land was divided by lot among the Israelites; righteous judgment of God, but in reference to his own (see Nom. xxvi. 55 ; xxxiii. 54 ; Deut. i. 38, &c. ;) salvation ;, for as his life was now become forfeited to and that the courses of the priests were regulated by the law, there was the utmost necessity of humiliation lot in the days of David, 1 Chroń. xxiv. 5, &c. That before God that his soul might be saved.
Give glory this was a frequent mode of determining difficult questo God signifies the same as, Make a thorough contions, and appointed by God himself, is evident from fession as in the presence of God, and disguise no Lev. xvi. 8; Psa. xxii. 18; Prov. xvi. 33 ; xviii, 18; part of the truth. In this way and in these very. Acts i. 26.
words the Jews adjured the man who had been born Verse 17. And he brought the family of Judah] blind that he would truly tell who had healed him ; Dr. Kennicott observes, “All Israel came near by for they pretended to believe that Christ was such a TRIBES, and one tribe was fixed on; then that tribe sinner that God would not work a miracle by him, came by its Families, and one family was fixed on; John ix. 24. then came that family by its HOUSEHOLDS, and one Verse 20. I have sinned against the Lord God] household was fixed on; and then that household, This seems a very honest and hearty confession, and coming Man by man, one man was fixed on. Yet there is hope that this poor culprit escaped perdition. according to the present text, in the execution of this Verse 21. A goodly Babylonish garment] Www 177X command, all Israel came, and the tribe of Judah was I addereth shinar, a splendid or costly robe of Shinar