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A. M. 3291.
B. C. 713. Ol. XVI. 4.
B. C. 712. OI. XVIL I.
A. M. 3292.
Isaiah predicts the
Babylonish captwity. LORD: and she brought the
A. M, 3292. 15 And he said, What have
he 1.15 shadow ten degrees backward, by they seen in thine house? And An. Hippome
An. Leocratis, nis, Arch. Ath. which it had gone down in the Hezekiah answered, wAll the
decen. 1. P dial of Ahaz.
things that are in mine house 12 9 At that time · Berodach. have they seen there is nothing among
baladan, the son of Baladan, king my treasures that I have not showed An. Leocratis,
of Babylon, sent letters and a them.
present unto Hezekiah ; for he 16 And Isaiah said unto Hezekiah, Hear had heard that Hezekiah had been sick. the word of the LORD.
13 And Hezekiah hearkened unto them, and 17 Behold, the days come, that all that is showed them all the house of his precious in thine house, and that which thy fathers things, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, have laid up in store unto this day, * shall be and the precious ointment, and all the house carried into Babylon : nothing shall be left, of his u armour, ' and all that was found in his saith the Lord. treasures : there was nothing in his house, nor 18 And of thy sons that shall issue from in all his dominion, that Hezekiah showed thee, which thou shalt beget, shall they take them not.
away; ? and they shall be eunuchs in the 14 Then came Isaiah the prophet unto King palace of the king of Babylon. Hezekiah, and said unto him, What said these 19 Then said Hezekiah unto Isaiah, . Good men? and from whence came they unto thee? is the word of the Lord which thou hast spoAnd Hezekiah sạid, They are come from a ken. And he said, ” Is it not good, if peace far country, even from Babylon.
and truth be in my days ?
• See Josh. x. 12, 14; Isa. xxxviii. 8; Ecclus. xlviii. 23. * Ch. xxiv. 13; xxv. 13; Jer. xxvii, 21, 22; li. 17, Ch. pHeb. degrees. - ssa. xxxix. 1, &c. - Or, Merodach-baladan. xxiv. 12; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 11. Fulfilled, Dan. i. 3.-AI Sam. * 2 Chron. xxxii. 27, 31. Or, spicery. - Or, jewels. —Heb. ii. 18; Job i. 21; Psa. xxxix. 9. Or, Shall there not be peace vessels.-W Ver. 13.
and truth, &c.
that the sun went ten degrees back in the heavens, or in a destructive war. The king of Babylon had not that the earth turned back upon its axis from east to only heard of his sickness, but he had heard of the west, in a contrary direction to its natural course. But miracle ; as we learn from 2 Chron. xxxii. 31. the miracle might be effected by means of refraction, Verse 13. Hezekiah hearkened unto them) Instead for a ray of light we know can be varied or refracted of yov") vaiyishma, he hearkened, noy's vaiyismach, from a right line by passing through a dense medium; he rejoiced or was glad, is the reading of twelve of and we know also, by means of the refracting power Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS., the parallel place, of the atmosphere, the sun, when near rising and set- Isa. xxxix. 2, the Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, Arating, seems to be higher above the horizon than he bic, some copies of the Targum, and the Babylonian really is ; and, by horizontal refraction, we find that Talmud. the sun appears above the horizon when he is actually AU the house of his precious things] Interpreters below it, and literally out of sight; therefore, by using are not well agreed about the meaning of the original dense clouds or vapours, the rays of light in that place and nechothoh, which we here translate precious might be refracted from their direct course ten, or any things, and in the margin spicery, or jewels. I supother number of degrees; so that the miracle might pose the last to be meant. have been wrought by occasioning this extraordinary There was nothing in his house] He showed them, refraction, rather than by disturbing the course of the through a spiriì of folly and exultation, all his treasures, earth, or any other of the celestial bodies.
and no doubt those in the house of the Lord. And it The dial of Ahaz.) See the noté on chap. ix. 13, is said, 2 Chron. xxxii. 31, that in this business God and the observations and diagram at the end of this I left him to try him, that he might know all that was chapter.
in his heart; and this trial proved that in his heart Verse 12. At that time Berodach-baladan] He is there was little else than pride and folly. called Merodach-Baladan, Isa. xxxix. I, and by the Verse 17. Behold, the days come] This was fulSeptuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions; and by filled in the days of the latter Jewish kings, when the several of Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS.; and also Babylonians had led the people away into. captivity, by the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. The and stripped the land, the temple, &c., of all their true reading seems to be. Merodach; the smem and riches. See Dan. i. 1-3. a beth might be easily interchanged, and so produce Verse 18. They shall be eunuchs) Perhaps this the mistake.
means no more than that they should become household Sent letters and a present] It appears that there servants to the kings of Babylon. See the fulfilment, was friendship between the king of Babylon and Heze-chap. xxiv. 13-15, and Dan. i. 1-3, kiah, when the latter and the Assyrians were engaged Verse 19. Good is the word of the Lord) He has
A. M. 3278-3306.
Hezekiah dies, and
is sucieeded by Manasseh 20 . And the rest of the acts | chronicles of the kings of Juof Hezekiah, and all his might, dah ?
An. Apsandri, and how he made a pool, and 21 And ' Hezekiah slept with a conduit, and e brought water into the city, bis fathers :. and Manasseh his are they not written in the book of the son reigned in his stead.
A. M. 3306.
2 Chron. xxxii. 32.
d Neh. iii. 16.
• 2 Chron. xxxii. 30.
12 Chron. xxxii. 33.
spoken right, I have done foolishly. I submit to his These nations had only to see a better land in order jadgments.
to covet it, and their exertions were not wanting in Is it not good if peace and truth be in my days ?) order to possess it. I believe Hezekiah inquires whether there shall be How far other nations, since those times, have imipeace and truth in his days.. And the question seems tated the most foolish and impolitic conduct of the to be rather of an interested nature. He does not Jewish king, and how far their conduct may have been appear to deplore the calamities that were coming on or may yet be marked with the same consequences, the the land, provided peace and truth might prevail in pages of impartial history have shown and will show : his days.
God's ways are all equal, and the judge of all the Verse 20. The rest of the acts of Hezekiah]. See earth will do right. But we need not wonder, after the parallel places Isaiah and in 2 Chronicles. In this, that the Jews fell into the hands of the Babylothis latter book, chap. xxxii., we find several partiou- nians, for this was the political consequence of their lars that are not inserted here ; especially concerning own conduct: nor could it be otherwise, the circumhis pride, the increase of his riches, his storehouses of stances of both nations considered, unless God, by a corn, wine, and oil; his stalls for all manner of beasts; miraculous interposition; had saved them; and this it his cities, flocks, and herds, in abundance ; and the was inconsistent with his justice to do, because they bringing the upper water course of Gihon to the west had, in their pride and vanity, offended against him. side of the city of David, by which he brought a plenti- To be lifted-up with pride and vain glory in the posful supply of water into that city, &c., &c., &e. session of any, blessings, is the most direct way to lose
them; as it induces God, who dispensed them for our On the subject of the Babylonian embassy I may benefit, to resume them, because that which was desay a few words. However we may endeavour to signed for our good, through our own perversity beexcuse Hezekiah, it is certain that he made an exhibi- comes our bane. tion of his riches and power in a spirit of great sanity; 1. I have intimated, in the note on ver. 11, that the and that this did displease the Lord, It was also shadow was brought back on the dial of Ahaz by means ruinous to Judea : when those foreigners had seen such of refraction. , On this subject some farther observaa profusion of wealth, such princely establishments, tions may not be improper. and such a fruitful land, it was natural for them to con 2. Any person may easily convince himself of the ceive the wish that they had such treasures, and from effect of refraction by this simple experiment: Place that to covet the very treasures they saw. They made a vessel on the floor, and put a piece of coin on the their report to their king and countrymen, and the bottom, close to that part of the vessel which is farthest desire to possess the Jewish wealth became general; off from yourself ; then move back till you find that and in consequence of this there is little doubt that the edge of the vessel next to yourself fairly covers the conquest of Jerusalem was projected. History is the coin, and that it is now entirely out of sight. Stand not barren in such instances : the same kind of cause exactly in that position, and let a person pour water has produced similar effects. Take two or three nota- gently into the vessel, and you will soon find the coin ble instances.
to reappear, and to be entirely in sight when the vesWhen the barbarous Golh and Vandal nations saw sel is full, though neither it nor you have changed your the pleasant and fruitful plains and hills of Italy, and positions in the least. the vast treasures of the Roman people, the abundance By the refracting power of the atmosphere we have of the necessaries, conveniences, comforts, and, luxu- several minutes more of the solar light each day than ries of life, which met their eyes in every direction; we should otherwise have. “The atmosphere refracts they were never at rest till their swords, put them in the sun's rays so as to bring him in sight every clear possession of the whole, and brought the mistress of day, before he rises in the horizon, and to keep him in the world to irretrievable ruin.
view for some minutes after he is really set below it. Vortigern, a British king, unhappily invited the Sax- For at some times of the year we see the sun ten minutes ons, in 445, to assist him against his rebellious sub- longer above the horizon- than he would be if there jects: they came, saw the land that it was good, and were no refractions, and above six minutes every day in the end took possession of it; having driven out, or at a mean rate.”-Ferguson. into the mountains of Wales, all the original Britons. - And it is entirely owing to refraction that we have
The Danes, in the ninth century, made some inroads any morning or evening twilight; without this power into England, found the land better than their own, in the atmosphere, the heavens would be as black as and never rested till they established themselves in ebony in the absence of the sun ; and at his rising we this country, and, after having ruled it for a consider-should pass in a moment from the deepest darkness into able time, were at last, with the utmost difficulty, the brightest light; and at his setting, from the most driven out.
intense light to the most profound darkness, which in
Observations on the refractive
power of the atmosphere. a few days would be sufficient to destroy the visual | tainly was not the first of its kind, though it is the organs of all the animals in air, earth, or sea. first on record, Ahaz began his reign about four hun
That the rays of light can be supernaturally refract- dred years before Alexander, and about twelve years ed, and the sun appear to be where he actually is not, after the foundation of Rome. we have a most remarkable instance in Kepler. Some Anarimenes, the 'Milesian, who flourished about Hollanders, who wintered in Nova Zembla in the year four hundred years before Christ, is said by Pliny to 1596, were surprised to find that after a continual have been the first who made å sundial, the use of night of three months, the sun began to rise seventeen which he taught to the Spartans ; but others give this days sooner than (according to computation deduced honour to Thales, his countryman, who flourished two from the altitude of the pole, observed to be seventy- hundred years before him. six degrees) he should have done; which can only be Aristarchus of Samos, who lived before Archimedes, accounted for by a miracle, or by an extraordinary re- invented a plain horizontal disc, with a gnomon, to · fraction of the sun's rays passing through the cold distinguish the hours, and had its rim raised all round; dense air in that climate. At that time the sun, as to prevent the shadow from extending too far. Kepler computeś, was almost five degrees below the Probably all these were rude and evanescent athorizon when he appeared ; and consequently the re- tempts, for it does not appear that the Romans, who fraction of his rays was about nine times stronger than borrowed all their knowledge from the Greeks, knew it is with us.
any thing of a sundial before that set up by Papirius 3. Now this might be all purely natural, though it Cursor, about four hundred and sixty years after the was extraordinary, and it proves the possibility of foundation of Rome; before which time, says Pliny, what I have conjectured, even on natural principles ; there was no mention of any account of time but by but the foretelling of this, and leaving the going back the rising and setting of the sun. This dial was or forward to the choice of the king, and the thing erected near the temple of Quirinus, but is allowed to occurring in the place and time when and where it was have been very inaccurate. About thirly years aster, predicted, shows that it was supernatural and miracu- the consul Marcus Valerius Messala brought a dial lous, though the means were purely natural. Yet in out of cily, which he placed on a pillar near the that climate, (lat. thirty-one degrees fifty minutes rostrum-;- but as it was not made for the latitade of north, and Long. thirty-five degrees twenty-five minutes Rome, it did not show the time exactly; however, it east,) where vapours to produce an extraordinary re was the only one they had for a hundred years, when fraction of the solar rays could not be expected, the Martius Philippus set up one more exact. collecting or producing them heightens ånd ascertains Since those times the science of dialling has been the miracle. “ But why contend that the thing was cultivated 'in most civilized nations, but we have no done by refraction ? Could not God as easily -have professed treatise on the subject before the time of the caused the sun, or rather the earth, to turn back, as to jesuit Clavius, who, in the latter part of the sixteenth have produced this extraordinary and miraculous re- century, demonstrated both the theory and practice of fraction ?" I answer, Yes. But it is much more dialling; but he did this after the most rigid matheconsistent with the wisdom and perfections of God to matical principles, so as to render that which was perform a work or accomplish an end by simple means, simple in itself exceedingly obscure. Though we have than by those that are compler; and had it been done useful and correct works of this kind from Rivard, De in the other way, it would have required a miracle to Parcieux, Dom. Bedos de Celles, Joseph Blaise Garinvert and a miracle to restore ; and a strong convul- nier, Gravesande, Emerson, Martin, and Leadbetter; sion on the earth's surface to bring it ten degrees sud- yet something more specific, more simple, and more denly back, and to take it the same suddenly forward. general, is a desideratum in the science of sciaterics The miracle, according to my supposition, was per- or dialling. formed on the atmosphere, and without in the least disturbing even that ; whereas, on the other supposition, Observations on the nature and structure of the sunit could not have been done without suspending or in
dial of Ahaz, with a diagram of its supposed form. terrupting the laws of the solar system, and this with 5. When writing on the appointment of Jehu to be out gaining a hair's breadth in credulity or conviction king of Israel, chap. įx., I was struck with the manmore by such stupendous interpositions than might be ner in which the subject of the thirteenth verse was effected by the agency of clouds and vapours. The understood by the Chaldee : " Then they hastened and point to be gained was the bringing back the shadow took every man his garment, and put it under bim, on on the dial ten degrees: this might have been gained the top of the stairs ;” according to the Hebrew, by the means I have here described, as well as by the noby:37. 7a 5a el gerem hammaaloth, which might be
and these means being much more simple, translated, on the baré (naked or uncovered) steps. were more worthy the Divine choice than those which This the Targumist has translated by X'yu 1775 lidrag are more complex, and could not have been used with sheaiya, “at the HOUR-STEPS." The other versions, out producing the necessity of working at least double knowing nothing of what was intended, have endeaor treble miracles.
voured to guess severally at a meaning. On turning 4. Before I proceed to the immediate object of in- to chap. xx. 11, where the same word nibyo maaloth quiry, I shall beg leave to make some observations on is used, and most evidently there implies some kind of the invention and construction of dials in general. sundial, I found the Chaldee still more pointed, both
SUNDIALS must have been of great antiquity, though in this and in the parallel place, Isa. xxxviii. 8, renderthe earliest we hear of is that of Ahaz; bụt this cer-I ing the Hebrew words xnyv 38 nnya belsurath eben
Description of the
dial of Ahaz. sheaiya, " by the shadow of the stone of hours," from the day, noon was the end of the sixth hour, and the which I was led to conclude that some kind of gnomo- twelfth hour ended at sunsel. nic figure, or sundial, was intended; and that the Doctor Long observes, “These times might be hours or divisions of time were shown by a shadow, measured by an astronomer; but how unequal hours projected on stone steps, gradually ascending to a cer can be marked for common use, is not easy to say." tain height. This thought I communicated to the He farther observes that “ the ancients had sundials ; Rev. Philip Garrett, one of the preachers among the but I think unequal hours could not be marked thereon people called Methodists, of whose rare knowledge in exactly.” And in a note on this observation he rethe science of gnomonics, and ingenuity in construct marks, “The sundials of the ancients, to show unequal ing every possible variety of dials, I had already indu- hours, were not made in the method used at present, bitable proofs, and requested him, from the principle I with a gnomon parallel to the axis of the earth, but had laid down, to try whether such an instrument could had a pin set upright upon a plane, rounded at the upbe constructed that might serve at once as a public per end, the shadow whereof marked their unequal tribunal, and as a dial, to ascertain all the inequalities hours in the following manner : by means of an anaof the Jewish division of time ?
lemma, or projection of the sphere, sit curves were A more difficult problem in the science he was never drawn upon the plane, to show where the shadow of the called to solve. Though several had attempted to pin at the several hours terminated every month in the construct dials to show the mode by which different year; one curre served for two months, because the nations measured time, and among the rest the Jews; shadows are of the same length in January às Decemyet nothing properly satisfactory has been produced, ber, in February as in November, in March as in Ocalthough one nearly in the same form of outline with tober, &c. ; each curve was drawn long enough to the present may be found in Hutton's Mathematical take in all the hours of the longest day in the reRecreations, vol. ül., p. 337, projected on a plane super-- spective months, and was divided into twelve equal ficies, which could not possibly show the ascending and parts. It is easy to see that a dial-made by this method, descending of the shadow like that now before the in order to show the unequal hours exactly, ought to reader, which the ingenuity of the above gentleman has have half as many curves, or parallel lines, as there brought to almost as great a degree of perfection as are days in the year; but this would require so many can reasonably be expected. And that the dial of Ahaz lines as would make it all confusion ;. it is possible they was constructed on a similar principle, there can be had only one line for a month, and that for the middle but little doubt, as the words of the original seem of the month.”, to express this and no other form; and so the Chaldee The doctor is perfectly correct in. observing, that appears to have understood it ; nor is it easy to con “the sundials of the ancients, to show unequal hours, ceive that one on any other principle could ascertain were not made in the method used at present, with a in all seasons the varying admeasurement of the Jew- gnomon parallel to the axis of the earth ;" because such ish time.
a dial could not be of any use to those nations whose 6. Having said thus much relative to the circum- divisions of the solar hours were unequal, or more or stances which gave birth to this dial, it may be deemed less than sixty minutes to an hour. But the doctor is necessary to give a general view of the natural and mistaken in supposing the difficulty, or rather impossiartificial divisions of time, and then a description of bility, of constructing a sundial to show these unequal the dial itself.
hours; for eleven lines are all that is necessary to show **The most obvious division of time is into day and the hours for every day in the year; and forty-four night; these are marked out by the rising and setting lines would show all the quarters: whereas, on his of the sun, - Modern writers call the time from sun- plan, it would require near eleven hundred calculations rise to sunset the natural day; the night is the time of the altitude of the sun, and the same number to from sunset to sunrise ; these days and nights are show where the shadow of the gnomon at the several subject to great inequalities in every part of the earth, hours terminated. His dial would therefore require except under the equator. The most ancient division above one hundred and eighty parallel lines, and nearly of the equatorial day was into the morning and evening; eleven hundred marks for the hours only; but if the the night was divided into watches.
quarters are inserted, four thousand four hundred marks Hours are either equal or unequal; an unequal hour would be necessary. This would require the labour is the twelfth part of a natural day, or the twelfth part of six or eight months, whereas the plan here adopted of the night. In summer, when the days are the longest, would not require in its calculations and construction the diurnal hours are the longest, and the nocturnal as many hours. hours shortest; in winter, on the contrary, when the 7. A description of the dial. This dial consists of days are shortest, the hours of the day are the shortest, | eleven steps placed parallel to the horizon, with a perand the hours of the night longest. The difference pendicular gnomon fixed in the upper or middle step, between the hours of the day and those of the night is which step is placed exactly norlh and south, and forms greatest at the solstices, because then there is the great the meridian or sixth-hour line. est inequality between the length of the day and that All the operations of this dial are determined by the of the night. At the equinoges, when the days and point of the shadow projected from the gnomon on the nights are of an equal length, all hours, both of days steps of the dial. and nights, are equal.
Every day for six months the shadow from the point The ancient Jews made use of unequal hours ; with of the gnomon makes a different angle with the gnomon, them sunrise was the beginning of the first hour of I which makes the hours of one day to differ in length
in the year.
in the year.
Description of the
dial of Aha: from the hours of the preceding and following days. I suppose the height of the stile from the bottom of the The same observations apply to tho other six months lowest step to be four feet, this would allow six inches
for the thickness of each step, and twelve inches for The shadow crosses each step of the dial every day the height of the stile above the upper step. Ac
cording to this scale the south end of the dial would Each day in the year consists of twelve hours from be len yards; the north end sixteen yards; and the the time of sunrise to sunset, which makes a differ-east and west sides eight yards two feet. The groundence of twenty minutes between an hour in the longest work might be eighteen yards' by twelve, -making an day and an hour in the shortest. The longest day, oblong square facing the four cardinal points of the consisting of twelve hours of seventy minutes to an heavens. hour; and the shortest of twelve hours of fifty minutes N. B. All the lines upon a dial-plane are inverled, to an hour ; but when the sun enters Aries or Libra, with respect to the cardinal points of the heavens. each hour consists of sixty minutes. :
The lines which show the hours from sunrise to the To be able to understand this dial, one example will meridian, are on the west side of the dial-plane; and be sufficient; On the 21st of March, or the 23d of the lines which show the hours from the meridian to sunSeptember, the shadow from the point of the gnomon set are on the east side of the dial-plane; the southern will enter or ascend the first step of the dial, at the first tropic, Capricorn, is on the north end of the dial-plane; hour of the day, at the west side of the dial on the and the northern tropic, Cancer, is on the south end equinoctial lino; eleven minutes afterwards the shadow of the plane.. comes in contact with the circle marked fifteen de The narrow end of the dial looks towards the south, grees, which is the altitude of the sun at that time; and is marked north ; the wide end looks north, and twenty-four minutes afterwards the shadow touches the is marked south. The side which looks west is markcircle of twenty degrees ;- and in twenty-five minutes it ed sunrise ; and the side which looks east -is marked ascends the second step, at the second hour of the day, sunset. when the altitude of the sun is twenty-five degrees 8. In the annexed diagram a transverse section of eight minutes.
the dial is represented where the steps are seen at one In twenty-four minutes the shadow comes to the view ascending and descending to and from the gnomon cirele of thirty. degrees; and twenty-fwe minutes after or stile on the upper or sixth step. These steps are it arrives at the circle of thirty-five degrees; and in all equal in their height, but unequal on-their upper eleven minutes it ascends the third step at the third surface, as the diagram shows, and for the reasons hour of the day, when the altitude is thirty-six alleged above. Each of these steps might have been degrees fifty-seven minutes. In sixteen minutes the divided into parts or degrees, to mark the smaller point of the shadow intersects ahe circle of forty divisions of time; and to this sort of division there degrees; and in forty-four minutes it ascends the appears to be a reference in the text, where it is said, fourth step at the fourth hour of the day, when the the shadow went back ten degrees. It seems the miraaltitude of the sun is forty-seven dogrees twenty-two cle was wrought in the afternoon, for it is said, The minutes ; and in eighteen minutes of time it comes in shadow was brought ten degrees BACKWARD, by which contact with the circle of fifty degrees, &c., &c., until it had GONE DOWN; so it appears that the shadow it arrives at the meridian step or live at the sixth hour had reascended ten degrees on the afternoon steps; of the day, when the altitude is fifty-eight degrées ten and when this was done, so that all were fully conminutes; then the shadow descends the sixth step, and vinced of the miracle, the shadow again descended to moves on to the seventh, fc., descending step after its true place on the steps; and this would be the imstep, tracing the equinoctial line on the east side of the mediate consequence of dissipating the vapours which dial; intersecting the steps or hour lines, and the cir- I have supposed to be the agent which God employed cles of altitude, until it leaves the dial at the eleventh to produce, by refraction, this most extraordinary phehour of the day.
A dial of this construction the most simple, useful, A dial constructed in this way, in the centre of a and durable that can be made; and is exclusively and town, or some public place, would serve, not only to completely adapted to ascertain the ancient Jewish give the divisions of time, but also as a place from divisions of the solar hours.
which proclamations might be made ; and especially The steps of this dial render the construction a little from the upper slep, where the speaker might stand more difficult than it otherwise would be if the lines were by the gnomon, and be sufficiently elevated above the drawn on a plane superficies, which would give exactly crowd below. the same divisions of the hours.
On such a place I have supposed Jehu to have been N. B. A vertical south dial, in lat. thirty-one degrees proclaimed king; and to do him honour his captains fifty minutes, (the latitude of Jerusalem,) could be of spread their garments on the steps ; the first, second, little or no use to ascertain these divisions for several third, fourth, and fifth, by which he ascended, to the months in the year. The same remark may be made sixth step, on which the gnomon was placed, and where respecting a south vertical concave dial. The sun he was proclaimed and acknowledged the king of Israel; cannot shine upon a south vertical plane, in lat. thirty- for it is said, The captains hasted, and took every man one degrees fifty minutes in the longest day before his GARMENT, and put it under him on the top of the fifty-three minutes past eight, or nearly nine, in the stairs, and blew with trumpets, saying, Jenu is KING ! morning.
2 Kings ix. 13; where see the note. With respect to the dimensions of this dial, if we Pietro Nonius or Nunner, a celebrated Portuguese