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Joshua builds an altar, and

CHAP. VIII.

rehearses the whole law. A. M. 2553.

take his carcass down from the cers, and their judges, stood on B. C. 1451. An. Exod Isr. tree, and cast it at the entering this side the ark, and on that An. Exod. Isr. Anno ante of the gate of the city, and raise side, before the priests the Le

thereon a great heap of stones, vites, which bare the ark of the I. Olymp. 675. that remaineth unto this day.

covenant of the LORD, as well the stranger, 30 Then Joshua built an altar 'unto the as he that was born among them; half of them LORD God of Israel w in Mount Ebal. over against Mount Gerizim, and half of them

31 As Moses the servant of the Lord com- over against Mount Ebal: cas Moses the manded the children of Israel, as it is written servant of the Lord had commanded before, in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of that they should bless the people of Israel.

up any iron : and they 'offered thereon, þurnt- the law, the blessings and cursings, according offerings unto the Lord, and sacrificed peace to all that is written in the book of the law. offerings.

35 There was not a word of all that Moses 32 And ? he wrote there upon the stones a commanded, which Joshua read not before all copy of the law of Moses, which he wrote in the congregațion of Israel, ' with the women, the presence of the children of Israel. and the little ones, and the strangers that 33 And all Israel, and iheir elders, and offi-h were conversant

among

them.

Chap. vii. 26 ; x. 27. — Deut. xxvii. 4,5.- Exod. xx. 25; Deut. xxvii. 5, 6. — Exod. xx. 24. -2 Deut. xxvii. 2, 8. a Deut. xxi, 9, 25. Lb Deut. xxxi. 12.

© Deut. xi. 29 ; xxvij. 12.—d Deut. xxxi. Il; Neh. viii. 3. e Deut. xxviii. 2, 15, 45; xxix. 20, 21; xxx. 19. - Deut. xxxi. 12.-5.Ver. 33.—h Heb.walked.

tree, wbich.probably means a forked tree, or something of the people ; 'for this every ordinance of God is rein the form of a cross. The tree on which criminals markable, as he ever causes the interest and duty of were hanged among the Romans was called arbor in his followers to go hand in hand. felir, and lignum infelix, the unfortunate, ill-fated, or accursed tree.

1. It may be asked, Seeing God promised to deliRaise thereon a great heap of stones] · This was a ver Ai into the hands of the Israelites, why needed common custom through all antiquity in every coun- they to employ so many men and so many stratagems try, as we have already seen in the case of Achan, in order to its reduction ? To this it

may be answered, chap. vi. 20.

that God will have man to put forth the wisdom and Verse 30? Then Joshua built an altar) · This was power with which he has endued him, in every imdone in obedience to the express command of God, portant purpose of life ; that he endued him with those Deat. xxvii. 4-8. See the notes there.

powers for this very end ; and that it would be incon- Verse 32. A copy of the law of Moses) nuin nien sistent with his gracious design so to help man at any mishneh torath; the repetition of the law ; that is, a time as to render the powers he had given him-useless. copy of the blessings and curses, as commanded by 2. It is only in the use of lawful means that we have Moses; not a copy of the Decalogue, as some imagine, any reason to expect God's blessing and 'help. One nor of the book of Deuteronomy, as others think; much of the ancients has remarked, “ Though God has made less of the whole Pentateuch ; -but merely of that part man without himself, he will not save him without which contained the blessings and curses, and which himself;" and therefore man's own concurrence of will, was to be read on this solemn occasion. See the note and co-operation of power with God, are essentially on Deut. xxvii. 3.

necessary to his preservation and salvation. Verse 33. Half of them over against Mount Geri- operation is the grand condition, sine qua non, on zim] See the arrangement of the whole of this business which God will help or save. But is not this “ in the note and observations on Deut. xxvii. 26. And deavouring to merit salvation by our own works ?" see also the notes on chap. xxviii. of the same book. No : for this is impossible, unless we could prove that

Verse 35. With the women and the little ones] It all the mental and corporeal powers which we possess was necessary that all should know that they were came from and are of ourselves, and that we held them under the same obligations to obey ; even the women independently of the power and beneficence of our are brought forward, not only because of their personal Creator; and that every act of these was of infinite . responsibility, but because to them was principally in- valuệ, to make it an equivalent for the heaven we trusted the education of the children. The children wished to purchase. Putting forth the hand to realso witness this" solemn transaction, that a salutary ceive the alms of a benevolent man, can never be fear of offending God might be early, diligently, and considered a purchase-price for the bounty bestowed. deeply impressed upon their hearts. Thus every For ever shall that word stand true in all its parts, precaution is taken to ensure obedience to the Divine Christ is the AUTHOR of eternal salvation to all them precepts, and consequently to promote the happiness that obey him, Heb. v. 9.

This co

en

The Canaanitish king's

JOSHUA.

combine against the Israelites.

CHAPTER IX.

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All the kings of the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebúsítes, unite their forces

against Joshuo, 1, 2. The inhabitants of Gibeon, hearing what Joshua had done to Ai, sent ambassadors to him, fcigning themselves to come from a very distant tribe, requesting a friendly alliance with him, 3-5. Their address to Joshua, and the means they used to deceive the Israelites, 6-13. The Israelitish elders are deceived, and make a league with them, which they confirm with an oath, 14, 15. After three days they are informed that the Gibeonites belong to the seven Canaanitish nations, yet they spare their cities, 16, 17. . The congregation murmuring because of this, the elders efcuse themselves because of their oath, 18, 19. They purpose to make the Gibeonites slaves to the congregation, 20, 21. Joshua calls them, and pronounces this sentence against them, 22, 23. They vindicate themselves, and submit to thei lot, 24, 25. They are spared, and made hewers of wood and drawers of water to the congregation and to the altar, 26, 27. A. M. 2553. AND

A. M. 2553. ND it came to pass, when all 3. And when the inhabitants

. B. C. 1451. An. Exod. Isr. the kings which were on this of e Gibeon fheard what Joshua An. Exod. Isr. side Jordan, in the hills, and in had done unto Jericho and to Ai,

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the valleys, and in all the coasts of 4 They did work wilily, and 1. Olymp. 675. * the great sea, over against Lebanon, the Hit- went and made as if they had been ambassadors, tite, and the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Periz- and took old sacks upon their asses, and wine zite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard thereof; bottles, old, and rent, and bound up;

2 That they gathered themselves together, | 5 And old shoes and clouted upon their feet, to fight with Joshua and with Israel, with one and old garments upon them ; and all the bread d accord.

of their provision was dry and mouldy. a Numbers xxxiv. 6. Exodus iii. 17; xxii. 23. - Psalm 4 Heb. mouth. Chap. x. 2; 2 Sam. xxi. 1, 2. Chapler lxxxiii. 3,5.

vi. 27. NOTES ON CHAP. IX.

did what any other nation would have done in their Verse 1. And it came to pass, when all the kings— circumstances, and we have nothing to do with their heard thereof] From this account it appears that the examplė. Had they come to the Israelites, and simcapture and destruction of Jericho and Ai had been ply submitted themselves without opposition and withheard of to the remotest parts of the land, that a out fraud, they had certainly fared much better. Lying general fear of the Israelitish arms prevailed, and that and hypocrisy always defeat their own purpose, and at the different dynasties or petty governments into which best can ceed only for a short season. Truth and the land was divided, felt all their interests at stake, honesty never wear out. and determined to make the defence of their country a Old sacks--and wine bottles, old, fc.] They precommon cause. This was the most prudent step they tended to have come from a very distant country, and could take in their circumstances, and therefore they that their saoks and the goat-skins that served them entered into a confederation in order to arrest the for carrying their wine and water in, were worn out. progress of the Israelites. The Great Sea men- by the length of the journey. tioned here is the Mediterranean Sea, the coasts of Verse 5. Old shoes and clouted] Their sandals, which were inhabited by the Phænicians, Tyrians, they pretended had been worn out by long and diffiSidonians, and Philistines. It is very likely that all cult travelling, and they had been obliged to have them these united with the Canaanites for their common frequently patched during the way; their garments also safety..

were worn thin ; and what remained of their bread Verse 3. The inhabitants of Gibeon heard] These was mouldy--spotted with age, or, as our old version alone did not join the confederation. Gibeon is sup- has it, bored--pierced with many holes by the vermin posed to have been the capital of the Hivites. In the which had bred in it, through the length of the time division of the land it fell to the lot of Benjamin, chap. it had beon-in their sacks; and this is the most literal xviii

. 25, and was afterwards given to the priests, meaning of the original d'ap3 nikkudim, which means chap. xxi. 17. See the note on chap. x, 2.

spotted or pierced with many holes. Verse 4. They did work wilily] Finesse of this The old and clouted shoes have been a subject of kind is allowed by the conduct of all nations ; and some controversy: the Hebrew word niba baloth sigstratagems in war are all considered as legal. Nine nifies worn out, from oba balah, to wear away; and

enths of the victories gained are attributable to strata- nissos metullaoth, from shu tala, to spot or patch, gem; all sides practise them, and therefore none can i, e., spotted with patches. Our word clouled, in the condemn them. Much time and labour have been lost Anglo-Saxon zeclutod signifies seemed up, patched ; in the inquiry, “ Did not the Gibeonites tell lies ?" from clut a clout, rag, or small piece of cloth, used Certainly they did, and what is that to us? Does the. for piecing or patching. But some suppose the word word of God commend them for it? It does not. Are here comes from clouet, the diminutive of clou, a small they held up to us as examples ? Surely no. They nail, with which the Gibeonites had fortified the soles

The Gibeonites deceive

CHAP. IX.

the Israelitish elders.

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6 And they went to Joshua 11 Wherefore our elders and all A. M. 2553. B. C. 1151. An. Exed. Isr. 8 unto the camp at Gilgal, and the inhabitants of our country An. Exod Isr.

40. Anno ante

said unto him, and to the men spake to us, saying, Take victuals Anno ante 1. Olymp. 675.

of Israel, We be come from a o with you for the journey, and 1. Olymp. 675. far country: now therefore make ye a league go to meet them, and say unto them, We are with us.

your servants :

therefore now make ye a 7 And the men of Israel said unto the h Hi- league with us. vites, Peradventure ye dwell among us; and 12 This our bread we took hot for our prohow shall we make a league with you? vision, out of our houses, on the day we came

8 And they said unto Joshua, * We are thy forth to go unto you; but now, behold, it is servants.' And Joshua said unto them, Who dry, and it is mouldy: are ye? and from whence come ye?

13 And these bottles of wine, which we 9 And they said unto him, ' From a very far filled, were new; and; behold, they be rent: country thy servants are come, because of the and these our garments, and our shoes, are name of the LORD thy God': for we have become old by reason of the very long journey. m heard the fame of him, and all that he did 14 And P the men took of their victuals, 9 and in Egypt.

asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord. 1o And and all that he did to the two kings 15 And Joshua - made peace with them, and of the Amorites, that were beyond Jordan, to made a league with them, to let them live : and Sihon king of Heshbon, and to Og kiñg of the princes of the congrégation sware unto them. Bashan, which was at Ashtaroth.

'16 And it came to pass at the end of three & Chap. v. 10. Lh Chap, xi. 19. i Exod. xxiii. 32; Deut. P Or, they received the men by reason of their victuals. - ? Num. vu. 2; 1x. 16; Judg. il: 2. * Deut. xx. 11; 2 Kings x. 5. xxvii. 21 ; Isa. xxx. 1, 2; see Judg. i. 1; 1 Sam. xxii. 10; I Deut. u. 15. Exod. xv. 14; Josh. ii. 10. — Num. xxi. xxv. 10, 11 ; xxx. 8; 2 Sam. ii. 1; v. 19. – Chap. xi. 19; Heb. in ymir hand.

24. 33.

2 Sam. xxi. 2. of their shoes, to prevent them from wearing out in knowing that they could not stand where such mighty so long a journey ; but this seems very unlikely; and forces had fallen, wished to make the Israelites their our old English term cloutedseamed or patched— friends. This part of their relation was strictly true. expresses the spirit of the Hebrew word.

Verse 11. Wherefore our elders, fc.) -All this, and Verse 6. Make ye a league with us.) ning us in what follows to the end of verse 13, was folse, contrived kirethu lanu berith, cul, or divide, the covenant sacri- merely for the purpose of deceiving the Israelites, and fiee with us. From this. it appears that heathenism this they did to save their own lives; as they expected at this time had its sacrifices, and covenants were all the inhabitants of Canaan to be put to the sword. ratified by sacrificing to and invoking the objects of Verse 14. The men took of their victuals) This their adoration.

was done in all probability in the way of friendship ; Verse 7. Peradventurė ye dwell among us] It is for, from time immemorial to the present day, eating strange they should have had such a suspicion, as the together, in the Asiatic countries, is considered a Gibeonites had acted so artfully; and it is as strange token of unalterable friendship ; and those who eat that, having such a suspicion, they acted with 'so little even sall together, feel themselves bound thereby in a cantion.

perpetual covenant. But the marginal reading of this Verse 8. We are thy servants.). This appears to clause should not be hastily rejected. have been the only answer they gave to the question And asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord.] of the Israelitish elders, and this they gave to Joshua, They made the covenant with the Gibeonites without not to them, as they saw that Joshua was commander- consulting God by Urim and Thummim, which was in-chief of the host.

highly reprehensible in them, as it was a state transWho are ye? and from whence come ye ?] To these action in which the interests and honour of God their questions, from such an authority, they felt themselves king were intimately concerned. obliged to give an explicit answer; and they do it very Verse 15. Joshua made peace with them] Joshua artfully by a mixture of truth, falsehood, and hypocrisy. agreed to receive them into a friendly connection with

Verse 9. Because of the name of the Lord thy God] the Israelites, and to respect their lives and properties ; They pretend that they had undertaken this journey and the elders of Israel bound themselves to the obon a religious account; and seem to intimate that they servance of it, and confirmed it with an oath. As had the highest respect for Jehovah, the object of the the same words are used here as in verse 6, we may Israelites' worship; this was hypocrisy.

suppose that the covenant was made in the ordinary We have heard the fame of him] This was true : way, a sacrifice being offered on the occasion, and the wonders which God did in Egypt, and the dis- its blood poured out before the Lord. See on Gen. comfiture of Sihon and Og, had reached the whole xv. 10, &c. land of Canaan ; and it was on this account that the Verse 16. At the end of three days) Gibeon is inhabitants of it were panic-struck. The Gibeonites, reputed to be only about eight leagues distant from

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The Gibeonites are spared;

JOSHUA. because of the oath of the elders. days after they had made a league | LORD God of Israel : - now there..

A. M. 2553. An. Exod. Isr. with them, that they heard that fore we may not touch them. An. Exod. Isr.

they were their neighbours, and 20 This we will do to them; Anno ante 1. Olymp. 675. that they dwelt among them. we will even let them live, lest · I. Olymp. 675.

17 And the children of Israel journeyed, and u wrath be upon us, because of the oath which came unto their cities on the third day. Now we sware unto them, their cities were s Gibeon, and Chephirah, and 21 And the princes said unto them, Let Beeroth, and Kirjath-jearim.

them live; but let them be hewers of wood 18 And the children of Israel smote them and drawers of water unto all the congregation ; not, because the princes of the congregation as the princes had. promised them. had sworn unto them by the LORD God of 22 And Joshua called for them, and he Israel. And all the congregation murmured spake unto them, saying, Wherefore have ye against the princes.

beguiled us, saying, We are very far from 19 But all the princes said unto all the con- you ; when y ye

dwell gregation, We have sworn unto them by the 23 Now therefore ye are cursed, and there

* Chap. xviii, 25, 26, 28; Ezra ii. 25. - Eccles. v. 2 ; Psa. Zeclı. v. 3, 4; Mal. iii. 5. - Deut. xxix. ll. Ver. 15. xv. 4. ——See 2 Sam. xxi. 1, 2, 6; Ezek. xvii, 13, 15, 18, 19; * Ver. 6,9.-y Ver. 16. -2 Gen. ix. 25. Gilgal, and on this account the fraud . might be easily stood as rather referring to the destruction of the podiscovered in the time mentioned above.

litical existence of the Canaanitish nations, than to the Verse 17. The children of Israel-came unto their destruction of their lives. See the notes on Deut. cities) Probably when the fraud. was discovered, xx. 10, 17. Joshua sent out a detachment to examine their coun Verse 21. Hewers of wood and drawers of water] try, and to see what use could be made of it in the Perhaps this is a sort of proverbial expression, signiprosecution of their war with the Canaanites. Some fying the lowest state of servitude, though it may also of the cities mentioned here were afterwards in great be understood literally. See below. repute among the Israelites ;. and God chose to make Verse 23. Now therefore ye are cursed] Does not one of them, Kirjath-jearim, the residence of the ark this refer to what was pronounced by Noah, Gen. ix. of the covenant for twenty years, in the reigns of Saul 25, against Ham and his posterity ? Did not.the curse and David. There is no evidence that the preserva- of Ham imply slavery, and nothing else ?, : Cursed be tion of the Gibeonites was displeasing to Jehovah. Canaan, à servant of servants shall he be; and does

Verse '18. All the congregation murmured) Merely it not sufficiently appear that nothing else than perbecause they were deprived of the spoils of the Gibe- petual slavery is implied in the curse of the Gibeononites. They had now got under the full influence ites? They were brought, no doubt, under tribute ; of a predatory spirit; God saw their proneness to this, performed the meanest offices for the Israelites, being and therefore, 'at particular times, totally interdicted in the same circumstances with the servile class of the spoils of conquered cities, as in the case of Jericho. Hindoos called the Chetrees; had their national im

Verse 19. We have sworn unto them] Although portance annihilated, and yet were never permitted to the Israelites were deceived in this business, and the incorporate themselves with the Israelites. · *And we covenant was made on a certain supposition which was may reasonably suppose that this was the purpose of afterwards proved to have had no foundation in truth, God relative to all the Canaanitish nations ; those who and consequently the whole engagement on the part would not renounce their idolatry, &c., were to be exof the deceived was hereby vitiated and rendered null tirpated; those who did were to be preserved alive, on and void ; yet, because the elders had eaten with them, condition of becoming tributary, and serving as slaves. offered a covenant sacrifice, and sworn by Jehovah, See the note on Deut. xx. 17. they did not consider themselves at liberty to break Hewers of wood and drawers of water] The disthe terms of the agreement, as far as the lives of the grace of this state lay not in the laboriousness of it, Gibeonites were concerned. That their conduct in bút in its being the common employment of the fethis respect was highly pleasing to God is evident from males ; if the ancient customs among the same people this, that Joshua is nowhere reprehended for making were such as prevail now, The most intelligent this covenant, and sparing the Gibeonites; and that travellers in those countries represent collecting wood Saul, who four hundred years after this thought him for fuel, and carrying water, as the peculiar employself and the Israelites loosed from this obligation, and ment of the females. The Arab women of Barbary in consequence oppressed and destroyed the Gibeon- do so, according to Dr. Shaw. The daughters of the ites, was punished for the breach of this treaty, being Turcomans in Palestine are employed, according to considered as the violator of a most solemn oath and D' Arvieux, in fetching wood and water for the accovenant engagement. See 2 Sam. xxi. 2-9, and commodation of their respective families. From these Ezek. xvi. 18, 19.“

circumstances Mr. Harmer reasons thus : “ The bitAll these circumstances laid together, prove that the terness of the doom of the Gibeonites does not seem command to destroy the Canaanites was not so abso- to have consisted in the laboriousness of the service lute as is generally supposed : and should be under-enjoined them, for it was usual for women and chil.

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The Gibeonites are made

CHAP. X. servants unto the congregation. shall - none of you be freed from 25 And now, behold, we are An Exod. Isr. being bondmen; and bhewers of • in thine hand : as it seemeih An. Exod. Isr.

wood and drawers of water for good and right unto thee to do 1. Olymp. 675. the house of my God. unto us, do

1. Olymp. 675. 24 And they answered Joshua, and said, 26 And so did he unto them, and delivered Because it was certainly told thy servants, them out of the hand of the children of Israel, how that the LORD thy God. commanded his that they slew them not. servant Moses to give you all the land, and to 27 And Joshua' made them that day & hewers destroy all the inhabitants of the land from be- of wood and drawers of water for the congregafore you, therefore d we were sore afraid of our tion, and for the altar of the Lord, even unto. lives because of you, and have done this thing. this day, \ in the place which he should choose.

- Heb not be cut off from you.

b Ver. 21, 27. - Exod: xxiii. 32; Deut. vii. 1, 2. Exod. xv. 14. - Gen. xvi. 6.

Heb. gave, or,

delivered to be; 1 Chron.-ix. 2; Ezra viii. 20. & Ver. 21, 23.

ch Deut. xii. 5.

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dren to perform what was required of them; but its isted in the time of David, is evident from the cirdegrading them from the characteristic employment' cumstance mentioned on ver. 19. They are not menof men, that of bearing arms ; and condemning them tioned after the captivity; and it is probable that they and their pesterity for ever to the employment of fe- were nearly annihilated by the persecution raised up. males. The not receiving them as allies was bitter; against them by Saul. Some suppose that the Gibeonthe disarming them who had been warriors, and con- ites existed under the appellation of Nethinim ; but demning them to the employment of females, was of this there is no decisive proof; the Nethinim were worse ; but the extending this, degradation to their probably. slaves of a different race. posterity, was bitterest of all. · It is no wonder that in these circumstances they are said to have been On. what we meet with in this chapter, we may cursed."-Obs., vol, iv., p. 297.

make the following observations. Verse 24. We were sore afraid of our lives] Self 1. The Gibeonites told lies, in order to save their preservation, whieh is the most powerful law of nature, lives. No expediency can justify this, nor are we dictated to them those measures which they adopted; called to attempt it. The Gibeonites were heathens, and they plead this as the motive of their conduct. and we can expect nothing better from them. See

Verse 25. We are in thine hand] Entirely in thy note at the end of chap. ii. power.

2. They did not : profit by their falsity : had they As il seemeth good and right unto theedo.) What come in fairly, sought peace, and renounced their idolever justice and mercy dictate to thee to do to us, that atry, they would have had life on honourable terms. perform. They expect justice, because they deceived As it was, they barely escaped with their lives, and the Israelites; but they expect mercy also, because were utterly deprived of their political liberty. Even they were driven to use this expedient for fear of the good that is sought by unlawful' means has God's losing their lives. The appeal to Joshua is full of curse on it. delicacy and cogent argument.

3. We need not be solicitous for the character of Verse 26. And so did he unto them] That is, he the Gibeonites here; they are neither our models, nor acted according to justice and mercy: he delivered believers in the true God, and therefore pure religion them out of the hands of the people, so that they slew is not concerned in their prevarication and falsity. them not-here was mercy; and he made them hew 4. We see here of what solemn importance an oath ers of wood and drawers of water for the congrega- was considered among the people of God; they stvore tion, and to the altar of God-here was justice. Thus to their own hurt, and changed not. When once they Joshua did nothing but what was good and right, not had bound themselves to their Maker, they did not only in his own eyes, but also in the eyeş of the Lord. believe that any changing circumstances could justify

How long the Gibeonites were preserved as a dis- a departure from so awful an obligation. Thus, reader, tinct people after this, we know not. That they ex- I shouldst thou fear a lie; and tremble at an oath.

CHAPTER X: Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem, hearing of the capture of Ai, and that the Gibeonites had made peace with

Israel, calls to his assistance four other kings to fight against Gibeon, 1-4. They join forces, and encamp against Gibeon, 5. The Gibeonites send to Joshua for succour, 6, who immediately marches to their relief; receives encouragement from God, and falls suddenly on the confederate forcės, 7-9, and defeats them ; they fly, and multitudes of them are slain by a miraculous shower of hail-stones, 10, 11. Joshua, finding that the day began to fail, prayed that the sun and moon might stand still, that they might have time to pursue and utlerly destroy these confederate forces, 12. The sun and moon stand still, and make that day as long as two, 13, 14. Joshua and the people return to their camp at Gilgal, 15. The fove kings having taken sheller in a cave at Makkedah, Joshua commanded the people to roll great stones against the

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