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Saturn by the Aborigines. For the age wherein he lived may very well admit him to have been Ithe -same; but the names Sterces and Stercutius ', (for it may be this name was not borrowed from the skill which he taught the people, but rather the soil . which they laid on their grounds had that appellation from him,) do rather make him seem some other man.
Of Picus, it is said that he was a good horseman. The fable of his being changed into a bird, which we call a Pye, may well seem, (as it is interpreted,) to have grown from the skill he had in soothsaying or divination, by the flight and chattering of fowls. Faunus, the son of Picus, reigned after his father; he gave to Evander, the Arcadian, (who, having by mischance, slain his father Echemus, king of Arcadia, fled into Italy,) the waste grounds on whichRome was afterwards built. Fauna, called Fatua, the sister of Faunus, was also his wife, as all historians agree; she was held a prophetess, and highly commended for her chastity; which praise in her, must needs have been much blemished by her marriage itself being merely incestuous. It is not mentioned that Faunus had by his sister any child, neither do we read of any other which he had, save only that Virgil, iEneid 7- gives unto him Latinus as his son, by a nymph called Marica. But who this Marica was, it is not found, save only that her abode was about the river Laris, near Minturnae.
Of the name Latinus, there are by Pomponius Sabinus recounted four; one, the son of Faunus, another of Hercules, a third of Ulysses by Circe, the fourth of Telemachus. Suidas takes notice only of the second *, of whom he saith, that his name was
1 Ezekiel often call* the idols of the heathen, Dm Stereoreos; and hence it may be, that in the evangelist we read of Belzebub, Belzebul, which ij inter, preted Dcminut Stercoreus; and it may be that after that Saturn became ibe Dame of an idol, it pleased Cud that in a like sense this name Stertutitu should Slick unto him.
Telephus, and the people, anciently named the Cetii, were, from his surname called Latini. This agrees in effect with the opinion of Reineccius, the diference consisting almost in this only, that Suidas calls Telephus the son of Hercules, whereas Reineccius makes him his nephew, by a son of the same name. This Latinus having obtained the succession in that kingdom after Faunus, did promise his only daughter and heir Lavinia to Turnus, the son of Venilia, who was sister to Amata, Latinus's wife. But when ./Eneas arrived in those parts with fifteen ships, or perhaps fewer, wherein might be embarked, according to the rate which Thucydides allows to the vessels then used, about one thousand and two hundred men; then Latinus finding that it would stand best with his assurance, to make alliance with the Trojan, and moved with the great reputation of iEneas, which himself had heard of in the war of Troy, gave his daughter to him, breaking off the former appointment with Turnus; who, incensed herewith, sought to avenge himself by war, which was soon ended with his own death.
Of Amata, the wife of Latinus, it is very certain, that were she an Italian, she could not have born a daughter marriageable at the arrival of jEneas, unless we should wholly follow Suidas, and rather give the conduct of the Cetei into Italy, to Tele
tmus the father, than to his son, who served in the ast year of the Trojan war. But Reineccius holds holds her an Asiatic, and thinks withal, that Lavinia was born before Telephus came into Italy. That this name Amata, by which Virgil and Halicarnassaeus call her, was not proper, but rather a surname, it may seem by Varro, who calleth her Palatia, which name very well might be derived from the Greek name Pallas. Amata, which signifieth beloved, or dear, was the name by which the high priest called
2 Soidu in the word L»tini,
every virgin whom he took to serve as a nun of Vesta; wherefore, it is the more easily to be thought a surname, howsoever Virgil discourse of her and Venilia her sister.
Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, being given in marriage to iEneas, the kingdom of Latium, or the greatest part of that country, was established in that race; wherein it continued until it was over-grown by the might and greatness of the Romans.
Of JEneas, and of the kings and governors of Alba.
Ieneas himself, being of the royal blood of Troy, had the command of the Dardanians; he was a valiant man, very rich, and highly honoured among the Trojans. By his wife Creusa, the daughter of v Priamus, he had a son called Ascanius ; whose surname was Julus, having before the ruin of Troy, (as Virgil notes,) being surnamed llus. But when ./Eneas was dead, his wife Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, being great with child by him, and, fearing the power ot this Ascanius, fled into the woods, where she was delivered of a son, called thereupon Sylvius, and surnamed Posthumus, because he was born after his father's funeral. This flight of Lavinia was so evil taken by the people, that Ascanius procured her return, entreated her honourably, and using her as a queen, did foster her young son, his half-brother Sylvius. Yet afterwards, whether to avoid all occasions of disagreement, or. delighted with the situation of the place, Ascanius, leaving to his mother-in-law the city of Lavinium, which JEneas had built, and called after his new wife's name, founded the city Alba Longa, and therein reigned. The time of his reign was, according to some, eight and twenty years; Virgil gives him thirty; others five and thirty, and eight and thirty. After his decease, there arose contention between Sylvius* the son of iEneas, and Julus, the son of Ascanius, about the kingdom; but the people inclining to the son of Lavinia, Julus was contented to hold the priesthood, which he and his race enjoyed, leaving the kingdom to Sylvius Posthumus, whose posterity were afterwards called Sylvii.
The reign of the Alban kings, with the continuance of each man's reign, I find thus set down.
1. Sylvius Posthumus - 29"
2. Sylvius iEneas - - 31
3. Sylvius Latinus - - 50
4. Sylvius Alba - - 39
5. Sylvius Atis - - 26
6. Sylvius Capys - - . 28
7. Sylvius Capetus - 13 }> years.
8. Sylvius Tiberinus - 8
9. Sylvius Agrippa - 41
10. Sylvius Alladius - 19
11. Sylvius Aventinus - 37
12. Sylvius Procas - 23
13. Sylvius Amulius - 44,
Ilia, also called Rhea and Sylvia.
The most of these kings lived in peace, and did little or nothing worthy of remembrance.
Latinus founded many towns in the borders of Latium; who standing much upon the honour of their original, grew thereby to be called Prisci Latini. Of Tiberinus some think that the river Tiber had name, being formerly called Albula; but Virgil gives it that denomination of another called Tibris, before the coming of ^Eneas into Italy. The mountain Aventinus had name, as many write, from Aventinus king of the Albans, who was buried therein, but Virgil hath it otherwise. Julius, the brother of Aventinus, is named by Eusebius, as father of another Julius, and grand-father of Julius Proculus; who, leaving Alba, dwelt with Romulus in Rome. Numitor, the elder son of Procas, was deprived of his kingdom by his brother Amulius; by whom, also, his son ./Egesthus was slain, and Ilia his daughter made a nun of Vesta, that thereby the issue of Numitor might be cut off; butrshe conceived two sons, either by her uncle Amulius, as some think, or by Mars as the poets feign, or perhaps by Some man of war. Both the children their uncle commanded to be drowned, and the mother buried quick, according to the law; which so ordained, when the vestal virgins broke their chastity. Whether it was so, that the mother was pardoned at the entreaty of Antho, the daughter of Amulius, or punished as the law requires, (for authors herein do vary,) it is agreed by all, that the two children were preserved, who afterwards revenged the cruelty of their uncle, with the slaughter of him and all his, and restored Numitor, their grandfather, to the kingdom; wherein how long he reigned I find not, neither is it greatly material to know; forasmuch as the estates of Alba and of Latium were presently eclipsed by the swift increase of Rome, upon which the computation of time following, (as far as concerns the things of Italy,) is dependent.
After the death of Numitor, the kingdom of Alba ceased, for Numitorleft no male issue. Romulus chose rather to live in Rome, and of the line of Sylvius none else remained. So the Albans were governed by magistrates ; of whom only two dictators are mentioned, namely, Caius Cluilius, who, in the days of Tullus Hostilius, king of the Romans, making war upon Rome, died in the camp; and Metius Suffetius, the successor of Cluilius, who surrendered the estate of Alba unto the Romans, having committed the hazard of both seigniories to the success of three men on each side, who decided the quarrel by combat; in which the three brethren Horatii, the champion*