Imágenes de páginas

Diodorus and Ctesias find Anticarmus, instead of this Medidits, to have been Sosarmus's successor, to whom they give fifty years.

Tiglath-Pileser heldthe kingdom of Assyria all the reign of Ahaz; yet so, that Salmanassar his son may seem to have reigned with him some part of the time. For we find that Ahaz did 1 send unto the 'kings of Ashur to help him*.' The Geneva note says, that these kings of Ashur were Tiglath-Pileser, and those kings that were under his dominion. But that he or his father had hitherto made such conquests, as might give him the lordship over other kings, I do neither find any history nor circumstance that proveth. Wherefore I think, that these kings of Ashur were Tiglath and Salmanassar his son, who reigned with his father, as hath been said before ; though how long he reigned with his father, it be hard to define.

At this time began the ephori in Lacedaimon, a hundred and thirty years after Lycurgus, according to Plutarch3. Eusebius makes their beginning far later, namely, in the fifteenth Olympiad. Of these ephori, Elalus was the first, Theopompus and Polydorus being then joint kings. These ephori, chosen every year, were comptrollers, as well of their senators as of their kings, nothing being done without their advice and consent; for, (saith Cicero,) they were opposed against their kings, as the Roman tribunes against the consuls. In the time of Ahaz died >Eschylus, who had ruled in Athens ever since the fiftieth year of Uzziah. Alcamenon, the thirteenth of the Medontida?, or governors of the Athenians, (so called of Mcdou, who followed Codrus,) succeeded his father ./Eschylus, and was the last of their governors : he ruled only two years; for the Athenians changed first from kings, (after Codrus,) to governors for life ; which ending in this Alcamenon, they erected a magistrate, whom they termed an archon,

3 2 Kings zxviii. IS. 3 Plut. in vita Sol.

who was a kind of burgomaster, or governor of their city, for ten years.

This alteration Pausanias, in his fourth book, begins in the first year of the eighth Olympiad; Eusebius and Halicarnassaeus, in the first of the seventh Olympiad; at which time, indeed, Carops, the first of these, began his ten years rule.

The kingdom of the Latins, governed about three hundred years by the Sylvii, of the race of ^Eneas, took end in the same Ahaz's time; the foundation of Rome being laid by Romulus and Remus, in the eighth year of the same king. Codoman builds it the eleventh of Ahaz, Bucholzer in the eighth, (as I think he should,) others somewhat later, and in the reign of Hezekiah. Cicero, Eutropius, Orosius, and others, square the time of the foundation to the third year of the sixth Olympiad. But Halicarnassams, Solinus, Antiochenus, Clemens Alexandrinus, and Eusebius, to the first year of the seventh; who seem not only to me, but to many very learned chronologers, to have kept herein the best account.

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Sect. I.

Of the old inhabitants, and of the name of Italy.

AND here to speak of the more ancient times of Italy, and what nations possessed it before the arrival 01 vEneas, the place may seem to invite us; the rather because much fabulous matter hath been mixed with the truth of those elder plantations. Italy, before the fall of Troy, was known to the Greeks by divers names; as, first, Hesperia, then Ausonia; the one name arising of the seat, the other of the Ausones, a people inhabiting part of it. One ancient name of it was also CEnotria, which it had of the CEnotri, whom Halicarnassaeus thinks to have been the first that .brought a colony of Arcadians into that land. Afterwards it was called Italy of Italus ; concerning which changes of names, Virgil speaks thus:

* Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cogDomine dicunt,

* Terra antiqua, potens armis, atque ubere glebae;

* Oenotri col Up re viri, nunc fama minores

'Italiam dixisse, ducis de nomine, gen tern.'

'There is a land which Greeks Hesperia name,

* Ancient and strong, of much fertility:

* Oenotrians held it; but we hear by fame,

* That by late ages of posterity,

4 'Tis from a captain's name call'd Italy.'

1 Halicar. 1.1.

Who this captain or king may have been, it is veryuncertain. For Virgil speaks no more of him, and the opinions of others are many and repugnant. But like enough it is, that the name which hath continued so long upon the whole country, and worn out all other denominations, was not at trie first accepted without good cause. Therefore, to find out the original of this name, and the first planters of this noble country, Reineccius hath made a very painful search, and not improbable conjecture. And, first of all, he grounds upon that of Halicarnassaeus,* who speaks of a colony which the Eleans did lead into Italy, before the name of Italy was given to it. Secondly, upon that of Justin,3 who saith, that Brundusium was a colony of the iEtolians. Thirdly, upon that of Strabo,4 who affirms the same of Temesa, or Temp6a, a city of the Brutii, in Italy. Lastly, upon the authority of Pliny5, who shews that the Italians did inhabit only one region of the land, whence afterwards the name was derived over all. Concerning that which is said of the Eleans and iEtolians, who (as he shews) had one original; from them he brings the name of Italy: for the word Italia differs in nothing from Aitolia, save that the first letter is cast away, which in the Greek words is common, and the letter o is changed into a; which change is found in the name of Ethalia, an island near Italy, peopled by the iEtolians: and the like changes are very familiar in the iEolic dialect; of which dialect, (being almost proper to the Italians), the accent and pronunciation, together with many words little altered, were retained by the Latins, as Dionysius Halicarnassaeus, Quintilian, and Priscian,the grammarian, teach.

Hereunto appertains that of Julian the apostate, who called the Greeks cousins of the Latins. Also the common original of the Greeks and Latins from Javan; and the fable of Janus, whose image had two faces, looking east and west, as Greece and

2 Haltcar. L 1. * Justin. 1.13. 4 Strabo, 1. «. b Plio. I. 3. c.

Italy, and was stamped on coins, with a ship on the other side; all which is, by interpretation, referred to Javan, father of the Greeks and Latins ; who, sailing over the Ionian sea that lies between jEtolia and the western parts of Greece and Italy, planted colonies in both. Now, whereas Reineccius thinks, that the names of Atlas and Italus belonged both to one man, and thereto applies that of Berosus, who called Cethim, Italus; though it may seem strengthened by the marriage of Dardanus, whilst he abode in Italy with Electra, the daughter of Atlas,—yet it is by arguments, in my valuation greater and stronger, easily disproved. For they who make mention of Atlas, place him before the time of Moses; and if Atlas were Cethim, or Kittim, then was he the son of Javan, and nephew of Japheth, the eldest son of Noah; which antiquity far exceeds the name of Italy, that began after the departure of Hercules out of the country, not long before the war of Troy. Likewise Virgil, who speaks of Atlas, and of Dardanus's marriage with Electra, hath nothing of his meeting with her in Italy; but callethElectra and her sister Maia (poetically) daughters of the mountain Atlas in Africa, naming Italus among the kings of the- Aborigines; which he would not have done, had Atlas and Italus been one person. As for the authority of Berosus in this case, we need the less to regard it, for that Reineccius himself, whose conjectures are more to be valued than the dreams wherewith Annius hath filled Berosus, holds it but a figment.

That the name of Italy began long after Atlas, it appears by the verses of Virgil last rehearsed, wherein he would not have said,' nunc fama mino

4 res Italiam dixisse, Ducis de nomine, gentem,' had that name been heard of ere Dardanus left the country. But seeing that, when Hercules, who died a few years before the war of Troy, had left in Italy a colony of the Eleans, (who, in a manner, were one and the same with the iEtolians, as Strabo, Herodo

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