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of the Romans, prevailed against the Curiatii, champions of the Albans. After this combat, when Metius, (following Tullus Hostilius with the Alban forces against the Veientes and Fidenates,) withdrew his companies out of the battle, hoping thereby to leave the Romans to such an overthrow, as might make them weak enough for the Albans to deal with; Tullus, who notwithstanding this falsehood, obtained the victory, did reward Metius with a cruel death, causing him to be tied to two chariots, and so torn in pieces. Then was Alba destroyed, and the citizens carried to Rome, where they were made free denizens, the noble families being made Patricians, among which were the Julii; of whom C. Julius Caesar being descended, not only gloried in his ancient, royal, and forgotten pedigree, in full assembly of the Romans, then governed by a free estate of the people; but, by his rare industry, valour, and judgment, obtained the sovereignty of the Roman empire, (much by him enlarged,) to himself and his posterity; whereby the name of iEneas, and the honour of the Trojan and Alban race, was so revived, that seldom, if ever, any one family hath attained to a proportionable height of glory.
Of the beginning of Rome, and of Romulus's birth and
Of Rome, which devoured the Alban kingdom, I may here best shew the beginnings, which, (though somewhat uncertain,) depend much upon the birth and education of Romulus, the grandchild of Numitor, the last that reigned in Alba. For how not only the bordering people, but all nations between Euphrates and the ocean, were broken in pieces by the iron teeth of this fourth beast, it is not to be described in one place, having been the work of many ages; whereof I now do handle only the first, as incident unto the discourse preceding. Q. FabiusPictor, Fortius Cato, Calphurnius Piso, Setnpronius, . and others, seek to derive the Romans from Janus; but Herodotus, Marsylus, and many others of equal credit, give the Grecians for their ancestors; and, as Strabo reporteth in his fifth book', • Caecilius rerum
* Romanarum scriptor eo argumento colligit, Romam 'a Graecis esse conditam, quod Romani, Graeco 'ritu, antiquo instituto Herculi rem sacram faciunt;
• matrem quoque Evandri venerantur Romani:' Caecilius, (saith he,) a Roman historiographer, doth by this argument gather, that Rome was built by the Greeks, because the Romans, after Greekish fashion, by ancient ordinance, do sacrifice to Hercules; the Romans also worship the mother of Evander.
Plutarch, in the life of Romulus, remembers many founders of that city, as Roman us, the son of Ulysses and Circe; Romus the son of Emathion, whom Diomedes sent thither from Troy; or, that one Romus, a tyrant of the Latins, who drove the Tuscans out of that country, built it. Solinus bestows the honour of building Rome upon Evander, saying, that it was before times called Valentia. Heraclides gives the denomination to a captive lady, brought thither by the Grecians; others say, that it was anciently called Febris, after the name of Februa, the mother of Mars: witness St. Augustine in his third book de Civitaie Dei. But Livy will have it to be the work of Romulus, even from the foundation; of whom and his consorts, Juvenal, to a Roman citizen vaunting of their original, answered in these verses:
'Attamen ut longe repetas, loageque revolvas,
'Yet though thou fetch thy pedigree so far;
1 Thy first progenitor, whoe'er he were,
'Some shepherd was, or else—that I'll forbear.'
* Meaning either a shepherd or a thief
1 Strabo, 1. v. fol. 1S».
Now of Romulus's begetting, of his education and preservation, it is said, that he had Rhea for his mother, and Mars was supposed to be his father; that he was nursed by a wolf, found and taken away by Faustula, a shepherd's wife. The same unnatural nursing had Cyrus; the same incredible fostering had Semiramis; the one by a bitch, the other by birds. But, as Plutarch saith, it is like enough that Amulius came covered with armour to Rhea, the mother of Romulus, when he begat her with child; and therein it seemeth to me, that he might have two purposes; the one, to destroy her, because she was the daughter and heir of his elder brother, from whom he injuriously held the kingdom; the other to satisfy his appetite, because she was fair and goodly. For she being made a nun of the goddess Vesta, it was death in her by the law to break her chastity. I also find in Fauchet's Antiquites de Gaul*, that Merovee, king of the Francs, was begotten by a monster of the sea ; but Fauchet says, Let them believe it that list, c II le croira qui voudra.' Also of Alexander, and of Scipio Africanus, there are poetical inventions; but to answer these imaginations in general, it is true, that in those times, when the world was full of this barbarous idolatry, and when there were as many gods as there were kings, or passions of the mind, or as there were of vices and virtues; then did many women, greatly born, cover such slips as they made, by protesting to be forced by more than human power; so did Oenone confess to Paris that she had been ravished by Apollo: and Anchises boasted that he had known Venus. But Rhea was made with child by some man of war or other, and therefore called Mars the god of battle, according to the sense of the time. Oenone was overcome by a strong wit, and by such a one as had those properties ascribed to Apollo. The mother of Merovee might fancy a sea captain, to be gotten
9 Fauchet, fol. 114.
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with young by such an one ; as the daughter of Inachus fancied, according to Herodotus. iEneas was a bastard, and begotten upon some fair harlot, called for her beauty Venus, and was therefore the child of lust, which is Venus. Romulus was nursed by a wolf, which was Lupa, or Lupina, for the courtesans in those days were called wolfs, 'quae nunc,' (saith HalicarnassjEus,) ' honestiori vocabulo amicae appel
* lantur which are now by an honester name called friends. It is also written, that Romulus was in the end of his life taken u,p into heaven, or rather out of the world, by his father Mars, in a great storm of thunder and lightening. So was it said that iEneas vanished away by the river Numicus; but thereof Livy speaketh modestly; for he rehearseth the other opinion, that the storm was the fury of the senators, but seemeth to adhere partially to this taking up; and many authors agree that there was an unnatural darkness, both at his birth and at his death; and that he might be slain by thunder and lightening, it is not unlikely. For the emperor Anastasius was slain with lightning; so was Strabo, the father of Pompey, slain with a thunderbolt; so Cams the emperor, (who succeeded Probus,) whilst he lodged with his army upon the river Tigris, was there slain with lightening. But a Mars of the same kind might end him that begat him; for he was begotten by a man of war, and by violence destroyed. And that he died by violence, (which destiny followed most of the Roman emperors,) it appeareth by Tarquinius Superbus, who was the seventh king after him; who, when he had murdered his father-inlaw, commanded that he should not be buried, for» (said he,) Romulus himself died, and was not buried. But let Halicarnassaeus end this dispute; whose words are these: 4 They, (saith he,} who draw
* nearest to the truth, say that he was slain by his own citizens; and that his cruelty in punishments
* of offenders, together with his arrogancy, were the
* cause of his slaughter. For it is reported, that 'both when his mother was ravished, whether by 'some man, or by a God, the whole body of the sun
* was eclipsed, and all the earth covered with dark* 'ness like unto night, and that the same did happen
* at his death.'
Such were the birth and death of Romulus; whose life, historified by Plutarch, doth contain, (besides what is here already spoken of him,) the conquest of a few miles, which had soon been forgotten, if the Roman greatness, built upon that foundation, had not given it memory in all ages following, even unto this day. A valiant man he was, very strong of body, patient of travail, and temperate in diet, as forbearing the use of wine and delicacies; but his raging ambition he knew not how to temper, which caused him to slay his brother, and neglect to revenge the death of Tatius his companion in the kingdom, that he himself might be lord alone in. those narrow territories. He reigned seven and thirty years, first alone, then with Tatius, and after his death single, till he was slain, as is already shewed; after which time 'the sovereignty fell into the hands of Numa, a man to him unknown, and more priest-like than king-like; wherein Rome itself in her latter times hath somewhat resembled this king. For having long been sole governess, till Constantinople shared with her,—afterwards, when as the Greek emperor was crushed by foreign enemies, and the Latins despoiled of imperial power, she fell into the subjection of a prelate, swelling by degrees * from the sheep-hook to the sword, and therewith victorious to excessive magnificence, from whence hythe same degrees it fell, being driven from luxury to defensive arms; and therein having been unfortunate, at length betakes herself again to the crosier's staff.
And thus much of Rome in this place, by occasion of the story of the times of king Ahaz, during