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A. M. 2561.
B. C. 1443.

A. M. 2561.
B. C. 1443.

48. Anno ante

48. Anno ante

Leuitical cities given


from each trite. Shiloh, b in the land of Canaan, and out of the tribe of Asher, An. Exod. Isr. saying, The Lord commanded, and out of the tribe of Naph. An. Exod. Iss.

by the hand of Moses, to give tali, and out of the half tribe I. Olymp. 667.

us cities to dwell in, with, the of Manasseh in Bashan, thirteen suburbs thereof for our cattle.

cities. 3 And the children of Israel gave unto the 7 "The children of Merari by their families Levites out of their inheritance, at the com. had out of the tribe of Reuben, and out of mandment of the LORD, these cities and their the tribe of Gad, and out of the tribe of Zesuburbs.

bulun, twelve cities. · 4 And the lot came out for the families of 8 i And the children of Israel gave by lot the Kohathites : and d the children of Aaron unto the Levites these cities with their subthe priest, which were of the Levites, • had by urbs, kas the LORD commanded by the hand lot out of the tribe of Judah, and out of the of Moscs. tribe of Simeon, and out of the tribe of Benja- | 9 "And they gave out of the tribe of the min, thirteen cities.

children of Judah, and out of the tribe of the 5 And the rest of the children of Kohath children of Simeon, these cities which are here had by lot out of the families of the tribe of ' mentioned by name, Eplıraim, and out of the tribe of Dan, and out 10 m Which the children of Aaron, being of of the half tribe of Manasseh, ten cities. the families of the Kohathites, who were of

6 And & the children of Gershon had by lot the children of Levi, had : for theirs was the out of the families of the tribe of Issachar, first lot.

Chap. xviii. 1. - Nuin. xxxv. 2.- Ver. 8, 19.- See 5. Ver, 27, &c.

chap. xxiv. 33.-1 Ver. 20, &c.

h Ver. 31, &e.

1 Heb. called.

i Ver. 3.
- m Ver. 4.

LK Num, xxxv.2.

Verse 3. And the children of Israel gave unto the by history, that the cities of the Levites were almost Leriles) They cheerfully obeyed the Divine commande entirely filled with Israelites of other tribes. For inand cities for habitations were appointed to them out stance, Gibeah of Benjamin, which is here given to the of the different tribes by lot, that it might as fully ap- Levites, ver. 17, was always peopled by the Benjamites, pear that God designed them their habitations, as he as appears from the history of the Levite, whose wife designed the others their inheritances.

was so horribly abused by them; Judg. xix. Saul Verse 4. Out of the tribe of Judah--Simeon, and and all his family dwelt in the same city; and David Benjamin, thirteen cities.] These tribes furnished more and his court spent the first years of his reign at Hehabitations to the Levites in proportion than any of the bron, which was also a city of the Levites, ver. 10. other tribes, because they possessed a more extensive It appears, therefore, that they had no other property inheritance; and Moses had commanded, Num, xxxv. in those cities than merely the right to certain houses, 8, From them that have many, ye shall give many; which they might sell, but always with the right of and from them that have few, ye shall give few : every perpetual redemption, for they could finally alienate one shall give of his cities unto the Levites, according 'nothing ; and if the possessor of such a house, having to his inheritance. It is worthy of remark, that the sold it, did not redeem it at the year of jubilee, it reprincipal part of this tribe, whose business was to verted to the Levites. And as to their lands for their minister at the sanctuary, which sanctuary was after- cattle, which extended two thousand cubits without wards to be established in Jerusalem, had their ap- the city, these they were not permitted to sell : they pointment nearest to that city; 'so that they were were considered as the Lord's property. See Lev always within reach of the sacred work which God xxv. 32-34, and the notes there. It is therefore very had appointed them.

likely that, in the first instance, the Levites had simply Verse 5. And the rest of the children of Kohath] the right to choose, in all the cities assigned them, the That is, the remaining part of that family that were houses in which they were to dwell, and that those of not priesls, for those who were priests had their lot in the tribe to which the city belonged occupied all the the preceding tribes. Those, therefore, of the family other dwellings. There is also reason to believe that of Kohath, who were simply Levites, and not of the in process of time, when the families of the Levites priests or Aaron's family, (see ver. 10,) had their increased they had more dwellings assigned to them, habitations in Ephraim, Dar, and the half tribe of which were probably built at the public expense. Manasseh.

We may also observe that the Levites were abIt has been asked in what sense did the Levites solutely bound to live in these and no other cities : for possess those cities, seeing they had no inheritance,? when the tabernacle was at Nob, priests and Levites To which it may be answered, that it is not likely the dwelt there, see 1 Sam. xxi. 1, &c.; and when the Levites had the exclusive property of the cities in worship of God' was established at Jerusalem, multiwhich they dwelt, for it is evident that the other Is- tudes both of priests and Levites dwelt there, though raelites dwelt among them. We know, says Calmet, it was no Levitical city: as did the courses of priests

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B. C. 1443.

48. Anno ante

48. Anno ante

Levitical cities given


from each trioe. A. M. 2561. 11 And they gave them the Beth-horon with her suburbs ;

A. M. 2561. B. C. 14:3. An. Exod. Isr. city of Arba the father.of P Anak, four cities:

An. Exod. Isr. which city is Hebron, 4 in the 23 And out of the tribe of Dan, 1. Olymp. 667. hill country of Judah, with the Eltekel with her suburbs, Gibbe- 1. Olymp. 667. suburbs thereof round about it.

thon with her suburbs, 12 But " the fields of the city, and the vil- 24 Aijalon with her suburbs, Gath-rimmon lages thereof, gave they to Caleb the son of with her suburbs; four cities. Jephunneh for his possession.

25 And out of the half tribe of Manasseh, 13 Thus they gave to the children of Aaron Tanach with her suburbs, and Gath-rimmon the priest · Hebron with her suburbs, to be a with her suburbs; two cities. city of refuge for the slayer; "and Libnah 26 All the cities were ten with their subwith her suburbs,

urbs for the families of the children of Kohaih 14 And Jatlir with her suburbs, w and Esh- that remained. temoa with her suburbs,

27 h. And unto the children of Gershon, of 15 And * Holon, with her suburbs, Yand the families of the Levites, - out of the other Debir with her suburbs,

half tribe of Manasseh, they gave i Golan in 16 And · Ain with her suburbs, * and Juttah Bashan with her suburbs, to be a city of refuge with her suburbs, and b Beth-shemesh with for the slayer ; and' Beeshterah with her sub her suburbs; ninfe cities out of those two urbs; two cilies. tribes.

28 And out of the tribe of Issachar; Kishon 17 And out of the tribe of Benjamin, --Gi- with her suburbs, Dabareh with her suburbs, beon with her suburbs, Geba with her 29 Jarmuth with her snburbs, En-gannim suburbs,

with her suburbs; four cities. 18 Anathoth with her suburbs, and · Almon 30 And out of the tribe of Asher, Mishal with her suburbs; four cities,

with her suburbs, Abdon with her suburbs, 19 All the cities of the children of Aaron, 31 Helkath with her suburbs, and Rehob the priests, were thirteen cities with their with her suburbs; four cities. suburbs.

32 And out of the tribe of Naphtali, k Ke20 ' And the families of the children of desh in Galilee with her suburbs, to be a city Kohath, the Levites which remained of the of refuge for the slayer; and Hammoth-dor children of Kohath, even they had the cities with her suburbs, and Kartan with her subof their lot ont of the tribe of Ephraim. urbs ; three cities.

21 For they gave them Shechem with her 33 All the cities of the Gershonites accord suburbs in Mount. Ephraim, to be a city of ing to their families were thirteen cities with refuge for the slayer ; and Gezer with her their suburbs. Buburbs,

34 1 And unto the families of the children 22 And Kibzaim with her suburbs, and of Merari, the rest of the Levites, out of the

El Chron: vi. 55.—_. Or, Kirjath-arba ; Genesis xxvi. 2. 21 Chron. vi. 59, Ashan; chap. xv. 42, -a Chap. xv. 55. p Chap. xv. 13, 14. Chap. xx. 7; Luke i. 39, Chap. xiv. 6 Chap. xv. 10. Chap. xviii. 25. - Chap. xvi. 24, Gaba. 14; 1 Chron. vi. 56. siCbron. vi. 57, &c. - Chap. xv. 54; el Chron. vii 60; Alemeth. Verse 5; i Chron. vi. 66. xx. 7.- Chap. xv. 42. — Chap. xv. 48. -w Chap. xv. 50. & Chap. xx. 7. --h Ver. 6; 1 Chron. vi. 71. Chap. xx. 8. rl Chron vi. 39, Hilen ; chap. xv. 51. - Chap. xv. 49. k Chap. xx. 7. Ver. 7; see I Chron. vi. 77. afterwards at Jericho. This was a circumstance which the time mentioned here certainly thirteen cities were Moses had foreseen, and for which he had provided. too large a proportion for the priests, as they and their See Deut. xviii. 6, &c.

families amounted to a very small number ; but this Verse 11. The city of Arba] See the note on ample provision was made in reference to their great chap. xiv. 15.

increase in after times, when they formed twenty-four Verse 12. The fields of the citygave they to Caleb] courses, as in the days of David. This was an exclusive privilege to him and his family, Verse 22. Belh-horon] There were two cities of with which, the grant to the Levites did not interfere. this name, the upper and the nether ; but which is inSee the notes on chap. xiv. 14.

tended here, cannot be ascertained. Verse 18. Anatholh.) Celebrated as the birth-placé Verse 24. Aijalon] See on chap. x. of Jeremiah, about three miles northward of Jerusa Verse 27. Golan in Bashan) On this and the other lem, according to St. Jerome.

cities of refuge mentioned here, see the note on chap. Verse 19. Thirteen cities with their suburbs.] Atl xx. ver. 7.

B. C. 1443.



48. Anno ante


The exact fulfilment


of all God's promises. A. M. 2561. tribe of Zebulun, Jokneam with, 41 . All the cities of the Le

A. M. 2561.

B. C. 1443.
An. Exod. Isr. her suburbs, and Kartah with her vites within the possession of An. Exod. Isr.
Anno ante

the children of Israel were forty I. Olymp. 667.

35 Dimnah with her suburbs, and eight cities with their sub- 1. Olymp. 667. Nahalal with her suburbs; four cities.

urbs. 36 And out of the tribe of Reuben, m Bezer 42 These cities were every one with their with her suburbs, and Jahazah with her suburbs, suburbs round about them : thus were all these

37 Kedemoth with her suburbs, and Me-cities. phaath with her suburbs; four cities.

43. And the LORD gave unto Israel Pall the 38 And out of the tribe of Gad, " Ramoth land which he sware to give unto their fathers; in Gilead with her suburbs, to be a city of and they possessed it, and dwelt therein. refuge for the slayer; and Mahanaim with her 44 9 And the LORD gave them rest round suburbs,

about, according to all that he sware unfo their 39 Heshbon with her suburbs, Jazer with fathers : and 'there stood not a man of all her suburbs; four cities in all.

their enemies before them; the LORD deli40 So all the cities for the children of Me- vered all their enemies into their hand. rari by their families, which were remaining 45 • There failed - not aught of any good of the families of the Levites, were by their thing which the LORD had spoken unto the lot twelve cities.

house of Israel: all came to pass.' m Chap. xx. 8. Chap. xx. 8. - Numbers xxxv. 7.

9 Chap. xi. 23; xxii. 4. - Deut. vii. 24. Chapter P Gen. xiii. 15; xv. 18; xxvi. 3 ; xxviii. 4, 13.

xxiii. 14. Verse 35. Dimnah with her suburbs, fc.] It is well Kedemoth with her suburbs, and Mephaath with her known to every Hebrew scholar that the two following suburbs ; four cities. See on this place my edition verses are wholly omitted by the Masora; and are left of the Hebrew Bible, where no less than one hundred out in some of the most correct and authentic Hebrew and forty-nine copies are described, which happily preBibles. Between critics there is no small controversy serve these verses, most clearly essential to the truth relative to the authenticity of these verses; and those and consistency of this chapter. See also General who wish to see the arguments at large on both sides, Discourse, pp. 19, 26, 54.” must consult the Variæ Lectiones of De Rossi on this Though this reasoning of Dr. Kennicott appears place. Dr. Kennicott, who is a strenuous advocate very conclusive, yet there are so many and important for their authenticity, argues thus, in their behalf: variations among the MSS. that retain, and those that " Verses 41 and 42 of this chapter tell us that the reject these verses, as to render the question of their * Levitical cities were forty-eight, and that they had been authenticity very difficult to be determined. To Dr. all as such described ; so that they must have been all Kennicott's one hundred and forty-nine MSS. which specified in this chapter: whereas now in all the He have these two verses, may be added upwards of forty brew copies printed in full obedience to the Masora, collated by De Rossi. Those who deny their authenwhich excludes two verses containing four of these ticity say they have been inserted here from 1 Chron. cities, the number amounts only to forty-four. vi, 78, 79, where they are found it is true, in general,

“ The cities are first mentioned, in the general, as but not exactly as they stand here, and in Dr. Kennibeing thirteen and tên, with thirteen and twelve, which cott's Hebrew Bible. are certainly_forty-eight. And yet when they are par Verse 36. Jahazah] See on chap. xiii. .18. ticularly named, verses 13 to 19 give thirteen cities; Verse 41. Forty and eight cities] At the last cenverses 20 to 26 give ten cities ; verses 27 to 33 give sus of the Hebrew people, related Num. xxvi., we find thirteen ; verses 34 and 35 give four cities; and then from ver.' 62 that the tribe of Levi amounted only to verses 35, 36, give four more, all which can make but 23,000; and it is supposed that forty-eight cities were forty-four. And what still increases the wonder is, too great a proportion for this tribe, the other tribes that ver. 40 infers from the verses immediately pre having so very few. But, 1. All the cities of the ceding, that the cities allowed to the Merarites were other tribes are not enumerated. 2. They had the twelve, though they here make eight only, unless we ad circumjacent country as well as the cities. 3. The mit the four other cities expressed in those two verses, Levites had no other cities than those enumerated. which have been rejected by that blind guide the Ma- 4. They had no country annexed to their cities, the

In defiance of this authority these two verses, 2,000 cubits for their cattle, &c., excepted. 5. Cities thus absolutely necessary, were inserted in the most in those ancient times were very small, as most vilearly editions of the Hebrew text, and are found in lages went under this appellation. 6. The Levites Walton's Polyglot, as well as in our English Bible. had now the appointment that was suited to their But they have scarce ever been as yet printed com- consequent increase. The other tribes might enlarge pletely, thus : And out of the tribe of Reuben; A CITY their borders and make conquests, but this was not OF REFUGE FOR THE SLAYER, Bezer, IN THE WILDER- suitable to the mere servants of God; besides, had NESS, with her suburbs, and Jahazah with her suburbs, they made conquests, they would have become pro





The two tribes and half are

CHAP. XXII. dismissed with commendations. prietors of the conquered land; and God determined either straitened or subjugated, while obedient and that they should have no inheritance in Israel, He faithful to their God. himself being their portion

The cavil is as foolish as it is unprincipled which Verse 43. And the Lord gaveall the land which states, “ The Israelites never did possess the whole he stare] All was now divided by lot unto them, and of the land which was promised to them, and therefore their enemies were so completely. discomfited that that promise could not come by Divine revelation." there was not a single arıny of the Canaanites remain- With as much reason might it be urged that Great ing to make head against them; and those which were Britain has not subdued the French West India Islands left in the land served under tribute, and the tribute and Batavia, (Feb. 1812,) because the ancient inhabitthat they paid was the amplest proof of their complete ants still remain in them ; but is not their serving unsubjugation. Add to this, they had as much of the der tribute an absolute proof that they are conquered, land in actual possession as they could occupy; and, and under the British dominion? So was the whole as they increased, God enabled them to drive out the land of Canaan conquered, and its inhabitants subdued, rest of the ancient inhabitants; but in consequence of though the whole of the ground was not occupied by the infidelity of the Israelites, God permitted their the Israelites till the days of David and Solomon. In enernies often to straiten them, and sometimes to pre- the most correct and literal sense it might be said, vail against them. It should also be remembered, There failed not aught of any good thing which that God never promised to give them the land, or to the Lord had spoken unto the house of Israel : all maintain them in it, but on condition of obedience; and came to pass. Nor shall one word of his ever fail so punctually did he fulfil this intention, that there is to any of his followers while the sun and moon not a single instance on 'record in which they were endure.


B. C. 1443.


48. Anno ante

Joshua assembles, commends, blesses, and then dismisses the two tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half

tribe of Manasseh, 1-8. They relurn and build an altar by. the side of Jordan, 9, 10. The rest of the Israelites hearing of this, and suspecting that they had built the altar for idolatrous purposes, or to make a schism in the national worship, prepare to go to war with them, 11, 12 ; but first send a deputation to know the trulh, 13, 14. They arrive and expostulate with their brethren, 15-20. The Reubenites, Gad*ites, and half tribe of Manasseh, make a noble defence, and show that their altar was built as à monument only to prevent idolatry, 21-29. The deputation are satisfied, and return to the ten tribes and make their report, 30–32. The people rejoice and praise God, 33; and the Reubenites and Gadites call the altar threy kad raised Ed, that it might be considered a witness between them and their brethren on the other side Jordan, 34. li se s THEN-Joshua called the Reu-4 And now the Lord your God A. M. 2561. An. Exod. Isr. -- benites, and the Gadites, hath given rest unto your bre. An. Exod. Isr.

and the half tribe of Manasseh, thren, as' he promised them.: Anno ante I. Olymp. 667. 2 And said unto them, Ye have therefore now


1. Olymp. 667. kept * all that Moses the servant of the LORD get you unto your tents, and unto the land commanded you, and have obeyed my voice of your possession, which Moses the servant in all that I commanded you :

return ye,

of the Lord gave you on the other side Jordan. 3 Ye have not left your brethren these many

5 But d take diligent heed to do the comdays unto this day, but have kept the charge inandment and the law, which Moses the serof the commandment of the LORD your God. vant of the Lord charged yon, e to love the * Numbers axxii. 20; Deuteronomy ji. 18.-- Chapter Num. xxxii. 33; Deut. xxix., 8; chapter xiii. 8. i. 16, 17.

vi. 6, 17; xi. 22. NOTES ON CHAP. XXII.

camp at Gilgal and their own inheritance, yet it does Verse 1. Then Joshua called the Reubenites, &c.] not appear that they 'had during that time ever-revisited We have already seen that-40,000 men of the tribes their own home, which they might have done any time of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, in the year, the harvest excepted, as at all other times had passed over Jordan ned, with their brethren, that river.was easily fordable. according to their stipulation with Moses. The war Verse 5. But take diligent heed, dc.) Let us exbeing now concluded, Joshua assembles these warriors, amine the force of tbis excellent advice; they must and with commendations for their services and fidelity, ever consider that their prosperity and continued poshe dismisses shem, having first given them the most session of the land depended on their fidelity and obepions and suitable advices. They had now been about dience to God; to this they must take diligent heed. seven years absent from their respective families; and Do the commandment] They must pay the strictest though there was only the river Jordan between the Tregard to every moral precept.

- Dent.

e Deut. X. 12.

B. C. 1443

48. Anno ante

48. Anno ante

The Israelites hear of the altar built JOSHUA, by their brethren beyond Jordan.
A. M. 2561. LORD your God, and to walk in of Canaan, to go unto i the

A. M. 2561
B. C. 1443.
An. Exod. Isr. all his ways, and to keep his country of Gilead, to the land of An. Exod. Ist

commandments, and to cleave their possession, whereof they
1. Olymp. 667.
unto him, and to serve him with were possessed, according to the

I. Olymp. 667. all your heart and with all your soul. word of the Lord by the hand of Moses.

6 So Joshua f blessed them, and sent them 10 And when they came unto the borders
away ; and they went unto their tents. of Jordan, that are in the land of Canaan, the

7 Now to the one half of the tribe of Ma- children of Reuben and the children of Gad
nasseh Moses had given possession in Bashans: and the half tribe of Manasseh built there an
but unto the other half thereof gave Joshua altar by Jordan, a great altar to see to.
among their brethren on this side Jordan 11 And the children of Israel * heard say,
westward. And when Joshua sent them away Behold, the children of Reuben and the chil-
also unto their tents, then he blessed them; dren of Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh

8 And he spake unto them, saying, Return have built an altar over against the land of
with much riches unto your tents, and with Canaan, in the borders of Jordan, at the pas-
very much cațile, with silver, and with gold, sage of the children of Israel.
and with brass, and with iron, and with very 12 And when the children of Israel heard
much raiment: h divide the spoil of your ene- of it, the whole congregation of the children
mies with your brethren.

of Israel gathered themselves together at Shi-
9 And the children of Reuben and the loh, to go up to war against them.
children of Gad and the half tribe of Manas 13 And the children of Israel m sent unto
seh returned, and departed from the children the children of Reuben, and to the children of
of Israel out of Shiloh, which is in the land Gad, and to the half tribe of Manasseh, into

Gen. xlvii. 7; Exod. xxxix. 13 ; chap. xiv. 13; 2'Sam. vi. 18; xxx. 14.- Num. xxxj. 1, 26, 29.—* Deut. xiii: 12, &c.; Judg. Luke xxiv. 50.- -# Chap. xvii. 5. - Num. xxxi. 27; 1 Lam. xx. 12. Judg. xx. l. m Deut. xiii. 14 ; Jndg. xx. 12.

And the law] They must observe all the rites and taken from the Canaanites, and that these spoils conceremonies of their holy religion.

sisted in cattle. - silver, gold, brass, iron, and raiment. Love the Lord your God] Without an affectionate Divide the spoilwith your brethren.] It was right filial attachment to their Maker, duty would be irksome, that those who stayed at home to defend the families grievous, and impossible.

of those who had been in the wars, and to cultivate Walk in all his ways] They must not only believe the ground, should have a proper proportion of the and love, but obey : walk not in your own ways, but spoils taken from the enemy; for had they not acted walk in those which God has pointed out.

as they did, the others could not have safely left their Keep his commandments) They must love him families. with all their heart, soul, mind, and strength, and Verse 10. The borders of Jordan, that are in-catheir neighbour as themselves.

naan} This verse can never mean that they built the Cleave unto him] They must be cemented to him altar on the west side of Jordan, for this was not-in in a union that should never be dissolved.

their territories; nor could it be a place for the purServe him] They must consider him as their Master, pose of public worship to their own people, if built on having an absolute right to appoint them when; where, the opposite side of Jordan; besides, the next verse how, and in what measure they should do his work. ; says it was built over against the land of Canaan. It

With all your heart). Having all their affections and appears that when they came to the river they formed passions sanctified and united to him.

the purpose of building the altar; and when they had And with all your soul.] Giving up their whole life crossed it they executed their purpose. to him, and employing their understanding, judgment, A great altar to see to.) A vast mass of earth, and will, in the contemplation and adoration of his per- stones, &c., elevated to a great height, to serve as a fections ; that their love and obedience might increase memorial of the transactions that had already taken in proportion to the cultivation and improvement of place. Probably it was intended also to serve as a their understanding.

kind of watchtower, being of a stupendous height, Verse 7. Then he blessed them] Spoke respectfully altare infinitæ magnitudinis, an altar of an immense of their fidelity and exertions, wished them every size, as the Vulgate terms it. spiritual and temporal good, prayed to God to protect Verse 12. To go up to war against them.] Supand save them, and probably gave some gifts to those posing that they had built this altar in opposition to leaders among them that had most distinguished them that which Moses, by the command of God, had erected selves in this seven years' war. In all the above and were consequently become rebels against God and senses the word bless is frequently taken in Scripture. the Israelitish constitution, and should be treated as

Verse 8. Return with much riches] It appears such. Their great concern for the glory of God led they had their full proportion of the spoils that were them to take this step, which at first view might

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