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B. C. 624. Oi xxxix. 1. LORD. And Hilkiah gave the found : for great is the wrath of 01. xxxix. An. Anci Martii, Regis Romano book
to Shaphan, and
and he the LORD that is kindled against Regis Romanoread it.
us, because our fathers have not 9 And Shaphan the scribe came to the king, hearkened unto the words of this book, to do and brought the king word again, and said, according unto all that which is written conThy servants have gathered the money that cerning us. was found in the house, and have delivered it 14 So Flilkiah the priest, and Ahikam, and into the hand of them that do the work, that Achbor, and Shaphan, and Asahiah, went unto have the oversight of the house of the LORD. Huldah the prophetess, the wife of Shallum
10 And Shaphan the scribe showed the king, the son of Tikvah, the son of ? Harhas, keeper saying, Hilkiah the priest hath delivered me a of the ' wardrobe ; (now she dwelt in Jerubook. And Shaphan read it before the king. salem s in the college ;) and they communed
11 And it came to pass, when the king had with her. heard the words of the book of the law, that 15 And she said unto them, Thas saith the he rent his clothes.
Lord God of Israel, Tell the man that sent 12 And the king commanded Hilkiah the you to me, priest, and Ahikam the son of Shaphan, and 16 Thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will m Achbor the son of - Michajah, and Shaphan bring evil upon this place, and upon the inhathe scribe, and Asahiah a servant of the king, bitants thereof, even all the words of the book saying,
which the king of Judah hath read: 13 Go ye, inquire of the Lord for me, and 17 u Because they have forsaken me, and for the people, and for all Judah, concerning have burned incense unto other gods, that they
1 Heb. melted. - Abdon, 2 Chron. xxxiv. 20. - Or, Micah. * llebrew, garments. Or, in the second part.o Deut. xxix. 27. „Þ Tikvath, 2 Chron. xxxiv. 22.-_9 Or, xxix. 27; Daniel ix. 11, 12, 13, 14. - Deut. xxix. 25, Hasrah.
to destroy the whole. Besides, Manasseh endeavoured is a most 'singular çircumstance: At this time Jereafter his conversion to restore every part of the Divine miah was certainly a prophet in Israel, but it is likely worship, and in this he could have done nothing with he now dwelt at Anathoth, and could not be readily out the Pentateuch; and the succeeding reign of Amon consulted ; Zephaniah also prophesied under this reign, was too short to give him opportunity to undo every but probably he had not yet begun; Hilkiah was high thing that his penitent father had reformed, . Add to priest, and the priest's lips should retain knowledge. all these considerations, that in the time of Jehosha-Shaphan was scribe, and must have been conversant phat teaching from the law was universal in the land, in sacred affairs to have been at all fit for his office; for he set on foot an itinerant ministry, in order to and yet Huldah, a prophetess, of whom we know noinstruct the people fully : for “he sent to his princes thing but by this circumstance, is consulted on the to teach in the cities of Judah ; and with them he sent meaning of the book of the law; for the secret of the Levites and priests; and they went about through all Lord was neither with Hilkiah the high priest, Shathe cities of Judah, and taught the people, having the phan the scribe, nor any other of the servants of the book of the Lord with them;" see 2 Chron. xvii. king, or ministers of the temple! We find from this, 7-9. And if there be any thing wanting to show the and we have many facts in all ages to corroborate it, improbability of the thing, it must be this, that the that a pontiff, a pope, a bishop, or a priest, may, in transactions mentioned here took place, in the eigh-some cases, not possess the true knowledge of God; teenth year of the reign of Josiah, who had, from the and that a simple woman, possessing the life of God time he came to the throne, employed himself. in the in her soul, may have more knowledge of the Divine restoration of the pure worship of God; and it is not testimonies than many of those whose office it is to likely that during these eighteen years he was without explain and enforce them. a copy of the Pentateuch. The simple fact seems to On this subject Dr. Priestley in his note makes the be this, that this was the original of the covenant re- following very judicions remark :-—" It pleased God to newed by Moses with the people in the plains of Moab, distinguish several women with the spirit of prophecy, and which he ordered to be laid up beside the ark; as well as other great attainments, to show that in his (Deut. xxxi. 26 ;) and now being unexpectedly found, sight, and sially in things of a spiritual nature, there its antiquity, the occasion of its being made, the pre- is no essential pre-eminence in the male sex, though in sent circumstances of the people, the imperfect state some things the female be subject to the male." in which the reformation was as yet, after all that had Verse 17. My wrath shall be kindled) The deeree been done, would all concur to produce the effect here is gone forth; Jerusalem shall be delivered into the mentioned on the mind of the pious Josiah.
hands of its enemies; the people will revolt more and Verse 14. Went unto Huldah the prophetess] This I more , towards them longsuffering is useless ; the
Huldah predicts evil upon
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kindled against this place, and shonld become ya desolation and shall not be quenched.
a curse, and hast rent thy clothes, and wept be 18 But to the king of Judah which sent fore me; I also have heard thee, saith the Lord. you to inquire of the LORD, thus shall ye say 20 Behold, therefore, I will gather thee unto to him, Thuş saith the Lord God of Israel, thy fathers, and thou shalt be gathered into As touclting the words which thou hast heard ; thy grave in peace; and thine eyes shall not
19 Because thine Wheart was tender, and see all the evil which I will bring upon this thou hast a humbled thyself before the Lord, place. And they brought the king word again. * 2 Chron. xxxiv. 26, &c. -w Psa. li. 17; Isa. lvii. 15. . y Lev. xxvi. 31, 32. - Jer. xxvi. 6; xliv, 22. Psa. xxxv. *1 Kings xxi. 29.
37; Isa. lvji. ), 2. wrath of God is kindled, and shall not be quenched, not have meddled in the quarrel between the Egyptian This was a dreadful message.
and the Assyrian kings, for God had given a commis: Verse 19. Because thine heart was tender). Because . sion to the former against the latter ; but he did it in thou hast feared the Lord, and trembled at his word, and error, and suffered for it. But this unfortunate end hast wept before me, I have heard thee, so far that these of this pious man does not at all impeach the credit of evils shall not come upon the land in thy lifetime. · Huldah; he died-in peace in his own kingdom. He
Verse 20. Thou shalt be galhered into thy grave in died in peace with God, and there was neither war nor peace) During thy life none of these calamities shall desolation in his land : nor did the king of Egypt profall upon the people, and no adversary shall be per- ceed any farther against the Jews during his life ; for mitted to disturb the peace of Judea, and thou shalt he said, “What have I to do with thee, thoù king of die in peace with God. But was Josiah gathered to Judah? I come not against thee, but the house wherethe grave in peace? "Is it not said, chap. xxiii. 29, with I have war; for God commanded me to make that Pharaoh-nechok slew him at Megiddo ? On this haste : forbear then from meddling with God, who is we may remark, that the Assyrians and the Jews were with me, that he destroy theę not. Nevertheless, Joat peace; that Josiah might feel it his duty to oppose siah-would not turn þis face from him, and hearkened the Egyptian king going against his friend and ally, not to the words of Nechoh, from the mouth of God. and endeavour to prevent him from passing through And the archers shot at King Josiah : and the king his territories; and that in his endeavours to oppose said, Bear me away, for I am sore wounded. And his him he was mortally wounded at Megiddo : but cer- servants took him out of that chariot, and put him in tainly was not killed there ; for his servants put him the second chariot, and they brought him to Jerusalem, in his second chariot and brought him to Jerusalem, and he died and was buried in the sepulchre of his where he died in peace. See 2 Chron. Xxxv. 24. fathers ;" 2 Chron. xxxv. 21-24.-So that, however we take the place here, we shall find It seems as if the Egyptian king had brought his that the words of Huldah-were true : he did die in troops by sea to Cæsarea, and wished to cross the Jor. peace, and was gathered to his fathers in peace. dan about the southern point of the sea of Tiberias, that
he might get as speedily as possible into the Assyrian - From the account in the above chapter, where we dependencies; and that he took this road, for God, as have this business detailed, we find that Josiah should he said, had commanded him to make hdsle.
CHAPTER XXIII. -Josiah reads in the temple to the elders of Judah, the priests, the prophets, and the people, the book of the
covenant which had been found, 1, 2. He makes a covenant, and the people stand to it, 3. He destroys the vessels of Baal and Asherah, and put's down the idolatrous priesis ; breaks down the houses of the sodomites, and the high places ; defiles Topheth; takes away the horses of the sun; destroys the altars of Ahaz; breaks in pieces the images ; and breaks down and burns Jeroboam's altar at Beth-el; 4-15. Fulfils the word of the prophet, who cried against the altar at Beth-el, 16–18. Destroys the high places in Samarid, slays the idolatrous priests, and celebrates a great passover, 19-23; and puts away all the dealers with familiar spirits, fc., 24. His eminent character; "he is mortally wounded at Megiddo, and buried at Jerusalem, 25–30. Jehoahaz reigns in his stead; and does evil in the sight of the Lord, 31, 32. Is dethroned by Pharaoh-nechoh; and Eliakim, his brother, called also Jehoiakim, made king in his slead ; the land is laid under tribute by the king of Egypt, and Jehoiakim reigns wickedly, 33–37. Vol. II. ( 36 )
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idolatry from the land. AND - the king'sent, and they | of the temple of the Lord all the
gathered unto him all the vessels ihat were made for Baal, ol. XXXIX. I. An. Anci Martii, : Regis Romano-: elders of Judah and of Jerusalem. and for the grovė, and for all Regis - Romano
2 And the king went up into the host of heaven: and he burnthe house of the LORD, and all the men of ed them without Jerusalem, in the fields of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem Kidron, and carried the ashes of them unto with him, and the priests, and the prophets, Beth-el, and all the people, "both small and great: 5 And he put down & the idolatrous priests, and he read in their ears all the words of the whom the kings of Judah had ordained to book of the covenant e which was found in burn incense in the high places in the cities the house of the Lord:
of Judah, and in the places round about 3 And the king d stood by a pillar, ånd made Jerusalem ; them also that burned incense a covenant before the Lord, to walk after the unto Baal, 'to the sun, and to the moon, and Lord, and to keep his commandments and his to the 'h planets, and to i all the host of testimonies and his stalutes with all their heart heaven: and all their soul, to perform the words of 6 And he brought out the k grove from the this covenant that were written in this book. house of the LORD, without Jerusalem, unto And all the people stood to the covenant. the brook Kidron, and burned it at the brook
4 And the king commanded Hilkiah the Kidron, and stamped it small to powder, and high priest, and the priests of the second order, cast the powder thereof upon the graves of and the keepers of the door, to bring forth out the children of the people.
a 2 Chron. xxxiv. 29, 30, &c. - Heh. from small even unto 6 Heb. chemarim ; Hosea x. 5; foretold, Zeph. i. 4.great.— Chap. xxii. 8. —-. Chap. xi. 14, 17. Chap. xxi. twelve signs or constellations. - Chap. xxi. 3. * Chap. xii. 7. 3, 7. —Heb. caused to cease..,
12 Chron. xxxiv. 4. NOTES ON CHAP. XXIII.
tinued even to the time of our Lord. .We find the Verse 2. The king went up into the house of the course of Abia, which was the eighth, mentioned Luke Lord] Here is another very singular circumstànce. i. 5, where see the note. The high priest, scribes, priest, and prophets, are ga All the vessels). These had been used for idolatrous thered together, with all the elders of the people, and purposes ; the king is now. to destroy them ; for althe king himself reads the book of the covenant-which though no longer used in this way, they might, if perhad been lately found! It is strange that either the mitted to remain, be an incentive to idolatry at a high priest, Jeremiah, Zephaniah, or some other of the future time. prophets, who were certainly, there present, did not Verse 5. The idolatrous prièsts] 0'193n hakkemaread the sacred book! It is likely that the king con- rim. Who these were is not well known. The Chalsidered himself-a mediator between God and them, and dee, Syriac, and Arabic, call them the priests simply, therefore read and made the covenant.
which the kings of Judah had ordained. Probably they Verse 3. Stood by a pillar) He stood, Tinyn by al were an order made by the idolatrous kings of Judah, haammud, "upon the stairs or pulpit.” This is what and called kemarim, from 7p camar, which signifies is called the brazen scaffold or pulpil which Solomon to be scorched, shrivelled together, made dark, or black, made, and on which the kings were accustomed to because their business was constantly to attend sacrifistand when they addressed the people. See 2 Chrón. cial fires, and probably they' wore black garments ; vi. 13, and the parallel places.
hence the Jews in derision call Christian ministers keMade a covenanl] This was expressed, 1. In ge- marim, because of their black clothes and garments. neral. To walk after Jehovah; to have no gods be- Why we should imitate, in our sacerdotal dress, those sides him. 2. To take his law for the regulation of priests of Baal, is strange to think and hard to tell. their conduct. 3. In particular.. To bend their whole Unto Baal, to the sun] Though Baal was certainly heart and soul to the observance of it, so that they the sun, yet. here they are distinguished ; Baal being might not only have religion without, but piety within. worshipped under different forms and attributes, BaalTo this all the people stood up, thus giving their con- peor, Baal-zephon, Baal-zebub, &c. sent, and binding themselves to obedience.
The planets] nisoo mazzaloth, The Vulgale transVerse 4. The priests of the second order). These lates this, the twelve signs,. i.-e., the zodiac. This is were probably sueh as supplied the place of the high as likely as any of the other conjectures which 'have priest when he was prevented from fulfilling the func- been published relative to this word. See a similar tions of his office. So the Chaldee understood the word Job xxxvii. 9, and xxxvii. 32. place—the sagan of the high priests. But the words Verse 6. He brought out the grove] He brought may refer to those of the second course or order esta- out the idol Asherah. See at the end of chap. xxi. blished by David : though it does not appear that those Upon the graves of the children of the people.) I beorders were now in use, yet the distinction was con- lieve this means the burial-place of the common people. b 562
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Lo Heb. horisés.
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A, M. 3380. ol. XXXIX. 1. houses in of the sodoinites, that that the kings of Judah had given 01. XXXIX. 1. Regis Romano” were by the house of the Lord, to the sun, at the entering in of Regis" "Romano:
in where the women wove • hang- the house of the LORD, by the ings for the grove.
chamber of Nathan-melech the chamberlain, 8 And he brought all the priests o’t of the which was in the suburbs, and burned the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places chariots of the sun with fire. where the priests had burned incense, from 12 And the altars that were won the top
of p Geba to Beer-sheba, and brake down the the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings high places of the gates that were in the en- of Judah had made, and the altars which tering in of the gate of Joshua the governor Manasseh had made in the two courts of the of the city, which were on a man's left hand house of the Lord, did the king beat down, at the gate of the city.'
and Y brake them down from thence, and cast 9 9 Nevertheless the priests of the high places the dust of them into the brook Kidron. came not up to the altar of the Lord in Je- 13 And the high places that were before rusalem, but they did eat of the unleavened Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of bread among their brethren. .
z the mount of corruption, which is a Solomon 10 And he defiled Topheth, which is in the king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth * the valley of the children of Hinnom, " that the abomination of the Zidonians, and for no, man might make his son or his daughter Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, to pass through the fire to 'Molech.
and for Milcom the abomination of the chilm 1 Kings xiv.24 ;xv. 12.
u Lev. xviii. 21 ; Deut. xviii. 10; Ezek. xxiii. 37, 39. P 1 Kings xv. 22.- See Ezek. xliv. 10–14.- Sam. ii. eunuch or officer. See Jer, xix. 13; Zeph. i. 5. Isa. xxx. 33; Jer, vii. 31 ; xix. 6, 11, 12, 13. Josh. xxi. 5.- Or, ran from thence That is, the mount of Olives.
a l Kings xi. 7. Verse 7: The houses of the sodomites) . We have man might make his son or his daughter to pass through already often met with these dvap kedeshim or conse- the fire. He destroyed the image of Molech, and so crated persons. The word implies all kinds of prosti-polluted the place where he stood, or his temple, that tutes, as well as abusers of themselves with mankind. it was rendered in every way abominable. The rabbin's .: Wove hangings for the grove.] For Asherah; cur- say that Topheth had its name from 77 toph, a drum, tains or tent coverings for the places where the rites because instruments of this kind were used to drown of the impure goddess were performed.' See at the the cries of the children that were put into the burnend of chap. xxi.
ing arms of Molech, to be scorched to death. This * Verse 8. The gate of. Joshua] The place where he, may be as true as the following definition : "Topheth, as governor of the city, heard and decided causes. Near or the valley of the son of Hinnom, was a place near this we find there were public altars, where sometimes Jerusalem, where the filth and offal of the city were the true God, at other times false gods, were honoitred. thrown, and where a constant fire was kept up to con
Verse 9. The priests of the high places came not up] sume the wretched remains of executed criminals. It As these priests had offered sacrifices on the high was a human shambles, a public chopping-block, where places, though it was to the true God, yet they were the arms and legs of men and women were quartered not thought proper to be employed immediately about off by thousands." Query, On what authority do such the temple ; but as they were acknowledged to belong descriptions rest? to the prieslhood, they had a right to their support ; · Verse 11. The horses that the kings of Judah had therefore a portion of the tithes, offerings, and unlea- given to the sun.] Jarchi says that those who adored vened bread, shew-bread, &c., was appointed to them the sun had horses which they mounted every mornfor their support. Thus they were treated as priests ing to go out to meet the sun at his rising. Throughwho had some infirmity which rendered it improper for qüt the East the horse, because of his swiftness and them to minister at the altar. See Lev. xxi. 17, &c., utility, was dedicated to the sun ; and the Greeks and and particularly verses 22 and 23.
Romans feigned that the chariot of the sun was drawn Verse: 10. He defiled Topheth] St. Jerome says by four horses-Pyroeis, Eous, Æthon, and Phlegon. that Topheth was a fine and pleasant place, well wa- See the note on chap. ii. iered with fountains, and adorned with gardens. The Whether these were living or sculptured horses, we valley of the son of Hinnom, or Gehenna, was in 'one cannot tell ; the latter is the more reasonable suppopart ; here it appears the sacred rites of Molech were sition. performed, and to this all the filth of the city was car Verse 12. On the top of the upper chamber] Altars ried, and perpetual fires were kept up in order to con- built on the flat roof of the house. Such altars were sume it. Hence it has been considered a type of hell ; erected to the sun, moon, stars, &c. and in this sense it is used in the New Testament. Verse 13. Mount of corruption] This, says Järchi, It is here said that Josiah defiled this place that no following the Chaldee, was the mount of Olives, for
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abuses in Israel. dren of Ammon, did the king that were i in the cities of Sama01. XXXIX. 1. defile.
ria, which the kings of Israel 01. XXXIX. 1. An. Anci Martii, Regis Romano 14 And he b brake in pieces the had made to provoke the LORD Regis Romano
e images, and cut down the groves, to anger, Josiah took away, and and filled their places with the bones of men. did to them according to all the acts that he
15 Moreover the altar that was at Beth-el, had done in Beth-el. and the high place d which Jeroboam the son 20 And helmslow all the priests of the high of Nebat, who made Israel. to sin, had made, places that were there upon the altars, and both that altar and the high place he brake " burned men's bones upon them, and returned down, and burned the high place, and stamped to Jerusalem. it small to powder, and burned the .grove. 21 And the king commanded all the people, say
16 And as Josiah turned himself, he'spied ing, Keep the passover unto the Lord your God, the sepulchres that were there in the mount, Pas it is written in the book of this covenant. and sent, and took the bones out of the sepul 22 Surely 9 there was not holden such a chres, and burned them upon the altar, and passover from the days of the judges that polluted it, according to thé.e word of the Lord judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings which the man of God proclaimed, who pro- of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah ; claimed these words.
23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah, 17 Then he said, What title is that that I wherein this passover was holden to the LORD see? And the men of the city told him, It is in Jerusalem.
the sepulchre of the man of God, which 24 Moreover 'the workers with familiar came from Judah and proclaimed these things spirits, and the wizards, and the images, and that thou hast done against the altar of Beth-el. the idols, and all the abominations that were
18 And he said, Let him alone; let no man spied in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, move his bones. So they let his bones 8 alone, did Josiah put away, that he might perform with the bones of h the prophet that came out the words of the law which were written in of Samaria.
the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the 19 And all the houses also of the high places house of the LORD.
• Exod. xxiii. 24 ; Dent. vii. 5, 25.-- Heb. statues. 1 Kings n 2 Chron.' xxxiv. 5.02 Chron. Xxxy. l; 1 Esd. i. 1. xii. 28, 33. - 1 Kings xiii. 2. - I Kings xiii. 1,30. -5 Heh. PExod. xii. 3; Lev. xxiii. '5; Num. ix. 2; Deut. xvi. 2. to escape. - Kings xiii. 31.— See 2 Chron. xxxiv. 6, 7. 92 Chron. xxxv. 18, 19; His eighteenth year ending. -Chap * 1 Kings xiii. 2.- Or, sacrificed. m Exod. xxii. 20; 1 Kings xxi. 6. - Or, teraphim, Gen. xxxi. 19: Lev. xix. 31 ; IX. xviii. 40; chap. xi. 18.
27; Deut. xviii. 11.
this is the mount rinunn hammishchah, of unction ; but phet no doubt took care to have the place made suffibecause of the idolatrous purposes for which it was ciently remarkable. used, the Scripture changed the appellation to the mount Verse 18. The prophet that came out of Samaria.) nonosni harnmashchith, of corruption.
See the note on i Kings xiii. 32. Ashtoreth the abomination, &c.] See on 1 Kings xi. 7. Verse 19. That were in the cities of Samaria) Israel
Verse 14. Filled their places with the bones of men.) had now no king ; and Josiah, of the blood royal of This was allowed to be the utmost defilement to which Judah, had certainly a direct right to the kingdom ; he any thing could be exposed.
had, at this time, an especial commission from God, to Verse 16. And as Josiah turned himself } - This reform every abuse through the whole land all that verse is much more complete in the Septuagint; and in ground that was given by the Lord as an inheritance the Hexaplar Syriac version at Paris. I shall give to the twelve sons of Jacob, Therefore he had every the whole, making a distinction where, in those ver- right to carry his plans of reformation into the Samasions, any thing is added : “And as Josiah turned him- ritan states. self, he spied the sepulchres that were there in the Verse 20. Slew all the priests] The lives of these, mount, and sent and took the bones out of the sepul- as corrupters of the people, were forfeited to the law. chres, and burnt them upon the altar, and polluted it : Verse 22. Surely there was not holden such a passaccording to the word of the Lord which the man of over] Not one on.purer principles, more heartily joined God proclaimed (when Jeroboam stood by the altar at in-by the people present, more literally consecrated, or the feast. And turning about, he cast his eyes on the more religiously observed. The words do not apply sepulchre of the man of God) who proclaimed these to the number present, but to the manner and spirit words.” See 1 Kings xiii. 2, where these things were See the particulars and mode of celebrating this pass predicted, and see the notes there.
over in 2 Chron. xxxv. 1-18. Verse 17. What title is that] There was either a Verse 24. The workers with familiar spirits) See stone, an image, or an inscription here : the old pro-l on chap. xxi. 5.