« AnteriorContinuar »
A. M. 2561.
B. C. 1443. An. Exod. Isr.
48. Anno ante.
48. Anno ante
Othniel takes Kirjath-sepher,
· and gels Achsah to wife. A. M. 2561.
the hill untoʻo the fountain of the 15 · And-z he went up thence to
to the cities of Mount Ephron ; name of Debir before was Kirjath1. Olymp. 667. and the border was drawn Ptosepher.
I. Olymp. 667. Baalah, which is 9 Kirjath-jearim:
16 And Caleb said; He that smiteth Kira 10 And the border compassed from Baalah jath-sepher, and taketh it, to him will I give westward unto Mount Seir, and passed along Achsah my daughter to wife. unto the side of Mount Jearim, which is Che 17 And -b Othniel the c son of Kenaz, the salon, on the north side, and went down to brother of Caleb, took it: and he gave him Beth-shemesh, and passed on to Timnah: Achsah his daughter to wife. .'
11 And the border went out unto the side 18'd And it came to pasș, as she came unto of Ekron northward : and the border was him, that she moved him to ask of her father drawn to-Shicron, and passed along to Mount a field : and she lighted off her ass; and Baalah, and went out unto Jabneel; -and the Caleb said unto her, What wouldest thou ? goings out of the border were at the soa. 19 Who answered, Give me a' blessing; for
12 And the west border was to the great thou hast given me a south land; give me also. sea, and the coasts thereof. This is the coast springs of water. And he gave her the upper of the children of Judah round about accord- springs, and the nether springs.. ing to their families.
20 This is the inheritance of the tribe of 13 . And unto Caleb the son of Jephunnęh the children of Judah, according to their he gave a part among the children of Judah, families.according to the commandment of the LORD 21. And the uttermost cities of the tribe of . to Joshua, even the city of Arba the father the children of Judah, toward the coast of of Anak, which city is Hebrón.
Edom southward, were Kabzeel, and Eder, 14 And Caleb drove thence the three sons and Jagur, of Anak, "Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai; 22 And Kinah, and Dimonah, and Adadah, the children of Anak.
23 And Kedesh, and Hazor, and Ithman,
• Chap. Xvili 15 p 1 Chron. xii. 6. -9 Judg. xviii. 12. - Judg. i, 10, 20. -y Num. xii. 22. -2 Chap. X. 38 ; Judg "Gen. såsrii. 13; Judg. xiv. l.-- Chap. xix. 43.-.-! Verse 1. kl.-- Judg. 1. 12. — b Judg. i. 13; iii. 9, e Num. xxxii. 47; Num. xxiv. 6, 7. — Chap. xiv. 13. Chap. xiv. 15. 12; chap. xiv. 6. — Judg. 1. 14. Le See. Gen. xxiv. 64; 1 Sam. * Or, Kirjalk-atba.
XXV. 23. Gen. xxxii, 11. years after it was sent back by the Philistines ; see 1 occasion to him who should take Kirjath-sepher. ProSam. v., vi., and vii: 1, 2.
fane writers furnish many. similar examples. Verse 10. Beth-shemesh] The house or temple of Verse 18. As she came] As 'she was now departthe sun. It is evident that the sun was an object of ing from the house of her father to go to that of her adoration among the Canaanités ; and hence fountains, husband. hills, &c., were dedicated to him. Beth-shemesh is She moved him] Othniel, to ask of her father a remarkable for the slaughter of its inhabitants, in con- field, one on which she had set her heart, as contigua sequence of their prying curiously, if not impiously, ous to the patrimony already granted. into the ark of the Lord, when sent back by the Phi Shelighted off her ass) nosnivattitsnach, she hastily, listines. See I Sam. vii.
suddenly alighted, as if she had forgotten something, Verse 12. The great sea] The Mediterranean. or was about to return to her father's house. Which
Verse 13. And unto Calebhe gave a part] See being perceived by her father, he said, What wouldest the notes on chap. xiv. 14, &c.
thou ? What is the matter ? What dost thou want ? Verse 14. The three sons of Anak] See on chap. Verse 19. Give me a blessing) Do me an act of xiv. 15.
kindness. Grant me a particular request. Veree 15. Kirjath-sepher:) The city of the book. Thou hast given me a south land] Which was Why so named is uncertain. It was also called Debir, probably dry, or very ill watered. and kirjath-sannah. See ver. 49.
Give me also springs of water.] Let me have some Verse 16. Will I give Achsah my daughter] In fields in which there are brooks or wells already ged ancient times fathers assumed an absolute right over The upper springs, and the nether springs.) He gave their children, especially in disposing of them in mar- her even more than she requested; he gave her a disriage ; and it was customary for a king or great man trict among the mountains and another in the plains to promise his daughter in inarriage to him who should well situated and well watered. There are several take a city, kill an enemy, &c. So Saul promised difficulties in this account, with which I shall not his daughter in marriage to him who should kill Go trouble the reader. What is mentioned above appears liath, 1 Sam. xvii. 25; and Caleb offers his on this to be the sense.
i Or, or.
Cities of the tribe of
Judak enumerated A. M. 2561. 24 Ziph, and --Telem, and 35 Jarmuth, and Adullam,
A. M. 2561. B. C. 1443.
B. C. 1443. An. Exod. Isr. Bealoth,
Socoh, and Azekah,
AN. Exod Isı Anno ante
25 And Hazor, Hadatlah, and 36 And Sharaim, and Adithaim, Anno ante 1. Olymp. 667. Kerioth, and Hezron, which is and Gederah, i and Gederothaim;
I. Olymp. 667. Hazor,
fourteen cities with their villages : 26 Amam, and Shema, and Moladah, :37 Zenan, and Hadashah, and "Migdal-gad, 27 And Hazar-gaddah, and Heshmon, and 38 And Dilean, and Mizpeh, k and Joktheel, Beth-palet,
39 Lachish, and Bozkath, and Eglon, 28 And Hazar-shual, and Beer-sheba, and 40 And Cabbon, and Lahmam, and Kithlish, Bizjothijah,
41 And Gederoth, Beth-dagon, and Naamah, 29 Baalah, and Tim, and Azem,
and Makkedah ; sixteen cities with their vil30 And Eltolad, and Chesil, and Hormah, lages : : 31 And & Ziklag, and Madmannah, and San 42 Libnah, and Ether, and Ashan, sannah,
43 And Jiphtah, and Ashnah, and Nezib, 32 And Lebaoth, and Shilhim, and "Ain; 44 And Keilah, and Achzib, and Mareshah; and Rimmon: all the cities are twenty and nine cities with their villages : nine, with their villages :
45 Ekron, with her towns and her villages : 33 And in the valley, - Eshtaol, and Zoreah, 46 From Ekron even unto the sea, all that and Ashnah,
lay near Ashdod, with their villages : 34 And Zanoah, and En-gannim, Tappuah, 47 Ashdod with her towns and her villages, and Enam,
Gaza with her towns and her villages, unto 1 Sam. xxvii. 6. h Num. xii. 23.
k 2 Kings xiv. 7.
Heb. by the place of. Verse 24. Ziph] There were two cities of this Verse 35. Jarmuth]: See the note on chap. x. 3. name in the tribe of Judah, that mentioned here, and Adullam) See the note on chap. xi. 15. another ver. 55. One of these two is noted for the Socoh] It was near this place that David fought • refuge of David when persecuted by Sàul ; and the with and slew Goliath, the champion of the Philistines, attempts made by its inhabitants to deliver him into the 1 Sam. xvii. 1. hands of his persecutor. See 1 Sam. xxiii. 14-24, Verse 36. Gederah). See the note'on chap. xii. 13.
Verse 28. Beer-sheba] A city, famous in the book - Fourteen cities] Well reckoned, we shall find fifteen of Genesis as the residence of the patriarchs Abraham cities here; but probably Gederah and Gederothaim and Jacob, chap. xxii. 19 ; xxviii. 10; xlvi. I. See (ver. 36) are the same. · See the note on ver. 32. the note on Gen, xxi. 31. It lay on the way between Verse 39. Lachish—and Eglon) See on chap. x. 3. Canaan and Egypt, about forty, miles from Jerusalem. Verse -41. Beth-dagon] The house, or temple of
Verse 30. Hormah] A place rendered famous by Dagon. This is a well known idol of the Philistines, the defeat of the Hebrews by the Canaanites: · See and probably the place mentioned here was in some Num. xiv. 45; Deut. i. 44.
part of their territories ; but the situation-at present is Verse 31. Ziklag] The Philistines seem to have kept | unknown. possession of this city till the time of David, who received Verse 42. Librah] See the note on chap. x. 29. it from Achish, king of Gath, 1 Sam. xxvii. 6; after which Ether] From chap. xix. 7 we learn that this city time it remained in the possession of the kings of Judah. was afterwards given to the tribe of Simeon.
Verse 32. All the cities are twenty and nine, with Verse 44. Keilah] This town was near Hebron, their villages] But on a careful examination we shall and is said to have been the burying-place of the profind thirty-eight; but it is supposed that nine of these phet Habakkuk. David obliged the Philistines to raise are excepted ; viz. Beer-sheba, Moladah, Hazarshual, the siege of it; (see 1 Sam. xxiii. 1-13 ;) but finding Baalah, Azem, Hormah, Ziklag, Ain, and Rimmon, that its inhabitants had purposed to deliver him into the which were afterwards given to the tribe of Simeon. hands of Saul, who was coming in pursuit of him, he This may appear satisfactory, but perhaps the truth made his escape. See this remarkable case explained will be found to be this : Several cities in the promised in the note on Deut. xxxii. 15. land are expressed by compound terms; not knowing Mareshah] Called also Maresheth and Marasthi; the places, different translations combine what should it was the birth-place of the prophet Micah. Near be separated, and in many cases separate what should this place was the famous battle between Asa, king of be combined. Through this we have cities formed Judah, and Zera, king of Cush or Ethiopia, who was out of epithets. On this ground we have thirty-eight at the head of one thousand thousand men, and three cities as the sum here, instead of twenty-nine. hundred chariots. ' Asa defeated this immense host,
Verse 33. Eshtaol, and Zoreah] Here Samson was and took much spoil; 2 Chron. xiv. 9-15. buried, it being the burial-place of his fathers; see Verse 46. Ekron] One of the five Philistine lordJudges xvi. 31. These places, though first given to Ju- ships ; see the note on chap. xiii. 3. dah, afterwards fell to the lot of Dan, chap. xix. 41. Verse 47. Ashdod] Called also Azotus, Acts viii. 40.
48. Anno ante
48. Anno ante
Cities of the tribe of .
Judah enumerated. A. M. 2561. * the river of Egypt, and "the 57 Cain, Gibeah, and Timnah ;
A. M. 2561. B. C. 1443
B.-C. 1443. An. Exod. Isr. great sea, and the border thereof : ten cities with their villages : An. Exod. Isr.
48 And in the mountains, Sha 58 Halhu), Beth-zur, and GeI. Olymp. 667. mir, and Jattir, and Socoh, dor,
I. Olymp. 667. 49 And Dannah, and Kirjath-sannah, which : 59 And Maarath, and Beth-anoth, and Elteis Debir,
kon; six cities with their villages :50 And Anab, and Eshtemoh, and Anim, 60 Kirjath-baal, which is Kirjath-jcarim,
51 And Goshen, and Holon, and Giloh ; and Rabbah; two cities with their villages : eleven cities with their villages :
61 In the wilderness, Beth-arabah, Middin, 52 Arab, and Dumah, and Eshean,
and Seçaeah, 53 And P Janum, and Beth-tappuah, and 62 And Nibshan, and the city of Salt, and Aphekah,
En-gedi ; six cities with their villages. . 54 And Humtah, and 4 Kirjath-arba, which 63 As for the Jebusites, the inhabitants of is Hebron, and Zior; nine cities with their Jerusalem, s-the children of Judah could not villages :
drive them out : but the Jebusites dwell with 55 Maon, Carmel, and Ziph, and -Juttalı, the children of Judah at Jerusalem unto this 56 And Jezreel, and Jokdeam, and Zanoah, day. Verse 4 -Numbers xxxiv. 6. Chap. x. 41; xi. 16. 9 Chap. xiv. 15; ver. 13. -- Chap, xviii. 14. See Judg. i. p Or, Janus.
8,21 ; 2 Sam, v.: 6. - Judy. 1. 21. Unto the river of Egypl] The Pelusiac branch of reyhen, and their villages, occurring immediately before the Nile, or Sihor. But see on ver. 4.
this passage and at the end of it, the transcriber's eye The great sea] The Mediterranean.
passed from one to the other by mistake. A similar Verse 48. Socoh) See a town of this name, ver. 35. accident has caused the. omission of two whole Verse 49. Kirjath-sannah] See the note on ver. 15. verses, the 35th. and 36th of chap. xxi.” See the Verse 51. Goshen See the note on chap. x. 41, note there..
Gilok] The country of the traitor Ahithophel, 2 Verse 60. Kirjath-baal] The same as Baalah. Sam. xv. 12.
See on ver. 9. Verse 53. Beth-lappuah] The house of the apple or Verse 62. · The city of Salt] Or of Melach. This citron tree. Probably a place where these grew in city was somewhere in the vicinity of the lake Asgreat abundance and perfection.
phaltiles; the waters of which are the saltest perhaps Aphekah] See the note on chap. xii. 18. in the world. The whole country abounds with salt:
Verse 54. Kirjalh-arba} See the note on chap. see the note on Gen, xix. 25. Some suppose that it xiv. 15.
is the same as Zoar, the place to which Lot escaped Verse 55. Maon). In a desert to which this town. after the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. gave name, David took refuge for a considerable time En-gedi] The well of the kid: it was situated befrom the persecution of Saul; and in this place Nabal tween Jericho and the lake of Sodom or Dead Sea. the Carmelite had great possessions. See 1 Sam. xxiii. Verse 63. The Jebusites dwell-at Jerusalem unto 24, 25 ; xxv. 2.
this day.) The whole history of Jerusalem, previously Carmel] Not the celebrated mount of that name, to the time of David, is encumbered with many diffibut a village, the residence of Nabal. See I Sam. culties. Sometimes it is attributed to Judah, someXXV. 2. It was near Maon, mentioned above, and was times to Benjamin ; and it is probable that, being on about ten miles eastward of Hebron. It is the place the frontiers of both those tribes, each possessed a part where Saul erected a trophy to himself after the de- of it. If the Jebusites were ever driven out before feat of the Amalekites; see 1 Sam. xv. 12.
the time of David, it is certain they recovered it again, Ziph] See on ver. 24.
or at least a part of it—what is called the citadel or Verse 57. Timnah] A frontier town of the Philis- strong hold of Zion, (see 2 Sam. v. 7,) which he took tines ; it was in this place that Samson got his wife, from them ; after which the city fell wholly into the see Judg. xiv. and xv.
hands of the Israelites. This verse is an additional Verse 58. Gedor] See the note on chap. xii. 13. proof that, the book of Joshua was not written after In this place the Alexandrian MS. of the Septuagint the times of the Jewish kings, as some have endeaand the Codex Vaticanus add the eleven following voured to prove; for when this verse was written, the towns: Theca; and Ephralha, (that is, Bethlehem,) Jebusites dwelt with the children of Judah, which they and Phagor, and Etan, and Kulon, and Patam, and did not after the days of David; therefore the book Thebes, and Karam, and Galam, and Thether, and was written before there were any kings in Judea. Manocho; eleven cities and their villages. St. Jerome, on Mic. v. 1, mentions them, so that we find they were It is very likely, not only that many cities have by in the copies he used. Dr. Kennicott contends that the lapse of time changed their names or been totally they should be restored to the text, and accounts thus destroyed, (see the note on ver. 1,) but that the names for their omission : “ The same word 37°1971 vechats- of those in the preceding catalogue have been changed
Borders of the tribe of Joseph
and of the Ephraimites. also, several of them repeated that should have been / which afterwards appear to have been in another tribe. mentioned but once, and not a few confounded with The reason appears to be this : many towns are menthe terms by which they are described. But we must tioned which were frontier towns, and when the limits not suppose that every repetition of the name is through of a tribe are pointed out, such places must necessathe carelessness of copyists ;, for there are often two rily be mentioned, though allotted to a different tribe. places which bear the same name, which is frequently This consideration will serve to remove several diffithe case in England. But besides this, villages are culties which occur.in the reading of this and the folmentioned as being apparently in the tribe of Judah, lowing chapters.
48. Anno ante
Borders of the children of Joseph, 1-4. The borders, of the Ephraimites, 5–9. The Canaanites dwell
tributary among them, 10. . 8: M: 1993: AND the lot of the children of Ito - Michmethah ‘on the north A. M. 2561. * An, Exod. Isr, Joseph · fell from Jordan by side ; and the border went about An. Exod. Isr. Annio ante
Jericho, unto the water of Jericho eastward unto Taanath-shiloh, and 1. Olymp. 667.
on the east, to the wilderness passed by it on the east to Janohah; 1. Olymp. 667. that .goeth up from Jericho throughout Mount 7. And it went down from Janohah to AtaBeth-el,
roth, i and to Naarath, and came to Jericho, 2 And goeth out from Beth-el to b Luz, and and went out at Jordan. passeth along unto the borders of Archi: to 8. The border went out from Tappuáh westAtaroth,
ward-unto the river Kanah ; and the goings 3 And goeth down westward to the coast of out thereof were at the sea. This is the Japhleti, e unto the coast of Beth-horon the inheritance of the tribe of the children of ņether, and to Gezer; and the goings out Ephraim by their families, thereof are at the sea.
9 And the separate cities for the children 4 . So the children of Joseph, Manasseh-and of Ephraim were among the inheritance of Ephraim, took their inheritance,
the children of Manasseh, all the aities with 5. And the border of the children of Ephraim their villages. according to their families was thus : even the 10 " And thòy drave not out the Canaanites border of their inheritance on the east side was that dwelt in Gezer : but the Canaanites dwell * Ataroth-addar, 5 unto Beth-horon the upper; among the Ephraimites unto this day, and
6 And the border went out toward the sea serve under tribute,
a Heb. went forth. -0 Chap. xviii. 13; Judg. i. 26. e Ch " Chap. xviii. 13. -62 Chron. viii. 5. Lh Chap.xvii. 7. xviii. 13; 2 Chron. viii. 5. di Chron. vii, 28; 1 Kings ix. 15. 1 Chron. vii. 28. -* Chap. xvii. 9.4 Chap. xvii. 9. — Judg • Chap. xvii. 14,
i. 29; see 1 Kings ix. 16. NOTES ON CHAP. XVI.
the friend of David, 2 Sam. xv. 32, who is called HuVerse 1. The children of Joseph] Ephraim and shaithe Archite. Ataroth, called Ataroth-addar, Ataroth Manasseh, and their descendants. The limits of the the illustrious, ver. 5, and simply Ataroth, ver. 7, is suptribe of Ephraim extended along the borders of Ben- posed to have been about fifteen miles from Jerusalem. jamin and Dan, from Jordan on the east to the Medi Verse 3. Beth-horon the nether] This city was terranean on the west.
about twelve miles from Jerusalem, on the side of Verse 2. From Bethel to Luz] From Gen. xxviii. Nicopolis, formerly Emmaus.-Calmet. See the note 19 it appears that the place which Jacob called Beth-el on chap. x. 10. was formerly called Luz; see the note there : but here Verse 5. Ataroth-addar) See the note on ver. 2. they seem to be two distinct places. It is very likely Beth-horon the upper] The situation of this town that the place where Jacob had the vision was not in is little known. It was eastward of Beth-horon the Luz, but in some place within a small distance of that nether, and consequently not far from it. city or village, (see the note on Gen. xxviii. 12,) and Verse 8. Tappuah] This was a city in the tribe of that sometimes the whole place was called Beth-el, at Manasseh, and gave name to a certain district called other times Luz, and sometimes, as in the case above, the land of Tappuah. See chap. xvii. 8. the two places were distinguished. As we find the
The sea) The Mediterranean, as before. term London comprises, not only London, but also the Verse 9. And the separate cities] That is, the cities sity of Westminster and the borough of Southwark; that were separated from the tribe of Manasseh to be though at other times all three are distinctly mentioned. given to Ephraim; see chap. xvii. 9. Archi to Ataroth] Archi was the country of Hushai, Verse 10. The Canaanitès that dwell in Gezer] It
The lot of the half
tribe of Manasseh. appears that the Canaanites were not expelled from consequently, have perished perhaps more than a thouthis city till the days of Solomon, when it was taken sand years ago. It would be therefore useless to look by the king of Egypt his father-in-law, who made it for such places now. Several of the towns in England, a present to his daughter, Solomon's queen. See 1 a land not exposed to such revolutions as that of PalesKings ix. 16. And see the note-on Josh. x. 33. The tine has ever been, mentioned by Cæsar and other anEphraimites, however, had so far succeeded in sub- cient writers, are no longer discernible. Several have jecting these people as to oblige them to pay tribute, changed their names, and not a few their situation. though they could not, or at least did not, totally expel Tradition states that the city of Norwich anciently them.
stood some miles from its present situation ; and we
have the fullest proof that this was the case with the Of the names and places in this chapter, we may city of Salisbury. Such changes do not affect the say the same as of others already mentioned. - See the truth of the ancient geography of our own country; note on shap. xv. 1., Many of those towns were small, 'nor can they impeach that of the sacred historian beand, we may rationally conclude, slightly built, and fore us.
The lot of the half tribe of Manasseh, 1, 2. Case of the daughters of Zelophehad, 3-6. The borders of
Manasseh described, 9-11. The Canaaniles dwell among them, but are laid under tribute, 12, 13. The children of Joseph complain of the scantiness of their lat, 14-16. Joshua authorizes them to possess the mountainous wood country of the Perizzites, and gives them encouragement to expel them, though they were strong and had chariots of iron, 17, 18. A. M. 2561, THERE was also a lot for the son of ead, the son of Machir,
A. M. 2561. B. C. 143.
*B. C. 1443. An. Exod. Isr. tribe of Manasseh'; for he the son of Manasseh, had no sons, An. Exod. Isr.
49. Anno ante
was the first-born of Joseph ; but daughters: and these are the Anno ante 1. Olymp. 667. to wil, for ” Machịr, the first-born names of his daughters, Mahlah,
I. Olymp. 667. of Manasseh, the father of Gilead :- because, and Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. he was a man of war; therefore he had
4 And they came near before k Eleazar the c Gilead and Bashan.
priest, and before Joshua the son of Nun, and 2 There was also a lot for d the rest of the before the princes, saying, "The Lord comchildren of Manasseh by their families; for manded Moses to give us an inheritance among the children of f Abiezer, and for the children: our brethren: "Therefore, according to the of Helek, 8 and for the children of Asriel, and commandment of the LORD, he gave them for the children of Shechem, hand, for the an inheritance among the brethren of their children of Hepher, and for the children of father.
5 And there fell ten portions. to. Manasseh, Manasseh the son of Joseph by their families. beside the land of Gilead and Bashan, which
3 But i Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the were on the other side Jordan ;
*Gen. xli. 51; xlvi. 20°; xlviii. 18. b Gen. I. 23; Num. xxvi. Num. xxvi. 30 , Jezer. Num. xxvi. 31. h Num. xxvi. 29; u. 39, 40; 1.Chron. vii. :- Deut. in. 15.—& Num. 32.-i Num. xxvi. 33 ; xxvii. 1; xxxvi. 2. * Chap. xiv. 1. xxvi. 29–32. — 1 Chron. vii. 18.
i Num, xxvii. 6, 7. NOTES ON CHAP. XVII
spirit, were well qualified to defend a frontier country, Verse 1. There was also a lot for the tribe of Ma- which would be naturally exposed to invasion. nasseh] It was necessary to mark this because Jacob, Verse 2. The rest of the children of Manasseh! in his blessing, (Gen. xlviii. 19, 20,) did in a certain That is, his grandchildren; for it is contended that sense set Ephraim before Manasseh, though the latter Manasseh had no other son than Machir ; and these was the first-born ; but the place here shows that this were very probably the children of Gilead, the son of preference did not affect the rights of primogeniture. Maçhir.
For Machir-because he was a man of war] It is Verse 3. Zelophehad had no sons, but daughters] not likely that Machir himself was now alive; if he see this case considered at large in the notes on Num. were, he must have been nearly 200 years old. It is xxvii. 1-7, and xxxvi. 1, &c. therefore probable that what is spoken here is spoken Verse 5. There fell ten portions to Manasseh] The of his children, who now possessed the , lot that was Hebrew word son chabley, which we translate pororiginally designed for their father, who it appears had tions, signifies literally cords or cables, and intimates signalized himself as a man of skill and valour in some that by means of a cord, cable, or what we call a chain, of the former wars, though the circumstances are not the land was divided. We have but little account of marked. His descendants, being of a warlike, intrepid the arts and sciences of the Hebrews, yet from the b.
Shemida : these were the male children of