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sanias makes mention: Stephanus calls it Cidæmis, or (according to the Greek writing) Cidamis, which name last rehearsed hath a very near sound to Cethim, Ci. tim, or Cithim; the Greek letter [d] having (as many teach) a pronunciation very like to [th] differing only in the strength or weakness of utterance, which is found between many English words written with the same letters. Wherefore that these Ceteans being descended of Cethim, Cittim, or Kittim, the son of Javan, who was progenitor of the Greeks, might very well take a denomination from the city and region which they inhabited, and from thence be cal. led Elæites, or Elaites, it is very likely; considering that among the Arcadians, Phocians, Ætolians, and Eleans, who all were of the Æolic tribe, are found the names of the mountain Elæus, the haven Eleas, the people Elaitæ, the cities Elæus, Elaia, and Elateia, of which last it were somewhat harsh in the Latin tongue to call the inhabitants by any other name than Elatini, from whence Latini may come. Now whereas both the Cetæi and Arcadians had their original from Cethim, it is nothing unlikely, that, agreeing in language and similitude of names, they might nevertheless differ in sound and pronunciation of one and the same word. So that as he is by many called Sabinus, to whom some (deriving the Sabines from him) give the name of Sabus; in the like manner might he whom the Arcadians would call Elatus, (of which name they had a prince that founded the city Elateia) be named of the Ceteans, Latinus. Reineccius pursuing this likelihood, thinks, that when Euripylus, lord of the Ceteans, being the son of Telephus, whom Hercules begat upon Auge, the daughter of Aleus king of Arcadia, was slain by Achilles in the Trojan war; then did Telephus, brother to Euripylus, conduct the Ceteans, who (fearing what evil might befal themselves by the Greeks, if the affairs of Troy should go ill,) passed into that part of Italy where the Arcadians were
trus. And Reineccius farther thinks, eing the more gracious among the ians, by the memory of his grand2 Arcadian lady, was well contentcadian name, and to be called Ela
dialect and pronunciation either of the Ceteans, or of the Oenotrians, was first Elatinus, and then Latinus : That this name of Elatus may have been taken or imposed by the Arcadians, it is the more easy to be thought, for that there were then two families, the one of Aphidus, the other of Elatus, who were sons of Arcas king of Arcadia, which gave name to the country; and between these two families the succession in that kingdom did pass, almost interchangeably, for many ages, till at the end of the Trojan war it fell into the hand of Hippothous, of the race of Elatus, in whose posterity it continued until the last. Again, the name Latinus having a derivative sound, agrees the better with the supposition of such an accident. This is the conjecture of Reineccius, which if he made overboldly, yet others may follow it with the less reproof, considering that it is not easy to find either an apparent truth, or fair probability, among these disagreeing authors, which have written the originals of Latium.
Sect. III. Of the ancient kings of the Latins, until Æneas's
coming The kings which reigned in Latium before the arrival of Æneas, were Saturnus, Picus, Faunus, and Latinus. Of Saturn there is nothing remembered, save what is mentioned already, and many fables of the Greeks, which, whether they be applicable to this man, it is for him to judge, who shall be able to determine whether this were the Saturn of the Greeks, called by them Kpóros, or some other, styled
Saturn by the Aborigines. For the age wherein he lived may very well admit him to have been the same; but the names Sterces and Stercutius', (for it may be this name was not borrowed from the skill which he taught, the people, but rather the soil which they laid on their grounds had that appellation from him,) do rather make him seem some other man. · Of Picus, it is said that he was a good horseman. The fable of his being changed into a bird, which we call a Pye, may well seem, (as it is interpreted,) to have grown from the skill he had in soothsaying or divination, by the flight and chattering of fowls. Faunus, the son of Picus, reigned after his father ; he gave to Evander, the Arcadian, (who, having by mischance, slain his father Echemus, king of Arcadia, fed into Italy,) the waste grounds on which Rome was afterwards built. Fauna, called Fatua, the sister of Faunus, was also his wife, as all historians agree ; she was held a prophetess, and highly commended for her chastity; which praise in her, must needs have been much blemished by her marriage itself being merely incestuous. It is not mentioned that Faunus had by his sister any child, neither do we read of any other which he had, save only that Virgil, Æneid 7. gives unto him Latinus as his son, by a nymph called Marica. But who this Marica was, it is not found, save only that her abode was about the river Laris, near Minturnæ.
Of the name Latinus, there are by Pomponius Sa. binus recounted four; one, the son of Faunus, another of Hercules, a third of Ulysses by Circe, the fourth of Telemachus. Suidas takes notice only of the second ?, of whom he saith, that his name was
1 Ezekiel often calls the idols of the heathen, Deos Stercoreos; and hence it may be, that in the evangelist we read of Belzebub, Belzebul, which is inter. preted Dominus Stercoreus; and it may be that after that Saturn became the name of an idol, it pleased Gud that in a like sepse this name Stercutius should stick unto him.
Telephus, and the people, anciently named the Cetii, were, from his surname called Latini. This agrees in effect with the opinion of Reineccius, the diference consisting almost in this only, that Suidas calls Telephus the son of Hercules, whereas Reineccius makes him his nephew, by a son of the same name. This Latinus having obtained the succession in that kingdom after Faunus, did promise his only daughter and heir Lavinia to Turnus, the son of Venilia, who was sister to Amata, Latinus's wife. But when Æneas arrived in those parts with fifteen ships, or perhaps fewer, wherein might be embarked, according to the rate which Thucydides allows to the vessels then used, about one thousand and two hundred men; then Latinus finding that it would stand best with his assurance, to make alliance with the Trojan, and moved with the great -reputation of Æneas, which himself had heard of in the war of Troy, gave his daughter to him, breaking off the former appointment with Turnus; who, incensed herewith, sought to avenge himself by war, which was soon ended with his own death.
Of Amata, the wife of Latinus, it is very certain, that were she an Italian, she could not have born a daughter marriageable at the arrival of Æneas, unless we should wholly follow Suidas, and rather give the conduct of the Cetei into Italy, to Telephus the father, than to his son, who served in the last year of the Trojan war. But Reineccius holds holds her an Asiatic, and thinks withal, that Lavi. nia was born before Telephus came into Italy. That this name Amata, by which Virgil and Halicarnas. sæus call her, was not proper, but rather a surname, it may seem by Varro, who calleth her Palatia, which name very well might be derived from the Greek name Pallas. Amata, which signifieth beloved, or dear, was the name by which the high priest called every virgin whom he took to serve as a nun of Vesta; wherefore, it is the more easily to be thought a surname, howsoever Virgil discourse of her and Venilia her sister.
2 Suidas in the word Latini,
Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, being given in marriage to Æneas, the kingdom of Latium, or the greatest part of that country, was established in that race; wherein it continued until it was over-grown by the might and greatness of the Romans.
Sect. IV. Of Æneas, and of the kings and governors of Alba. • Æneas himself, being of the royal blood of Troy, had the command of the Dardanians; he was a valiant man, very rich, and highly honoured among the Trojans. By his wife Creusa, the daughter of Priamus, he had a son called Ascanius; whose surname was Julus, having before the ruin of Troy, (as Virgil notes,) being surnamed Ilus. But when Æneas was dead, his wife Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, being great with child by him, and, fearing the power of this Ascanius, fed into the woods, where she was delivered of a son, called thereupon Sylvius, and surnamed Posthumus, because he was born after his father's funeral. This flight of Lavinia was so evil taken by the people, that Ascanius procured her return, entreated her honourably, and using her as a queen, did foster her young son, his half-brother Sylvius. Yet afterwards, whether to avoid all occasions of disagreement, or delighted with the situation of the place, Ascanius, leaving to his mother-in-law the city of Lavinium, which Æ. neas had built, and called after his new wife's name, founded the city Alba Longa, and therein reigned. The time of his reign was, according to some, eight and twenty years ; Virgil gives him thirty.; others five and thirty, and eight and thirty. After his decease, there arose contention between Sylvius,