« AnteriorContinuar »
41-47. Anno ante
Kings conquered by Joshua,
on the west of Jordan. A.M. 2554-60. B. C. 1450–44.
A. M. 2554-60. 7 And these are the kings of | 14 The king of Hormah, one;
B. C. 1450-44. An. Exod. Isr. the country' which Joshua and the king of Arad, one ;
An. Exod. Isr.
41-47. the children of Israel smote op 15 The king of Libnah, one; 1. Olyn. 674–68. this side Jordan on the west, from the king of Adullam, one;
I. Olym. 674-68. Baal-gad in the valley of Lebanon, even unto 16 • The king of Makkedah, one; d
the king the mount Halak, that goeth up to .Seir; of Beth-el, one ; which Joshua 'gave unto the tribes of Israel, 19 The king of Tappuah, one;
17 the king for a possession according to their divisions; of Hepher, one ;.
8 - In the mountains, and in the valleys, and 18 The king of Aphek, one; the king of in the plains, and in the springs, and in the Lasharon, one; wilderness, and in the south country; "the 19 The king of Madon, one ; 6 the king of Hittites, the Amorites, and the Canaanites, the Hazor, one ; Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites : 20 The king of Shimron-meron, one ; the
9 w The king of Jericho, one ; * the king of king of Achshaph, one ; Ai, which is beside Beth-el, one ;
21 The king of Taanach, one; the king of 10 » The king of Jerusalem, one; the king Megiddo, one; of Hebron, one;
22 The king of Kedesh, one ; the king of 11 The king of Jarmuth, one; the king of Jokneam of Carmel, one; Lachish, one;
23 - The king of Dor in the * coast of Dor, 12 The king of Eglon, one; · the king of one; the king of the nations of Gilgal, Gezer, one;
one ; 13 - The king of Debir, one; the king of 24 The king of Tirzah, one : all the kings Geder, one ;
thirty and one. Chap. xi. 17. Gen. xiv. 6; xxxii. 3; Deut. ii. 1, 4. Chap. x. 29. Chap. x. 28. d Chap. viii. 17; Judg. i. tChap. xi. 23. Chap. x. 40 ; xi. 16.—Exod. iii. 8; xxiii. Le r Kings iv. 10. * Or, Sharon ; Isa. xxxii.9. 23; chap. ix. 1.-" Chap. vi. 2. -* Chap. viii. 29. - Ch. xi. 10. -- Chap. xi. 1; xix. 15. i Chap. xix. 37. 1. 23.-22 Chap. X. 33.- Chap. x. 38.
xi. 2. Gen. xiv. 1, 2; Isa. ix. 1. Verse 7. From Baal-gad] A repetition of what is sharon to be the sign of the genitive case; and in this mentioned chap. xi. 17.
sense it appears to have been understood by the Vul. Verse 9. The king of Jericho, fc.). On this and gate, which translates rex Saron, the king of Sharon. the following verses see the notes on chap. X. 1-3. This was rather a district than a city, and is celebrated
Verse 13.. The king of Geder) Probably the same in the Scriptures for its fertility; Isa. xxxiii. 9.; XXXV. with Gedor, chap. xv. 58; it was situated in the tribe 2. · Some suppose it was the same with Saron, near of Judah.
Lydda, mentioned Acts ix. 35. Verse 14. The king of Hormah] Supposed to be Verse 20. Shimron-meron] See on chap. xi. 1. the place where the Israelites were defeated by the Verse 21. Taanach] A city in the half tribe of Canaanites, see Num. xiv. 45; and which probably. Manasseh, to the west of Jordan, not far from the was called Hormah, noin. chormah, or destruction, frontiers-of Zebulun, chap. xvii: 1.1. This city was from this circumstance.
assigned to the Levites, chap. xxi. 25. Verse 15. Adullam] A city belonging to the tribe Verse 22. Kedesh] There was a city of this name of Judah, chap. xv. 35. In a cave at this place David in the tribe of Naphtali, chap. xix. 37. It was given often secreted himself during his persecution by Saul; to the Levites, and was one of the cities of refuge, 1 Sam. xxii. I.
chap. xx. 7. Verse 17. Tappuah]. There were two places of this Jokneam of Carmel] This city is said to have been name : one in the tribe of Judah, chap. xv. 34, and at the foot of Mount Carmel, near the river Belus, in another in the tribe of Ephraim on the borders of the tribe of Zebulun, chap. xix. 11. It was given to Manasseh ; but which of the two is meant here cannot the Levites, chap. xxi.-34. be ascertained. See the note on chap. xv. 53.
Verse 23. The king of Dor] The city of this name Hepher] The same, according to Calmet, as Ophrah fell to the lot of the children of Manasseh, chap. xvii. in the tribe of Benjamin, chap. xviii. 23.
11. Bochart observes that it was one of the oldest Verse 18. Aphek] There were several cities of royal cities in Phænicia. The Canaanites held it, this name: one in the tribe of Asher, chap. xix. 30; Judg. i. 27. Antiochus Sydetes besieged it in afteranother in the tribe of Judah, 1 Sam. iv. 1, and xxix. times, but could not make himself master of it. See 1; and a third in Syria, 1 Kings xx. 26, and 2 Kings Bochart, Canaan, lib. i., c. 28, and Dodd. xiii. 17. Which of the two former is here intended The king of the nations of Gilgal] This is supposed cannot be ascertained.
to mean the higher Galilee, surnamed Galilee of the Lasharon] There is no city of this name known. Gentiles, or nations, as the Hebrew word d'la goyim Some consider the 5 lamed in the word pres lash- means. On this ground it should be read king of Gali.
The land that remained to be
possessed by the Israelites.
lee of the nations. Others suppose it is the same had very small territories. Every village or town had country with that of which Tidal was king ; see Gen. its chief; and this chief was independent of his neighxiv. 1. The place is very uncertain, and commenta- bours, and exercised regal power in his own district. tors have rendered it more so by their conjectures. In reading all ancient histories, as well as the Bible,
Verse 24. King of Tirzah] This city appears to this circumstance must be kept constantly in view; for have been for a long time the capital of the kingdom of we ought to consider that in those times both kings and Israel, and the residence of its kings. See 1. Kings xiv. kingdoms were but a faint resemblance of those now. 17; xv. 21, 33. Its situation cannot be exactly as Great Britain, in ancient times, was divided into certained; but it is supposed to have been situated on many kingdoms : in the time of the Sarons it was dia mountain about three leagues south of Samaria, vided into seven, hence called the Saxon heptarchy.
All the kings thirty and one.) The Septuagint But when Julius Cæsar first entered this island, he say eikool evvea, twenty-nine, and yet set down but found four kings in Kent alone; Cingetoric, Carnilius, twenty-eight, as they confound or omit the kings of Taximagulus, and Segonax. Hence we need not wonBeth-el, Lashæron, and Madon.
der at the numbers we read of in the land of Canaan. So many kings in so small a territory, shows that Ancient Gaul was thus divided ; and the great numtheir kingdoms must have been very small indeed. ber of sovereign princes, secular bishops, landgraves, The kings of Beth-el and Ai had but about 12,000 dukes, &c., &c., in Germany, are the modern remains subjects in the whole ; but in ancient times all kings of those ancient divisions.
• B. C. 1444.
Joshua being old, the Lord informs him of the land yet remaining to be possessed, 1. Of the unconquered
land among the Philistines, 2, 3. Among the Canaaniles, Sidonians, and Amorites, 4, 5. The inhabit-
A. M. 2560,
Lord said unto him, Thou art the Philistines, and all e Geshuri, Anno ante
old and stricken in years, and 3 From Sihor, which is before 1. Olymp. 668. there remaineth yet very much land' b to be Egypt, even unto the borders of Ekron north possessed.
ward, which is counted to the Canaanite : 5 five a See chap. xiv. 10; xxiü. I. - Heb. to possess it ; Deut. xxxi. 3. e Ver. 13; 2 Sam. in. 3 ; xiii. 37, 38. - Jer. ii. 18. Judg. Judg. iii. 1. uc Joel ii. 4.
in.3; 1 Sam. vi. 4, 16; Zeph. ii. 5. NOTES ON CHAP. XIII.
west of the land of Canaan. There were several Verse 1. Joshua was old) He is generally reputed places named Geshury, but that spoken of here was, to have been at this time about a hundred years of probably the region on the south of Canaan, towards age: he had spent about seven years in the conquest Arabia, or towards Egypt. —Calmet.
Cellarius supof the land, and is supposed to have employed about poses it to have been a country in the vicinity of the one year in dividing it; and he died about ten years Amalekites. after, aged one hundred and ten years. It is very Verse 3. From Sihor, which is before Egypt] likely that he intended to subdue the whole land be- Supposed by some to be the Pelusiac branch of the fore he made the division of it among the tribes; but Nile, near to the Arabian Desert; called also the river God did not think proper to have this done. So un- of Egypt, Num. xxxiv. 5; Jer. ii. 18. On this subfaithful were the Israelites that he appears to have ject an intelligent friend favours me with the following purposed that some of the ancient inhabitants should opinion :still remain to keep them in check, and that the re “ The river Sihor is supposed by some to be the spective tribes should have some labour to drive out Nile, or a branch of it. Others think it the same as from their allotted borders the remains of the Canaan- what is frequently called the river of Egypt, which itish nations.
lay before or towards the borders of Egypt; 'which There remaineth yet very much land to be pos- arose out of the mountains of Paran, and ran westsessed.] That is, very much when compared with that ward, falling into that bay of the Mediterranean which on the other side Jordan, which was all that could as lies south of the land of the Philistines. This river yet be said to be in the hands of the Israelites.. is often mentioned as the boundary of the Israelites to
Verse 2. The borders of the Philistines, and all the southwest, as Euphrates, the great river, was on Geshuri] The borders of the Philistines may mean the northeast. the land which they possessed on the sea-coast, south “ There was a desert of considerable distance be.
B. C. 1444.
47. Anno ante
The land that remained to be
possessed by the Isrcelites. A. M. 2560.
A. M. 2560 lords of the Philistines; the Lebanon, toward the sun-rising, B. C. 1444. an. Erod. Isr. Gazathites, and the Ashdothites, from Baal-gad under Mount An. Exod. Isr. the Eshkalonites,, the Gittites, Hermon unto the entering into
Anno antc I. Olymp. 668. and the Ekronites; also, the Hamath.
1. Olymp. 668. Avites :
6 All the inhabitants of the hill country 4 From the south, all the land of the Ca- from Lebanon unto • Misrephọth-maim, and naanites, and i Mearah that is beside the Sido- all the Sidonians, them will I drive out from nians, * unto Aphek, to the borders of the before the children of Israel: only a divide Amorites :
thou it by lot unto the Israelites for an inhe5 And the land of m the Giblites, and all rilance, as I have commanded thee. Deut. ñ. 23. Li Or, the cave.
Chap. xix. 30. 1 Bee Chap. xii. 7. -Chap. xi. 8. See chap. xxii. 13; Judg. Judg. i. 34:21 Kings E. 18; Psa. Ixxxui. 7; Ezek. xxvii. 9.
: ii. 21, 23, -9 Chap, xiv, 1, 2. tween what is called the river of Egypt and, the To the borders of the Amoriles]' Though the term isthmus of Suez. Solomon reigned to the borders Amorite is sometimes used to designate the inhabitants of Egypt, i. e., to this desert; but not in Egypt, nor in general of the land of Canaan, yet it must be conto the river Nile.
sidered in a much more restricted sense in this place. * Upon the whole, (though there are difficulties in As no Amorites are known to have dwelt in this quarthe matter,) I incline to think that the river in question tér, Calmèt' supposes we should read Aramites or was not the Nile. Sihor (black) might, from some Syrians. Joshua, says he, proceeds from Sidon to circumstances, be applied to another river as well as Aphek, a city of Syria, between Heliopolis and Babythe Nile; though some places in Isaiah and Jeremiah lon, where was the temple of the Venus of A phek ; seem to restrict it to the Nile.”—J. C.
and which is spoken of in 1 Kings xx. 26; 2 Kings Ekron northward] Ekron was one of the five lord- xiii
: 17, as the capital of the kings of Syria. From ships of the Philistines, and the most northern of all this Joshua passes on to the frontiers of the Syrians, the districts they possessed. Bgal-zebub, its idol, is towards Gebal or Gabala, which, according to Ptolemy, famous ie Scripture ; see 2 Kings i. 2, &c. The five was situated in Phænicia. This conjecture of Calmet lordships of the Philistines were Gaza, Ashdod; Aska- is not supported by any authority either from the anlon, Gath, and Ekron. There is no proof that ever the cient versions or MSS. Houbigant, however, approves Israelites possessed Ekron ; though, from chap. xv.11, of it: the emendation is simple, as it consists in the some think it was originally given to Judah, but the interchange of only two letters in the same word, '27877 text does not say so; - it only states that the border of haarammi, for han hacmori. the tribe of Judah went out unto THE SIDE of Ekron. Verse 5. The land of the Giblites] This people Froin chap. xix. 43,' we learn that it was a part of dwelt beyond the precincts of the land of Canaan, on the lot of Dan, but it does not appear to have been the east.of Tyre and Sidon. See Ezek. xxvi. 9.; Psa. possessed by any of those tribes.
lxxxiii. 7 ; their capital was named Gebal. See Dodd. Counted to the Canaanite] It is generally allowed All Lebanon) See on chap. xi. 17. that the original possessors of this country were the Verse 6. Misrephoth-maim] See on chap. xi. 7. descendants of Canaan, the youngest son of Ham. Them will I drive out] That is, if the Israelites The Philistines sprang from Mizraim, the second son continued to be obedient; but they did not, and there. of Ham, and, having dispossessed the Avim from the fore they never fully possessed the whole of that land places they held in this land, dwelt in their stead. See which, on this condition alone, God had promised them : Gen. X. 13, 14.
the Sidonians were never expelled by the Israelites, Five lords of the Philistines] These dynasties are and were only brought into a state of comparative subfamous in the Scriptures for their successful wars jection in the days of David and So mon against the Israelites, of whom they were almost the Some have taken upon them to deny the authentiperpetual scourge.
city of Divine revelation relative to this business, Also the Avites] These must not be confounded “ because,” say they, “God is stated to have absowith the Hivites. The Avites seem to have been a lutely promised that Joshua should conquer the whole very inconsiderable tribe, who dwelt in some of the land, and put the Israelites in possession of it.” This skirts of Palestine. They had been originally deprived is a total mistake. 1. God never absolutely, i. e., of their country by the Caphtorim; and though they unconditionally, promised to put them in possession of lived as a distinct people, they had never afterwards this land. The promise of their possessing the whole arrived to any authority.
was suspended on their fidelity to God. They were Verse 4. The land of the Canaanites] This lay not faithful, and therefore God was not bound by his on the south of the country of the Philistines, towards promise to give them any part of the land, after their the sea-coast.
first act of national defection from his worship. 2. Mearah] Supposed to be the city Maratha, on the God-never said that Joshua should conquer the whole Mediterranean Sea.—Calmet
. Or the river Majora, land, and give it to them; the promise was simply which falls into the Mediterranean Sea, between Sidon this : “ Thou shalt bring them into the land, and thou and Berytus. See Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. v., c. 20. shalt divide it among them :" both of which he did, Aphek] See on chap. xii. 18.
and procured them footing by his conquests, sufficient
How the land was to be divided. JOSHUA.
The possessions of Reuben A. M. 2560. 7 Now therefore divide this God of Israel made by fire are
A. M. 2560. B. C. 1444.
B. C. 1444. An. Exod. Isr. land for an inheritance unto the their inheritance, as he said. An. Exod. Isr. Anno ante nine tribes, and the half tribe of unto them.
Anno ante I. Olymp. 668. Manasseh,
15 And Moses gave unto the I. Olymp. 668. 8. With whom the Reubenites and the Gad-tribe of the children of Reuben inheritance ites have received their inheritance, 'which according to their families. Moses gave them, beyond Jordan eastward, 16 And their coast was a from Aroer, that is even as Moses the servant of the LORD gave on the bank of the river Arnon, and the city them;
that is in the midst of the river, and all the 9 From Aroer, that is upon the bank of the plain by Medeba ; river Arnon, and the city that is in the midst 17 Heshbon, and all her cities that are in of the river, and all the plain of Medeba unto the plain; Dibon, and a Bamoth-baal, and Diban;
Beth-baal-meon, 10 And all the cities of Sihon king of the 18 e And Jahaza, and Kedemoth, and MeAmorites, which reigned in Heshbon, unto phaath, : the border of the children of Ammon;
19 And Kirjathaim, and <Sibmah, and 11. u Ånd . Gilead, and the border of the Zareth-shahar in the mount of the valley, Geshurites and Maachathites, and all Mount 20 And Beth-peor, and h Ashdoth-pisgah, ! Hermon, and all Bashan unto Salcah; and Beth-jeshimoth;
12 All the kingdom of Og in Bashan, which * And all the cities of the plain, and all reigned in Ashtaroth and in Edrei, who re- the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites, mained of the remnant of the giants : w for which 'reigned in Heshbon, whom Moses these did Moses smite, and cast them out. smotem with the princes of Midian, Evi,
13 Nevertheless the children of Israel ex- and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, pelled not the Geshurites, nor the Maacha-, which were dukes of Sihon, dwelling in the thites : but the Geshurites and the Maacha- country. thites dwell- among the Israelites until this 22 Balaam also the son of Beor, the day.
soothsayer, did the children of Israel slay 14 Only unto the tribe of Levi he gave with the sword among them that were slain none inheritance; the sacrifices of the LORD by them.
Num. xxxii. 33 ; Deut. iii. 12, 13; chap. xxii. 4.Ver. 16 ; Or, the high places of Baal, and house of Baal-mcon ; see Núm. Num. xxi. 30.- Num. xxi. 24, 25. -u Chap. xii. 5.-—Deut. xxxii. 38, Le Num. xxi. 23. - Num. xxxii. 37. - Num. ini. Il; chap. xii. 4.- Num: xxi. 34, 35. * Ver. 11. xxxii. 38. h Deut. iii. 17; chap. xii. 3. Or, springs of y Num. xviii. 20, 23, 24y chap. xiv. 3, 4.—2 Ver. 33. Chap. Pisgah, or the hill. Deut. ii. 10. Numbers xxi. 24. xij. 2.- Num. xxi. 28. c Num. xxi. 30; ver. 9.
m Num. xxxi. 8. - Num. xxii. 5; xxxi. 8. -o Or, diviner. to have enabled them to establish themselves in it for the eastern part of the desert. It was given to the
3. It was never said, Thou shalt conquer it all, Levites, chap. xxi. 37. and then divide it ; no. Several of the tribes, after Verse 19. Kirjathaim] This city, according to Eutheir quota was allotted them, were obliged to drive sebius, was nine miles distant from Medeba, towards out the ancient inhabitants. See on chap. xi. 18. the east. It passed from the Emim to the Moabites,
Verse 7. The nine tribes, and the half tribe of from the Moabites to the Amorites, and from the AmoManasseh] The other half tribe of Manasseh, and rites to the Israelites, Gen. xiv. 5 ; Deut. ii. 20. Calthe two tribes of Reuben and Gad, had got their in- met supposes the Reubenites possessed it till the time heritance on the other side of Jordan, in the land for they were carried away by the Assyrians; and then merly belonging to Og king of Bashan, and Sihon king the Moabites appear to have taken possession of it of the Amorites.
anew, as he collects from Jer. xlviii. and Ezek. xxv, Verse 9. From Aroer] See on chap. xii. 2. Sibmah] A place remarkable for its vines: See
Verse 11. Border of the Geshurites) See on Isa. xvi. 8, 9; Jer. xlviii. 32. chap. xii. 5.
Zareth-shahar, in the mount of the valley) This Verse 17. Bamoth-baal] The high places of Baal, probably means a town situated on or near to a hill, probably so called from altars erected on hills for the in some flat country. impure worship of this Canaanitish Priapus.
Verse 20. Beth-peor] The house or temple of Peor, Verse 18. Jahaza] A city near Medeba and Di- situated at the foot of a mountain of the same name. bon. It was given to the Levites, 1 Chron. vi. 78. See Num. xxv. 3.
Kedemoth] Mentioned Deut. ii. 26 ; supposed to Verse 21. The princes of Midian) See the history have been situated beyond the river Arnon.
of this war, Num. xxxi. 1, &c.; and from that place Mephaath] Situated on the frontiers of Moab, on this and the following verse seem to be borrowed, for
A. M. 2560
47. Anno ante
The possessions of Gad, and
the half tribe of Manasseh A M. 2560.
23 And the border of the chil-| Gad after their families, the B. C. 1444. An. Exod. Isr. dren of Reuben was Jordan, and cities, and their villages.
An. Exod. Isr. Anno ante the border thereof. This was
29 And Moses gave inherit1. Olymp. 668. the inheritance of the children ance unto the half tribe of Manas
'1. Olymp. 668. of Reuben after their families, the cities and seh: and this was the possession of the half the villages thereof.
tribe of the children of Manasseh by their 24 And Moses gave inheritance unto the families, tribe of Gad, even unto the children of Gad 30 And their coast was from Mahanaim, all according to their families.
Bashan, all the kingdom of Og king of 25 P And their coast was Jazer, and all the Bashan, and vall the towns of Jair, which are cities of Gilead, 4 and half the land of the in Bashan, threescore cities : children of Ammon, unto Aroer that is before 31 And half Gilead, and w Ashtaroth, and Rabbah;
Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan, 26 And from Heshbon unto Ramath-mizpeh, were pertaining unto the children of Machir and Betonim ; and from Mahanaim unto the the son of Manasseh, even to the one half of border of Debir ;
the children of Machir by their families. 27 And in the valley, · Beth-aram, and Beth 32 These are the countries which Moses did nimrah, * and Succoth, and Zaphon, the rest distribute for inheritance in the plains of of the kingdom of Sihon king of Heshbon, Moab, on the other side Jordan, by Jericho, Jordan and his border, even unto the edge u of eastward. the sea of Chinneroth on the other side Jordan 33 y. But unto the tribe of Levi Moses gave eastward.
..not any inheritance : the LORD God of Israel 28 This is the inheritance of the children of was their inheritance, 2 as he said unto them.
Num. xxxii. 35.- Compare Num. xxi. 26, 28, 29, with Deut. ü. 19, and. Judg. xi. 13, 15, &c.—2 Sam. xi. 1 ; xii. 26. * Num. xxxi. 36. Gen. xxxiii. 17; 1 Kings vii. 46.
u Num. xxxiv. 11.
-Num. xxxii. 41; 1 Chron. ii. 23. w Chap. xii. 4.-*Num. xxxii. 39, 40.-y Ver. 14; chapter xviü. 7. Num. xviii. 20; Deut. x. 9; xviii. 1, 2.
the introduction of the death of Balaam here seems Succoth] · A place between Jabbok and Jordan quite irrelevant.
where Jacob .pitched his tents, from which cirVerse 23. The cities and the villages) By villages, cumstance it' obtained its name ;
see Genesis chat serim, it is likely that moveable villages or xxxjü. 17. tents are meant, such as are in use among the Bedouin Verse 29. The half tribe of Manassen] When the Arabs; places where they were accustomed to feed tribes of Reuben and Gad requested to have their setand pen their 'cattle.
tlement on the east side of Jordan, it does not appear Verse 25. Half the land of ihe children of Ammon] that any part of the tribe of Manasseh requested to be This probably was land which had been taken from settled in the same place. But as this tribe was nuthe Ammonites by Sihon, king of the Amorites, and merous, and had much cattle, Moses thought proper 'which the Israelites possessed by right of conquest. to appoint one half of it to remain on the east of JorFor although the Israelites were forbidden to take the dan, and the other to go over and settle on the west land of the Ammonites, Deut. ii. 37, yet this part, as side of that river. having been united to the territories of Sihon, they Verse 30. The towns of Jair] These were sixty might possess when they defeated that king and sub- cities; they are mentioned afterwards, and in 1 dued his kingdom.
ii. 21, &c. They are the same with the Havoth-jair Verse 26. Ramath-mizpeh] The same as Ramoth- mentioned Num. xxxii. 41.' Jair was son of Segub, gilead. It was one of the cities of refuge, chap. xx. 8; grandson of Esron or Hezron, and great-grandson of Deut. iv. 47.
Machir by his grandmother's side, who married HezMahanaim] Or the two camps.
Situated on the ron of the tribe of Judah. See his genealogy 1 northern side of the brook Jabbok, celebrated for the Chron. ii. 21-24. vision of the two camps of angels which Jacob had Verse 32. Which Moses did distribute] Moses had there ; see Gen. xxxii. 2.
settled every thing relative to these tribes before his Verse 27. Beth-aram] This city was rebuilt by death, having appointed them to possess the terriHerod, and called Livias, in honour of Livia, the tories of Og king of Bashan, and Sihon king of the wise of Augustus. Josephus calls it Julias, Julia Amorites. being the name which the Greeks commonly give to For particulars on this chapter, the reader, if he Livia.-Calmet.
judge it of consequence, may consult Calmet. b.