Imágenes de páginas

B. C. 1450.

41. Anno ante

41. Anno ante


Several Amoritish kings form


a confederacy against Israel A. M. 2554.

3 And to the Canaanite on the

A M. 2554. B. C. 1450.

AND: it came to pass, when An. Exod. Isr. Jabin king of Hazor had east and on the west, and to the An. Exod. Isr

heard those things, that he a sent Amorite, and the Hittite, and the : 1. Olymp. 674.

to Jobáb king of Madon, and to Perizzite, and the Jebusile in the 1. Olymp. 674. the king of Shimron, and to the king of mountains, and to the Hivité. under HerAchshaph,

mon & in the land of Mizpeh. 2 And to the kings that were on the north 4 And they went out, they and all their hosts of the mountains, and of the plains south of with-them, - much people, h even as the sand

Chinneroth, and in the valley, and in the that is upon the sea shore in multitude, with borders d of Dor on the west,

La Ch.


horses and chariots very many. · Chap. x. 3. - Chap. xix. 15.- Num. xxxiv. 11.

e Judg. ii. 3.1 Chap. xiii. 11, - Gen. xxxi. 49. xvii. 11; Judg. i. 27 ; 1 Kings iv. 11.

xxii. 17; xxxii. 12; Judg. vii. 12; 1 Sam. xiii. 5. NOTES ON CHAP. XI.

Marath, by Pliny and Pomponius Mela. It cannot Verse 1. Jabin king of Hazor] It is probable that be Samaria, as that had its name long after by Omri Jabin was the common name of all the kings of Hazor. king of Israel. See 1 Kings xvi. 24. That king, by whom the Israelites were kept in a King of Achshaph] Calmet supposes this to have state of slavery for twenty years, and who was defeated been the city Ecdippe, mentioned by Pliny, Ptolemy, by Deborah and Barak, was called by this name; see Josephus, and Eusebius. The latter places it within Judg. iv. 2, 3, 23. The name signifies wise or intel- ten miles of Plolemais, on the road to Tyre. It fell ligent. The city of Hazor was situated above the to the tribe of Asher. See chap. xix. 25. Lake Semechon, in Upper Galilee, according to Jose Verse 2. On the north of the mountains] Or the phus, Antiq. lib. V., c. 6. It was given to the tribe mountain, probably Hermon, or some mountain not far of Naphtali, Josh. xiś. 36, who it appears did not from the lake of Gennesareth. possess it long; for though it was burnt by Joshua, And of the plains) That is, the valleys of the ver. 11, it is likely that the Canaanites rebuilt it, and above mountains, which had the sea of Chinneroth or restored the ancient government, as we find a power- Gennesareth on the south. ful king there about one hundred and thirty years after Chinneroth] This city is supposed by St. Jerome the death of Joshua, Judg. ir. 1. It is the same that and several others since his time, to be the same as was taken by Tiglath-pileser, together with Kadesh, was afterwards called Tiberias. From this city or to which it is contiguous ;, see 2 Kings. xv. 29. It. village the sea of Chinneroth or Genne sareth probably is supposed to have given name to the Valley or Plain had its name. of Hazor or Nasor, situated between it and Kadesh, And in the borders of Dor] Calmet supposes this to where Jonathan and Mattathias defeated the armies mean the champaign country of the higher and lower of Demetrius, and slew three thousand of their men, Galilee, on to the Mediterranean Sea, and to the vil1 Maccab. xi. 63–74. It was in ancient times the lage or city of Dor, which was the farthermost city of metropolitan city of all that district, and a number of Phænicia. Dor was in the lot of the half tribe of Mapetty kings or chiestains were subject to its king, see nasseh, and was situated on the Mediterranean Sea, three ver. 10; and it is likely that it was those tributary leagues from Cæsarea, and seven from Ptolemais.. kings who were summoned to attend the king of Hazor Verse 3. The Canaanite on the east, fc.). Those on this occasion ; for Joshua having conquered the whọ dwelt on the borders of Jordan, south of the sea southern part of the promised land, the northern parts of Tiberias. seeing themselves exposed made now a common in On the west] Those were the Phænicians who dwelt terest, and, joining with Jabin, endeavoured to put a on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, from Dor north stop to the progress of the Israelites. See Calmet. wards, on the way to Mount Libanus.—Calmet.

Jobab king of Madon] This royal city is nowhere The Hivite under Hermon) Mount Hermon was to else mentioned in Scripture except in chap. xii. 19. the east of Libanus and the fountains of Jordan; it is The Vatican copy of the Septnagint reads Mapwv, the same with Syrion and Baal Hermon in Scripture. Maron, which, if legitimate, Calmet thinks may mean The land of Mizpeh.] There were several cities of Maronia or Merath in Phenicia, to the north of Mount this name : one in the tribe of Judah, (chap. xv. 38 ;) Libanus. The Hebrew text reads 717.3. Meron, chap. a second in the tribe of Benjamin, (chap. xviii. 26 ;) a xii. 20, after Shimron, which is probably the same third beyond Jordan, in the tribe of Gad; and a fourth with 777) Madon, ver. 19, the word having casually beyond Jordan, in the tribe of Manasseh, which is dropped out of the preceding place into the latter, and that mentioned in the text. See Wells's Geography. the 7 resh and 7. daleth being interchanged, which Calmet supposes this Mizpeh to be the place where might have easily happened from the great similarity Laban and Jacob made their covenant, and from which of the letters. Hence Calmet conjectures that it may circumstance it took its name. See Gen. xxxi. 48, 49. be the same place with 1199 Meroz, Judg. v. 23, the Verse 4. Much people, even as the sand] This form i zain and į final nun being interchanged, which they of speech, by some called a hyperbole, conveys simply might easily, as they are so very similar.

the idea of a vast or unusual number-a number of King of Shimron] This city is supposed to be the which no regular estimate could be easily formed. Josame with Symira, in Cælosyria, joined to Maron or sephus, who seldom finds difficulties in such cases,

A. M. 2554.
B. C. 1450.

41. Aano ante

41. Anno ante

Joshua attacks and


utterly discomfits them. A. M. 2554. 5 And when all these kings maim, Pand unio the valley of B. C. 1450. An. Exod. Isr. were i met together, they came Mizpeh, eastward; and they An. Exod. Isr.

and pitched together at the waters smote them, until they left them 1. Olymp. 674. of Merom, to fight against Israel. none remaining.

I. Olymp. 674. 6 And the LORD said unto Joshua, * Be not 9 And Joshua did unto them 9 as the LORD afraid because of them :- for to-morrow about bade him ; he houghed their horses, and burnt this time will I deliver them up all slain be their chariots with fire. fore Israel: thou shalt "hough their horses, 1

10 And Joshua at that time turned back, and burn their chariots' with fire.

and took Hazor, and smote the king thereof 7 So Joshua came, and all the people of with the sword: for Hazor beforetime was the war with him, against them by the waters of head of all those kingdoms. Merom suddenly; and they fell upon

them. 11 'And they smote all the souls that were 8 And the Lord delivered them into the hand therein with the edge of the sword, utterly of Israel, who smote them, and chased them destroying them : there was not ' any left to unto a great Zidon, and unto 1 • Misrephoth- breathe : and he burnt Hazor with fire. * Heb. assembled by appointment.--* Chap. x. 8. 12 Sam. viii. 4.

4 Chap. xiii. 6.

Lo Or, salt pits.

:-P Heb. burnings.-

-9 Ver. 6,

m Or, Zidon-rabbah.

r Heb.



and makes no scruple of often speaking without book, “There lay the vestures of no vulgar art, tells us that the allied armies amounted to 300,000 SIDONIAN maids embroidered every part.” foot, 10,000 horse, and 20,000 chariots of war.

Pope. Antiq. lib. V., c. 1..

Αργυρεον κρητηρα τετυγμενόν εξ δ' αρα μετρα That chariots were frequently used in war, all the Χανδανεν, αυταρ καλλει ενικα πασαν επ' αιαν records of antiquity prove; but it is generally sup Πολλον, επι Σιδονες πολυδαιδαλοι εν ησκησαν. posed that among the Canaanites they were armed

Iliad, lib. xxiij., ver. 741. with iron scythes fastened to their poles and to the

" A silver urn that full six measures held, nares of their wheels. Terrible things are spoken of

By none in weight or workmanship excell'd; these, and the havoc made by them when furiously

SIDONIAN artists taught the frame to shine, driven among the ranks of infantry. Of what sort the

Elaborate with artifice divine."

Pope. cavalry was, we know not; but from the account here giren we may see what great advantages these allie's Εκ μεν Σιδωνος πολυχαλκου ευχομαι ειναι. . possessed over the Israelites, whose armies consisted

Odyss. xv. 424. of infantry only.

"I am.of SIDON, famous for her wealth.Verse 5. The waters of Merom] Where these waters were, interpreters are not agreed. Whether this city : Sipon artifex vitri, Hist. Nat. 1. v., c. 19.

The art of making glass is attributed by Pliny to they were the waters of the Lake Semechon, or the waters of Megiddo, mentioned Judg. v. 19, cannot be what this place was is unknown, but Calmet conjec

Misrephoth-maim] Or, Misrephoth of the waters. easily determined. The latter is the more probable

tures it to be the same with Sarepta, a city of Pheopinion.

nicia, contiguous to Sidon. The word signifies the Verse 6. Be not afraid of them) To meet such a

burning of the waters, or inflammation ; probably it formidable host so well equipped, in their own country, was a place noted for its hol springs: this idea seems furnished with all that was necessary to supply a nu

to have struck Luther, as he translates it, die warme merous army, required more than ordinary encourage- wasser, the hot waters. ment in Joshua's circumstances. This communication

Verse 9. He houghed their horses] The Hebrew from God was highly necessary, in order to prevent word. apu akar, which we rènder to hough or hamthe people from desponding on the eve of a conflict, in string, signifies to wound; cut, or lop off. It is very which their all was at stake.

likely that it means here, not only an act by which Verse 7. By the waters of Merom suddenly] Jo- they were rendered useless, but by which they were shua, being apprized of this grand confederation, lost destroyed; as God had purposed that his people should no time, but marched to meet them; and before they not possess any cattle of this kind, that a warlike and could have supposed him at hand, fell suddenly upon enterprising spirit might not be cultivated among them; them, and put them to the rout.

and that, when obliged to defend themselves and their Verse 8. Great Zidon} If this were the same country, they might be led to depend upon God for with the Sidon of the ancients

, it was illustrious long protection and victory. On the same ground, God before the Trojan war; and both it and its inhabit-had forbidden the kings of Israel to multiply horses, ants are frequently mentioned by Homer as excelling Deut. xvii. 16. See the note there containing the in works of skill and ulility, and abounding in

reasons on which this prohibition was founded. wealth:

Burnt their chariots] As these could have been of Ενθ εσαν οι πεπλοι παμποικιλοι, εργα γυναικων no use without the horses. Σιδονιων. . Iliad, lib. vi., ver. 289. Verse 10. Took Hazor] See on ver. 1.

41-47. Anno ante

Anno ante

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their heap:

The people take the spoils.


Account of the country taken A, M. 2554.-60.

12 And all the cities of those servant, so did Moses command A. M. 2534-60 B. C. 1450-44.

B. C. 1450-44 An. Exod. Isr. kings, and all the kings of them, Joshua, and so did Joshua ; " he An. Exod. Isı.

41-47. did Joshua take, and smote them left nothing undone of all that the 1. Olymp. 674–68. with the edge of the sword, and LORD commanded Moses.

I. Olymp. 674-68. he utterly destroyed them, as Moses the ser 16 So Joshua took all that land, -y the hills, vant of the LORD commanded.

and all the south country, 2 and all the land of 13 But as for the cities that stood still * in Goshen, and the valley, and the plain, and the their strength, Israel burned none of them, mountain of Israel, and the valley of the same, save Hazor only; that did Joshua burn. 17 Even from the mount Halak, that goeth

14 And all the spoil of these cities, and the up to Seir, even unto Baal-gad in the valley
cattle, the children of Israel took for a prey of Lebanon under Mount Hermon : and e all
.unto themselves; but every man they smote their kings he took, and smote them, and slew
with the edge of the sword, until they had de- them.
stroyed them, neither left they any to breathe. 18 d Joshua made war a long time with all

15 As the LORD commanded Moses his those kings.
Num. xxxiii. 52; Deut. vij. 2; xx. 16. 17. Heb. on * Heb. he removed nothing. -y Chap. xii. 8. -2 Chap. x. 41.

u Exod. xxxiv. 11, 12.- Deuteronomy vii. 2. a Chap. xii. 7. -b Or, the smooth mountain. - Deut. vii. 24 ; w Chap. i. 7.

chap. xii. 7. -d Till 1445; ver. 23. Verse 13. The cities that stood still in their strength] will be removed. But, the first opinion seems best The word ohn tillam, which we translate their strength, founded ; for there is incontestable evidence that seand the margin, their heap, has been understood two veral notes have been added to this book since the ways. 1. As signifying those cities which had made days of Joshua. See the preface. peace with the Israelites, when conditions of peace Verse 17. From the mount Halak] All the mounwere offered according to the command of the law; tainous country that extends from the south of the land and consequently were not destroyed. Such as the of Canaan towards Seir untò Baal-gad, which lies at cities of the Hivites ; see ver., 19. 2. The cities the foot of Mount Libanus or Hermon, called-by some which were situated upon hills and mountains, which, the mountains of Separation, which serve as a limit when taken, might be retained with little difficulty. between the land of Canaan and that of Seir ;'see chap. In this sense the place is understood by the Vulgate,. xii. 7. as 'pointing out the cities que erant in collibus et tu The valley of Lebanon] The whole extent of the mulis sitæ,' " which were situated on hills and emi- plain which is on the south, and probably north, of nences.” “As the cities of the plain might be easily Mount Libanus. Calmét conjectures that Cælesyria attacked and carried, Joshua destroyed them, Hazor is here meant. excepted ; but as those on mountains, hills, or other Verse 18. Joshua made war a long time] The whole eminences, might be retained with litile trouble, pru- of these conquests were not effected in one campaign : dence would dictate their preservation, as places of they probably required six or seven years.

There are refuge in any insurrection of the people, or invasion some chronological notices in this book, and in Deuof their adversaries. The passage in Jeremiah, chap. teronomy, by which the exact time may be nearly asxxx. 18, Jerusalem shall be builded on her own heap, certained. Caleb was forly years old when he was obo tillah, if understood as above, conveys an easy sent from Kadesh-barnea by Moses to search out the and clear sense : Jerusalem shall be re-established on land, about A. M. 2514; and at the end of this war her own HILL.

he was eighty-five years old ; (compare chap. xiv. 10 Verse 14. All the spoil of these citiesIsrael took) with Num. xiii. and Deut. i. ;) consequently the war With the exception of those things which had been ended in 2559, which had begun, by the passage of employed for idolatrous purposes ; see Deut. vii. 25. Jordan, on the tenth day of the first month of the year

Verse 16. The mountain of Israel, and the valley 2554. From this date to the end of 2559 we find of the same] This place has given considerable trouble exactly six years ; the first of which Joshua seems to to commentators; and it is not easy to assign such a have employed in the conquest of the south part of meaning to the place as may appear in all respects the land of Canaan, and the other five in the conquest satisfactory. 1. If we consider this verse and the of all the territories situated on the north of that coun21st to have been added after the times in which the try. See Dodd. kingdoms of Israel and Judah were divided, the diffi Calmet computes this differently, and allows the term culty is at once removed. 2. The difficulty will be of seven yoars for the conquest of the whole land. removed if we consider that mountain and valley are “Caleb was forty years old when sent from Kadeshput here for mountains and valleys, and that these in- barnea to spy out the land. At the conclusion of the clude all mountains and valleys which were not in the war he was eighty-five years old, as himself says, chap. lot that fell to the tribe of Judah. Or, 3. If by moun- xiv. 10. From this sum of eighty-five subtract forty, tain of Israel we understand Beth-el, where God his age when he went from Kadesh-barnea, and the appeared to Jacob, afterwards called Israel, and pro- thirty-eight years which he spent in the wilderness mised him the land of Canaan, a part of the difficulty after his return, and there will remain the sum of seven


41-47. Anno ante

An. Exod. Isr.

41-47. Anno ante

Joshua cuts off the Anakims,


and finishes the war. A M 255460.

19 There was not a city that the mountains of Judah, and from A. M. 2554-60. B. C. 1450-44.

B. C. 1450–44. An. Exod. Ist. made peace with the children of all the, mountains of Israel :

Israel, save • the Hivites, the in- Joshua destroyed them utterly 1. Olymp. 674-68. habitants of Gibeoni all other with their cities.

I.Olymp. 674–68. they took in battle.

22 There was none of the Anakims left in 20 For ' it was of the Lord to harden their the land of the children of Israel: only in hearts, that they should come against Israel Gaza, in Gath, * and in Ashdod, there re in batile, that he might destroy them utterly, mained, and that they might have no favour, but that 23 So Joshua took the whole land, tache might destroy them, & as the Lord come cording to all that the LORD said unto manded Moses.

Moses; and Joshua gave it for an inheritance 21 And at that time came Joshua, and cut unto Israel, m according to their divisions off the. Anakims from the mountains, from by their tribes. n And the land rested from Hebron, from Debir, from Anab, and from all war.

Chap. ix.3, 7. of Deut. ii. 30; Judg. xiv. 4; 1 Sam. ii. 25; 1 Sam. xvii. 4.-- Chap. xv., 46.- Num. „xxxiv. 2, &c. 1 Kings xii. 15; Rom. ix. 18.--% Deut. xx. 16, 17.

ch Nuin.

m Num. xxvi: 53; chiap. xiv., xv., xvi., xvii., xviii, and xix. x111. 22, 33; Deut. 1. 28; chap. xv. 13, 14.

* Chap. xiv. 15; xxi. 44 ; xxii. 4 ; xxu. 1 ; ver. 18.

years, which was the time spent in the conquest of the which belonged to the Philistines; and in which some land."

of the descendants of Anak were found even in the days -1. By protracting the war the Canaanites had time of David: to repent, having sufficient opportunity to discern the Verse 23. So Joshua look the whole land] All the hand of Jehovah. 2. Agriculture was carried on, and country described here and in the preceding chapter. thus provision was made even for the support of the Besides the multitudes that perished in this war, many conquerors; for had the land been subdued and wasted of the Canaanites took refuge in the confines of the at once, tillage must have been stopped, and famine land, and in the neighbouring nations. Some suppose would have ensued. 3. Wild beasts would have mul- that a party of these fugitive Canaanites made themtiplied upon them, and the land have been desolated by selves masters of Lower Egypt, and founded a dynasty their means. 4. Had these conquests been more rapid there known by the name of the shepherd kings; but the people of Israel would have been less affected, and it is more probable that the shepherds occupied Egypt less instructed by miracles that had passed in such quick long before the time that Jacob went thither to sojourn. succession before their eyes; and, as in this case they It is said they founded T'ingris or Tangier, where, would have obtained the dominion with comparatively according to Procopius, they erected two white pillars little exertion, they might have felt themselves less in with an inscription in the Phænician language, of which terested in the preservation of an inheritance, to ob- this is the translation: We are the persons who tain which they had been but at little trouble and little HAVE FLED FROM THE FACE OF JOSHUA THE PLUNDERER, expense. What we labour under the Divine blessing THE SON or Nave or Nun. See Bochart, Phaleg and to acquire we are careful to retain ; but what comes Canaan, lib. i., c. xxiv., col. 476. Many, no doubt, lightly generally goes lightly. God obliged them to settled in different parts of Africa, in Asia Minor, in put forth their own strength in this work, and only Greece, and in the different islands of the Ægean and blessed and prospered them while they were workers Mediterranean Sea : it is supposed also that colonies together with him. See the note on chap. xiii. 6. of this people were spread over different parts of Ger

Verse 20. It was of the Lord to harden-their hearts] many and Sclavonia, &c., but their descendants are They had sinned against all the light they had received, now so confounded with the nations of the earth, as and God left them justly to the hardness, obstinacy, no longer to retain their original name, or to be disand pride of their own hearts ; for as they chose to cernible. retain their idolatry, God was determined that they And Joshua gave it for an inheritance unto Israel] should be cut off. For as no city made peace with the He claimed no peculiar jurisdiction over it; his own Israelites but Gibeon and some others of the Hivites, family had no peculiar share of it, and himself only the ver. 19, it became therefore necessary to destroy them; ruined city of Timnath-serah, in the tribe of Ephraim, for their refusal to make peace was the proof that they which he was obliged to rebuild. See chap. xix. 49, wilfully persisted in their idolatry.

50, and see his character at the end of the book. Verse 21. Cut off the Anakimsfrom Hebron, from And the land rested from war.] The whole terriDebir] This is evidently a recapitulation of the-mili- tory being now conquered, which God designed the tary operations detailed chap. x. 36-41,

Israelites should possess at this time. Destroyed-their cities] That is, those of the Anakims; for from ver. 13 we learn that Joshua preserved ACCORDING to the apostle, Heb. iv. 8; &c., Joshua certain other cities.

himself was a type of Christ; the promised land, of the Verse 22. In Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod] The kingdom of heaven ; the victories which he gained, of whole race of the Anakims was extirpated in this war, the victory and triumph of Christ; and the rest he except those who had taken refuge in the above cities, procured for Israel, of the stale of blessedness, at the

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Kings conquered by Moses


on the east of Jordan.. right hand of God. In this light we should view the world, the devil, and the flesh; for it is only of those whole history, in order to derive those advantages from who thus overcome that he says, “ They shall sit with it which, as a portion of the revelation of God, it was me on my throne, as I have overcome, and am set intended to convey.

Those who finally reign with down with the Father on the Father's throne;" Rev Christ are they who, through his grace, conquer the l iii. 21. Reader, art thou a conqueror ?



A list of the kings on the east of Jordan, which were conquered by Moses, with their territories, 1-6. A lis.

of those on the west side of Jordan, conquered by Joshua, in number thirty-one, 7--24. A. M. 2554-60. B. C. 1450-44.

NOW these are the kings of | to Beth-jeshimoth; and from the A. M: 2554-60. An. Exod. Isr. the land, which the children south, under 8 Ashdoth-pisgah : An. Exod. Isr. 41-47.

Anno ante

41-47 of Israel smote, and possessed 4 And i the coast of Og king, Anno ante I. Olym. 674–68. their land on the other side for- of Bashan, which was of k the I. Olym. 674-68. dan toward the rising of the sun, . from the remnant of the giants, that dwelt at Ashtaroth river Arnon bunto Mount Hermon, and all the and at Edrei, plain on the east :

5 And reigned in m Mount Hermon, and in 2 . Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt Salcah, and in all Bashan, unto the border in Heshbon, and ruled from Aroer, which is of the Geshurites, and the Maachathites, and upon the bank of the river Arnon, and from half Gilead, the border of Sihon king of Heshthe middle of the river, and from half Gilead, bon. eyen unto the river Jabbok, which is the bor-1.6 p Them did Moses the servant of the Lord der of the children of Ammon;

and the children of Israel smite : and Moses 3 And d' from the plain to the sea of Chin- the servant of the Lord gave it for a possesneroth on the east, and unto the sea of the sion unto the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and plain, even the Salt Sea on the east, the way the half tribe of Manasseh.

a Num. xxi. 24. Lb Deut. iij. 8, 9, Núm. xxi. 24 ; Deut. i Num. xxi. 35; Deut. iii. 4, 10. k Deut. ii. 11 ; chap. xiii. ii. 33, 36; iji. 6, 16. – Deut. iii. 17. Chap. xiii. 20. 12. Deut. I. 4. In Deut. iii. 8. Deut. ii. 10; chap. T Or, Teman. & Or, the springs of Pisgah, or the hill. Deut.xiii. 11. - Deut. iii. 14. Num. xxi. 24, 33. Num. jil. 17 ; iv, 49,

xxxii. 29, 33; Deut. iii. 11, 12; chap. xiii. 8. NOTES ON CHAP: XII.

falls into Jordan: It bounds the territories of Sihon Verse 1. From the river Arnon unto Mount Her- on the north, and those of the Ammonites' on the mon] Arnon was the boundary of all the southern south. coast of the land occupied by the Israelites beyond Jor Verse 3. The sea of Chinneroth] Or Gennesareth, dan; and the mountains of Hermon were the boun- the same as the lake or sea of Tiberias. daries on the north. Arnon takes its rise in the moun The Salt Sea on the east) non biyam hammelach, tains of Gilead, and having run a long way from north which is here translated the Salt Sea, is understood by to south falls into the Dead Sea, near the same place others to mean the sea of the city Melach. Where into which Jordan discharges itself.

can we find any thing that can be called a salt sea on And all the plain on the east) . All the land from the east of the lake of Gennesareth ? Some think that the plains of Moab to Mount Hermon.

the lake Asphaltites, called also the Dead Sea, Sea of Verse 2. From Aroer] Aroer was situated on the the Desert, Sea of Sodom, and Salt Sea, is here inwestern side of the river Arnon, in the middle of the tended.. valley through which this river takes its course. The Beth-jeshimoth] A city near the Dead Sea in the kingdom of Sihon extended from the river Arnon and plains of Moab. the city of Aroer on the south to the river Jabbok on Ashdoth-pisgah] Supposed to be a city at the foot the north.

of Mount Pisgah. And from half Gilead] The mountains of Gilead Verse 4. Coast of Og king of Bashan] Concerning extended from north to south from Mount Hermon to this person see the notes on Deut. iii. 11, and on Num, wards the source of the river Arnon, which was about xxi. 35, &c. the midst of the extent of the kingdom of Sihon: thus remnant of the giants) Or, Rephaim. See the Sihon is said to have possessed the half of Gilead, notes on Gen, vi. 4, xiv. 5, and Deut. ii. 7, 11. that is, the half of the mountains and of the country Verse 5. The border of the Geshurites] The country which bore the name of Gilead on the east of his ter- of Bashan, in the days of Moses and Joshua, extended ritories,

from the river Jabbok on the south to the frontiers of River. Jabbok] This river has its source in the the Geshurites and Maachathites on the north, to the mountains of Gilead; and, running from east to west, foot of the mountains of Hermon.

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