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B. C. 1450.
41, Anino ante
41. Anno ante
Five kings of the Amorites
make war on the Gibeonites. mouth of the cave, and set a watch to keep it, while Israel were pursuing their enemies, 16-19. · The Israelites return to Makkedah, bring forth the five kings, then slay and hang them on five trees, 20–27. The Israelites take and destroy Makkedah, 28, and Libnah, 29, 30, and Lachish 31, 32, and defeat Horam king of Gezer, 33, and take Eglon, 34, 35, and Hebron, 36, 37, and Debir, 38, 39, and all the country of the hills, south, vale, and springs, and the whole country from Kadesh-Barnea to Gibeon, 40–42. They return to Gilgal, 43.
A. M. 2554. 8. M. 1958: Now it came to pass, when the king of Jerusalem, the king An. Exod. Isr. Adoni-zedec, king of Jeru- of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, An. Exod. Isr.
salem, had heard how Joshua had the king of Lachish, the king 1. Olymp. 674. taken Ai
, and had utterly destroy- of Eglon, 5 gathered themselves 1. Olymp. 674. ed it; -as he had done to Jericho and her together, and went up, they and all their hosts, king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and encamped before. Gibeon, and made war and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made against it. peace with Israel, and were among them ; 6 And the men of Gibeon, sent unto Joshua
2 That they d feared greatly, because Gibeon. "to the camp to Gilgal, saying, Slack not thy was a great city, as one of the royal cities, hand from thy servants; come up to us quickly, and because it was greater than Ai, and all and save us, and help us : for all the kings of the men thereof were mighty..
ihè Amorites that dwell in the mountains are 3 Wherefore Adoni-zedec king of Jerusalem gathered together against us. said unto Hoham king of Hebron, and unto Pi 7 So Joshua ascended from Gilgal, he, and ram king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia king of all the people of war with him, and all the Lachish; and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying, mighty men of valour.
4 Come up unto me, and help me, that we 8 And the LORD said unto Joshua, «Fear them may smite Gibeon : f for it hath made peace not: for I have delivered them into thine hand; with Joshua, and with the children of Israel. there shall not a man of them stand before thee.
5 Therefore the five kings of the Amorites, 9 Joshua' therefore came unto them suddenly, - Chap. vi. 21.-6. Chap. viii. 22, 26, 28. — Chap. ix. 15. dom. — Ver:1; chap. ix. 15.5 Chap. ix. 2.- Ch. v. 10; • Exod. xv. 14, 15, 16; Deut. xi. 25. Le Heb. cities of the-king- | ix. 6.
i Ch. viii. 1. * Ch. xi. 6 ; Judg. iv. 14.- Ch. i. 5. NOTES ON CHAP. X.
Piram -king of Jarmuth] There were two cities Verse 1. Adoni-zedec) This name signifies the of this name ; one belonged to the tribe of Issachar, Lord of justice or righteousness; and it has been see chap. xxi. 29; that mentioned here fell to the tribe conjectured that the Canaanitish kings assumed this of Judah, see chap. xv. 35; it is supposed to have name in imitation pf that of the ancient patriarchal been about eighteen miles, distant from Jerusalem. king of this city, Melchizedek, whose name signifies Japhia king of Lachish] This city is celebrated in king of righteousness, or my righteous king: a sup- Scripture ; in that city Amaziah was slain by conspiposition that is not improbable, when the celebrity of rators, 2 Kings xiv. 19. It was besieged by SennaMelchizedek is considered.
cherib, 2 Kings sviii. 14, 17; and without effect by Jerusalem) Dont' Yerushalam. This word has the king of Assyria, as we learn from Isa. xxxvii. 8' : been variously explained ; if it be compounded of Bhu it was also besieged by the army of Nebuchadnezzar, shalam, peace, perfection, &c., and 787 raah, he saw, see Jer. xxxiv. 7.; it also fell to the lot of Judah, it may signify the vision of peace—or, he shall see chap. xv. 39. peace or perfection.
Debir king of Eglon] Where this city was situated Verse 2. As one of the royal cities] . Not a regal is very uncertain ; but we learn from chap. xv. 39, city, but great, well inhabited and well 'fortified, as that it fell to the lot of the tribe of Judah. those cities which served for the royal residence Verse 5. The five kings of the Amoriles) This is generally were. It does not appear that the Gibeon- a general name for the inhabitants of Canaan, otherwise ites had any king—they seem to have been a small called Canaanites ; and it is very likely that they had but powerful republic, all the men thereof were mighty, this appellation because the Amorites were the most merely governed by their elders : for in their address powerful tribe or nation in that country. The inhabitto Joshua, chap. ix. "H1, they mention no king, but ants of Jerusalem were Jebusites, chap. xv. 63 ; those simply state that they were sent by their elders and of Hebron were Hittites, Gen. xxiii. 2, 3 ; xxv. 9, 10; the inhabitants of their country; nor do we any where and the Gibeonites were Hivites, Josh. ix. 7; and yet read of their king ; and therefore we may naturally all these are called Amoriles occasionally, probably for suppose that they had none.
the reason already mentioned, viz., because that tribe Verse 3. · Hoham king of Hebron] This city was was most numerous and powerful. situated in the mountains, southward of Jerusalem, Verse 9. Joshua—came unto them suddenly] This from which it was about thirty miles distant. It fell he did by a forced march during the night, for he went to the tribe of Judah.
up from Gilgal all night ; from Gilgal to Gibeon was
B. C. 1450.
B. C. 1450.
41. Anno ante
r Heb. be silent.-
The Amorites are defeated.
CHAP. X. Great stones cast down on them. A. M. 2554.
A. M. 2554. and went up from Gilgal al stones from heaven upon them An. Exod. Isr. night.
unto Azekah, and they died : An. Exod. Isr. 10 And the Lord. I discomfited they were more which died with Anno ante I. Olymp. 674. them before Israel, and slew hail-stones, than they whom the
I. Olymp. 674. them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and children of Israel slew with the sword. chased them along the way that goeth up to 12 Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the Beth-horon, and smote them to Azekah, and day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites unto Makkedah.
before the children of Israel, and he said in 11 And it came to pass, as they fled from the sight of Israel, Sun, 'stand thoạ still before Israel, and were in the going down to upon Gibeon ;' and thou Moon, in the valley Beth-horon, P.that the Lord cast down great of s Ajalon. = Judg. iv. 15; 1 Sam. vii. 10, 12; Psa. xviii. 14; Isa. xxviii. 21. Isa. xxx. 30; Eccļus. xlvi, 6; Rev. xvi. 21. -4 Isa. xxviii. 21 , Ch. xvi. 3, 5.7 Ch. xv. 35.--P Psa. xviii. 13, 14; lxxvii. 17. Hab. ii. Il ; Ecclus, xlvi. 4.
- Judg. xii. 12. about eighteen or twenty miles; and, having fallen so same kind of hole, without either shattering or even unexpectedly on these confederate kings, they were starring the glass. It is needless to add that this immediately thrown into confusion.
hail-shower did great damage, breaking even trees in Verse 10. Slew them with a great slaughter at pieces, and destroying the vegetation through the whole Gibeon] Multitudes of them fell in the onsel ; after of its extent. But allowing that extraordinary showwhich they filed, and the Israelites pursued them by ers of hail have fallen in England or France, is it the way of Beth-horon. There were two cities of likely that such showers ever fell in the promised land this name, the upper and lower, both in the tribe of or its-vieinity ? They certainly have. Albertus AquenEphraim, and built by Sherah, the daughter of Ephraim, sis, one of the writers in the collection Gesta Dei per 1 Chron. vii. 24. The situation of these two cities is Francos, in describing the expedition of Baldwin I. not exactly known.
in the Holy Land, observes that, when he and his arTo Azekah, and unlo Makkedah.] These two cities my were in the Arabian mountains, in the vicinity of were in the tribe of Judah, chap. xv. 35–41. the Dead Sea, they suffered incredibly from horrible
Verse 11. The Lord cast down great stones from hail, terrible frost, and indescribable rain and snow, so heaven upon them] Some have contended that stones, that thirty of his men perished by them. His words in the common acceptation of the word, are intended are: “ Sexta-vero die montanis permensis, in extremo here ; and that the term hail-stones is only used to illorum cacumine maxima pertulerunt pericula, in point out the celerity of their fall, and their quantity. "GRANDINÉ horribili, in GLACIE terribili
, in PLUVIA et nive That stones have fallen from the clouds, if not from a inaudita, quorum immanitate, et horrore ingruente ad greater height, is a most incontestable fact. That triginta homines pedites pre frigore mortui sunt:" these have fallen in different parts of the world is also Hist. Hieros., p. 307.'. I conclude, therefore, that true ; the East Indies, America, France, Germany, a shower of hạil-stones · may be meant; and that England, Ireland, &c., have all witnessed this pheno- 'this 'shower, though natural in itself, was supermenon : of such stones I possess and have seen seve- naturally employed on this occasion, and miraculously ral fragments ; some considerable pieces may be seen directed to fall where it did, and do the execution in the British Museum. That God might have cast described. down suich stones as these on the Canaanites, there But I am ready to grant, notwithstanding, that as a can be no doubt, because his power is unlimited ; and most stupendous miracle was in this instance wrought, the whole account proves that here there was a in causing the sun and moon to stand still; there can miracülous interference. But it is more likely that be no doubt that the shower of stones, which was also hail-stones, in the proper sense of the word, are meant miraculous, might have been of real stones as well as as well as expressed in the text. That God on other hail-stones. Of late, this subject of the fall of real occasions has made use of hail-stones to destroy both stones from the clouds has been very closely investimen and catile, we have ample proof in the plague of gated, and not only the possibility of the fall of such kail that fell on the Egyptians. See the note on stones from the clouds, or from much higher regions, Exod. ix. 18. There is now before me a square of but the certainty of the case has been fully demonglass, taken out of a south window in the house of Mr. strated. These substances are now, in philosophical Ball of Crockerton, in the parish of Longbridge Deve- 'language denominated aeroliths or air-stones ; and rell, county of Wilts., through which a hail-stone passed the following table constructed by M. Izarn, a foreign in a shower that fell there June 1, 1780, at two o'clock, chemist, exhibits a variety of facts of this kind, and P. M. The hole is an obluse ellipsis or oval, and is shows the places and times in which these substances cut as true as if it had been done with a diamond : it fell, and the testimony by which these facts are supis three inches and a half in diameter; a proof that ported. As it is as possible that God might have prothe stone that pierced it, which was about eleven inches jected a shower of stones on these idolaters, even in circumference, came with inconceivable velocity, from the moon, as to arrest that planet in her course, else the glass must have been shivered to pieces. 1 I give the table, and leave the reader to decide, in the have known a cannon ball go through a square of glass present case, for aeroliths or hail-stones, as may seem in the cabin window of a ship, and make precisely the to him most congruous to the fact here related,
Account of aerial stones, which
have fallen at different places. 13 And the sun stood still, and their enemies. * Is noť this. An. Exod. Isr. 41. the moon stayed, until the peo- written in the book of u Jasher ? An. Exod. Isr.41. 1. Olymp. 674. ple had avenged themselves upon. So the sun stood still in the midst 1. Olymp. 674.
Or, the upright.
A. M. 2554.
A. M. 2554
12 Sam. i. 18.
Places where they fell.
Period of their fall.
Shower of stones
Under Tullus Hostilius. [Livy.
Consuls, C. Martius
and M. Torquatus
Second year of the A very large stone Near the river Negos, Thrace
78th Olympiad :)
Pliny. Three large stones
Year before J. C., 452 Ch. of Count Marcellin. Stone of 72 lbs.
Near Larissa; Macedonia January, 1706 ..
De La Lande.
De La Lande.
At Luce, in Le Maine September 13; 1768 Bachelay.
Garson de Boyaval.
St. Amand, Baudin, &c. -
Earl of Bristol.
February 19, 1796 : Southey.
March 17, 1798. . Le Lievre and De Drée.
Rhone Shower of stones
Benares, East Indies December 19, 1798 J. Lloyd Williams, Esq.
B. de Born.
April 5, 1800
Pallas, Chladni, &c.
Darcet, jun., Lomet, &c. ,
Acad. de Bourd. A stone of 20 lbs. Sales, near Ville Franche March 12, 1798
De Drée. Several ditto from 10 to
Fourcroy: 17 lbs.
Near L'Aigle, Normandy April 26, 1803..
These stones generally appear luminous in their Their specific gravities are generally about three or descent, moving in oblique directions with very great four times that of water, being heavier than common velocities, and commonly with a hişsing noise: They stones. · From the above account it is reasonable to are frequently heard to explode or burst, and seem to conclude that they have all the same origin. To acfly in pieces, the larger parts falling first.' They often count for this phenomenon, various hypotheses have strike the earth with such force aš to sink several appeared ; we shall mention three : 1. That they are inches below the surface. They are always different little planets, which, circulating in space, fall into the from the surrounding bodies, but in every case are atmosphere, which, by its friction, diminishes the vesimilar to one another, being semi-metallic, coated with locity, so that they fall by their weight. 2. That they a thin black incrustation. They bear strong marks are concretions formed in the atmosphere. 3. That of recent fusion. Chemists have found on examining they are projected from lunar volcanoes.
These are these stones that they very nearly agree in their na- the most probable conjectures we can meet with, and ture and composition, and in the proportions of their of these the two former possess a very small degree component parts. The stone which fell at Ensisheim of probability, but there are very strong reasons in in Alsace, in 1492, and those which fell at L'Aigle in favour of the last. Among the reasons we may noFrance, in 1803, yielded, by the Analysis of Fourcroy tice the following : 1. Volcanoes in the moon have been and Vanquelin, as in this table :
observed by means of the telescope. 2. The lunar
volcanoes are very high, and the surface of that globe L'Aigle stone fell
suffers frequent changes, as appears by the late obser
vations of Schroeter. 3. If a body be projected from oxyd of iron the moon to a distance greater than that of the point magnesia
of equilibrium between the attraction of the earth and sulphu
moon, it will, on the known principle of gravitation, fall to the earth. 4. That a body may be projected
from the lunár volcanoes beyond the moon's influence,
Ensisheim stone fell
A. D. 1492.
A. D. 1803
oxyd of nickel
At the command of Joshua.
the sun and moon stand still. A. M. 2534. of heaven, and hasted not to go | LORD hearkened unto the voice
A. M. 2554. B. C. 1450.
B. C. 1450. An. Exod. Isr. down about a whole day. of a man : forw the Lord fought An. Exod. Isr. 14 And there was no day like for Israel.
Anno ante 1. Olyrap. 674. that before it or after it, that the 15 * And Joshua returned, and 1. Olymp. 674. "See Isa. xxxvij. 8.
w Deut. i. 30; ver. 42; chap. xxiii. 3.— Ver. 43. is not only possible but very probable ; for on calcula- has employed the pens of the ablest divines and astion it is found that four times the force usually given tronomers, especially of the last two centuries. By to a twelve pounder, will be quite sufficient for this their learned labours many difficulties have been repurpose ; it is to be observed that the point of equi- moved from the account in general; bụt the very diflibrium is much nearer the moon; and that a projectile ferent and contradictory methods pursued by several, from the moon will not be so much retarded as one in their endeavours to explain the whole, and make the from the earth, both on account of the moon's rarer relation accord with the present acknowledged system atmosphere, and its 'less attractive force., On this of the universe, and the phenomena of nature, tend subject, see Mr. Haward's valuable paper in the Phi- greatly to puzzle the plain, unphilosophical reader. losophical Transactions for 1802, and Dr. Hutton's The subject cannot be well explained without a disdissertation in the new abridgment; part xxi. It is sertation ; and a dissertation is not consistent with the highly probable that the ancile, or sacred 'shield, that nature of short notes, or a commentary on Scripture. fell from heaven in the reign of Numa Pompilius, was. It is however necessary, to attempt an explanation, and a stone of this sort. The description of its fall, as to bring that as much as possible within the apprehengiven by Ovid, Fast. lib. iii., bears a striking resem- sion of common readers'; in order to this, I must beg blance to recent accounts of stones falling from the leave to introduce a few preliminary observations, or atmosphere, particularly in the luminous appearance what the reader may call propositions if he pleases. and hissing noise with which it was accompanied. .1. I take it for granted that a miracle was wrought
as nearly as circumstances' could admit, in the manner Dum loquitur, totum jam sol emerserat orbem,
in which it is here recorded." I shall not, therefore, Et gravis æthereo venit ab axe fragor.
seek' for any allegorical or metaphorical interprétaTer tonuit sine nube Deus, tria fulgura misit :
tions; the miracle is recorded as a fact, and as a fact Credite dicenti; mira, sed acta, loquor.
I take it up
2. I consider the present accredited system of the
universe, called sometimes the Pythagorean, CoperEcce levi scutum versatum leniter aura
rican, or Newtonian system, to be genuine ; and also Decidit, a pupulo clamor ad astra venit.
to be the system of the universe laid down in the MoTolit humo munus
saic writings—that the sun is in the centre of what Idque ancile vocat, quod ab omni parte recisum est.
is called the solar system ; 'and that the earth and all It is very possible that the Palladium of Troy, and the other planets, whether primary or secondary, move the Image of the Ephesian Diana, were stones which round him in certain periodical times, according to really fell from the atmosphere, bearing some rude the qụantity of their matter, and distance from him, resemblance to the human form. See the IMPERIAL their ‘centre. ENCYCLOPÆDIA, article Aerolith.
3. I consider the sun to have no revolution round I believe it is generally agreed among philosophers, any orbit, but to revolve round his own aris, and round 1. That all these aerial stones, chemically analyzed, the common centre of gravity in the planetary system, show the same properties ; 2. That no stone found on which centre of gravity is included within his own our earth possesses exactly the same properties, nor in i surface ; and in all other respects I consider himn to be the same proportions. . This is an extraordinary cir- at rest in the system. cumstance, and deserves particular notice.
4. I consider the earth, not only as revolving round Verse 12. Then spake Joshua to the Loril] Though the sun in 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 48 Joshua saw that the enemies of his people were put seconds, but aš revolving round its own axis, and to flighi, yet he well knew that all which escaped making this revolution in 23 hours, 56 minutes, and would rally again, and that he should be obliged to 4 seconds ; that in the course of 24 hours complete, meet them once more in the field of battle if permit- every part of its surface is alternately turned to the ted now to escape ; finding that the day was drawing sun ; that this revolution constitutes ouir day and night, towards a close, he feared that he should not have time as the former docs our year; and it is day to all sufficient to complete the destruction of the confederate those parts which have the sun above the horizon, and armies ; in this moment, being-suddenly inspired with night to those which have the sun below it; and that Divine confidence, he requested the Lord to perform this diurnal revolution of the earth, or revolving round the most stupendous miracle that had. ever been its own axis, in a direction from west to east, occawrought, which was no less than to arrest the sun in sions what is commonly called the rising and setting his course, and prolong the day till the destruction of of the sun, which appearance is occasioned, not by any his enemies had been completed !
motion in the sun himself, but by this motion of the Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon ; and thou, Moon, earth; which may be illustrated by a ball or globe in the ralley of Ajalon.) To account for this miracle, suspended by a thread, and caused to turn round. If and to ascertain the manner in which it was wrought, this be held opposite to a candle, it will appear half
B. C. 1450.
B. C. 1450.
41. Anno ante
-vaiyiddom hashsHEMESH veYA וידם השמש וירח עמד.
The five Amorite kings are
found hidden in a cave. A. M. 2554. all Israel with him, unto the camp 17 And it was told Joshua, say
A. M. 2554. An. Exod. Isr. to Gilgal.
ing, The five kings are found hid An. Exod. Isr Anno ante
16 But these five kings fled, in a cave at Makkedah 1. Olymp. 674. and y hid themselves in a cave 18 And Joshua said, 2 Roll
I. Olymp. 674. at Makkedah.
great stones upon the mouth of the cave, y Psa. xlviii. 4,5; Isa. ii. 10.
z Ver. 22; Psa. xviii. 37-41. enlightened and half dark; but the dark parts will be The effect of this command is related, ver. 13, in seen to come successively into the light, and the en- the following words :lightened parts into the shade ; while the candle itself which gives the light is fixed, not changing its REACH amad, And the sun was dumb or silent and the position.
moon stood still, And in the latter clause of this verse 5. I consider the solar influence to be the cause it is added : And the sun stood still in the midst of both of the annual and diurnal motion of the earth; heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day. and that, while that influence continues to act upon it It seems necessary here to answer the question, At according to the law which God originally impressed what time of the day did this miracle take place? on both the earth and the sun, the annual and diurnal The expression D'ovni 'xna bachatsi hashshamayim, motions of the earth must continue ; and that no power in the midst of heaven, seems to intimate that the sun but the unlimited power of God can alter this influence, was at that time on the meridian of Gibeon, and conchange, or suspend the operation of this law; but that sequently had one half of its course to run ; and this he is such an infinitely FREE AGent, that he can, sense of the place has been strongly.contended for as when his unerring wisdom sees. good, alter, suspend, essential to the miracle, for the greater display of the or even annihilate all secondary causes and their glory, of God : “Because,” say its abettors, “ had the effects : for it would be degrading to the perfections miracle, been wrought when the sun was near the going of his nature to suppose that he had so bound himself down, it might have been mistaken for some refraction by the laws which he has given for the preservation of the rays of light, occasioned by a peculiarly moist and direction of universal nature, that he could not state of the atmosphere in the horizon of that place, or change them, alter their effects, or suspend their ope- by some such appearance as the Aurora Borealis." rations when greater and better effects, in a certain To me there seems no solidity in this reason. Had time or plače, might be produced by such tempòrary the sun been arrested in the meridian, the miracle change or suspension.
could scarcely have been noticed, and especially in ..6. I consider that the miracle wrought on this the hurry and confusion of that time ; and we may be occasion served greatly to confirm the Israelites, not assured, that among the Canaanites there were neither only in the belief of the being and perfections of God, clocks nor time-keepers, by which the preternatural but also in the doctrine of an especial providence, and length of such a day could have been accurately meain the nullity of the whole system of idolatry and su- sured : but, on the contrary, had the sun been about perstition.
the setting, when both the pursuers and to pursued 7. That no evil was done by this miraculous inter- must be apprehensive of its speedy-disappearance, its ference, nor any law or property of nature ultimately continuanţe for several hours above the horizon, so changed ; on the contrary, a most important good was near the point when it might be expected to go doron, produced, which probably, to this people, could not have must have been very observable and striking. The been brought about any other way; and that therefore enemy must see, feel, and deplore it; as their hope the miracle wrought on this occasion was highly wor- of escape must, in such circumstances, be founded thy of the wisdom and power of God.
on the speedy entering in of the night, throagh 8. I consider that the terms in the text employed which alone they could expect to elude the pursuing to describe this miracle are not, when rightly under- Israelites.
And the Israelites themselves must bestood, contrary to the well-established notions of the hold with 'astonishment and wonder that the setting true system of the universe ; and are not spoken, as sun hasted nol to go down about a whole day, affordsome have contended, ad captum vulgi, to the preju- ing them supernatural time totally to destroy a routed dices of the common people, much less do they favour foe, which otherwise night have had time to rally, the Ptolemaic or any other hypothesis that places the confederate, choose a proper station, and attack in earth in the centre of the solar system.
their turn with peculiar advantages, and a probability Having laid down these preliminaries, some short of success, It appears, therefore, much more reasonobservations on the words of the text may be sufficient. able that Joshua should require this miracle to be
Joshua's address is in a poetic form in the original, performed when daylight was about to fail, just as the and makes the two following hemistichs :
sun was setting. If we were to consider the sun as being at the meridian of Gibeon, as some understand The midst of heaven, it may be well asked, How could
Joshua know that he should not have time enough to Shemesh begibon dom :
complete the destruction of his enemies, who were Veyareach bęemek Aiyalon.
now completely routed? Already multitudes of them Sun! upon Gibeon be dumb:
had fallen by the hail-stones and by the sword : and if And the moon on the vale of Ajalon, he had yet half a day before him, it would have been
שמש בגבעון דום וירח בעמק אילון