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ears, if he were that Smendis with whom Eusebius

egins the one and twentieth dynasty. Now forasmuch as it would serve to no great purpose that we knew the length of Sesac's reign, and of theirs that followed him, unless therewithal we knew the beginning of Sesac, upon which the rest have dependance,—this course I take. From the fourth year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, in which Pharaoh Necho was slain, I reckon upwards the years of the same Necho, and of his predecessors, unto the beginning of Sesac; by which account the first year of Sesac is found concurrent with the twentietlr of Solomon's reign, and the twenty-sixth of Sesac with the fifth of Rehoboam; wherein Sesac spoiled the temple, and died, enjoying the fruits of his sacrilege no longer than Joash the Israelite and Crassus the Roman did, who, after him, spoiled the temple of Jerusalem.

To fill up the time between Sesac and Necho, t have rather taken those kings that I find in the Greek historians, than them which are in Eusebius's catalogue; for of those that are delivered by Eusebius, we find no name nor act recorded elsewhere, save only of Bocchoris, who is remembered by Diodorus, Plutarch, and others; much being spoken of himthat makes him appear to have been a king. Here, unto I may add, that the succession is often interrupted in Eusebius by Ethiopians, which got the kingdom often, and held it long; whereas, contrariwise, it appears by the prophet Isaiah, that the counsellors of Pharaoh did vaunt of the long and flourishing continuance of that house, insomuch that they said of Pharaoh, ' I am the son of the wise, I 'am the son of the ancient king V But that which overthrows the reckoning of Eusebius, is the good agreement of it with his mistaken times of the kings of Judah; for though it please him well to see how the reigns of Josiah and Necho meet by his compu

S ha. xil. 11.

tation, yet this indeed mars all, the reign of Josiah being misplaced. This error grows from his omitting to compare the reigns of the kings of Judah with theirs of Israel; by which occasion, Joram, king of Israel, is made to reign three years after Ahaziah of Judah; Samaria is taken by Salmanassar before Hezekiah was king; and, in a word, all or most of the kings have their beginnings placed in some other year of their collaterals than the scriptures have determined,

Sect. VI,

Of CJiemmis, Cheops, Cephrenes, and other kings, recti, ed by Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, "which reign, ed betzeeen the times of Rehoboam and Hezekiah.

Following, therefore, the Greek historians, I place Chemmis, or, (according to Diodorus,) Chembis, first in the rank of those that were kings after Sesac. He reigned fifty years, and built the greatest of the three pyramids, which was accounted one of this world's wonders. The pyramid hath its name from the shape, in that it resembleth a flame of fire, growing, from the bottom upwards, narrower and narrower to the top. This of Chemmis being four-square, had a base of seven acres every way, and was about six acres high. It was of a very hard and durable stone, which had lasted, when Diodorus saw it, about a thousand years, without complaining of any injury that it had suffered by weather in so long a space. From the reign of Chemmis, unto the age of Augustus Caesar, wherein Diodorus lived, are indeed a thousand years, which gives the better likelihood unto this time wherein Chemmis is placed. As for this and other pyramids, late writers testify that they have seen them yet standing.

After Chemmis, Diodorus' placeth Cephrenes, his brother, but doubtfully, and inclining rather to the

1 Diodor. 1. 1. Herod. I 2.

opinion that his son Chabrens succeeded. Herodotus hath Cheops, (who might be ChabreusJ and Cephrenes after him. These are said to have been brethren; but the length of their reigns may argue the latter to have been son to the former; for Cheops reigned fifty years, Cephrenes fifty-six. These were, as Chemmis had been, builders of pyramids, whereby they purchased great hatred of their people, who had already over-laboured themselves in erecting the first. These pyramids were ordained to be tombs for those that had raised them; but the malice of the Egyptians is said to have cast out their bodies, and to have called their monuments by the name of an herdsman, that kept his beasts thereabouts. It may be *, that the robbing them of their honour, and entitling a poor fellow to their works, was held to be the casting out of their bodies; otherwise it is hard to conceive how it might be, that they, who had not power to avoid the like slavery laid upon them by the younger brother or son, should have power or leisure to take such revenge upon his predecessor. To the like malice may be ascribed the tale devised against Cheops's daughter, that her father, wanting money, did prostitute her; and that she, getting of every man that accompanied her one stone, did build with them a fourth pyramid, that stood in the midst of the other three. Belike she was an insolent lady, and made them follow their drudgery for her sake longer a while than they thought to have done, in raising a monument with the superfluity of her father's provisions.

Mycerinus, the son of Cephrenes, reigned after his father six years. He would have built, as his foregoers did, but, prevented by death, finished not what he had begun. The people thought him a good king, for that he did set open the temples which Cheops and Cephrenes had kept shut. But an oracle threatened him with a short life of six years only, because pf this his devotion: 'For, (said the oracle,) Egypt

a Diod, Herod, .

'should have been afflicted an hundred and fifty

* years, which thy predecessors knew, and perform

* ed for their parts ;.but thou hast released it, there

* fore shalt thou live but six years.' It is very strange that the gods should be offended with a king for his piety; or that they should decree to make a country impious when the people were desirous to serve them; or, that they having so decreed, it should lie in the power of a king to alter destiny, and make the ordinance of the gods to fail in taking full effect. But these were Egyptian gods. The true God was doubtless more offended with the restitution of such idolatry than with the interruption; and who knows whether Chemmis did not learn somewhat at Jerusalem in the last years of his father Sesac, that made him perceive, and deliver to those that followed him, the vanity of his Egyptian superstition? Most sure it is, that his reign, and the reigns of Cheops and Cephrenes, were more long and more happy than that of Mycerinus, who, to delude the oracle, revelled away both days and nights, as if, by keeping candles lighted, he had changed his nights into days, and so doubled the time appointed :—a service more pleasing to the devil than the restitution of idolatry durst then seem, when it could speed no better. I find in Reineccius fifty years assigned to this king; which I verily believe to have been some error of the print, though I find it not corrected among other such oversights; for I know no author that gives him so many years; and Reineccius himself takes notice of the oracle that threatened Mycerinus with a short life, as is before shewed.

Bocchorus is placed next unto Mycerinus, by Diodorus, who speaks no more of him than this, that he was a strong man of body, and excelling his predecessors in wit. He is spoken of by divers authors, as one that loved justice, and may be taken for that Banchyris, whom Suidas commends in that kind: Eusebius reckons four and forty years of his reign. After Bocchorus, one Sabacus, an Ethiopian, follows in the catalogue of Diodorus, but certain ages after him. Herodotus, quite omitting Bocchorus, hath Asychis, who made a sharp law, (as it was then held,) against bad debtors, that their dead bodies should be in the creditors disposition till the debt was paid. This Asychis made a pyramid of bricks, more costly and fair, in his own judgment, than any of those that the former kings had raised. Besides this Asychis, Herodotus placeth one Anycis, a blind man, before the Ethiopian: the reigns of these two are perhaps those many ages, which the Egyptians, to magnify their antiquities, accounted between Bocchorus and him that followed them. But all this could make but six years; and so long doth Functius, so long doth Reineccius hold, that these two kings, between them both, did govern. If any man would lengthen this time, holding it improbable that the reigns of two kings should have been so soon spent, he may do it by taking some years from {Sethon or Psammeticus, and adding them to either of these; to add unto these, without substracting from some other, would breed a manifest inconvenience; forasmuch as part of Sesac's reign must have been in the fifth of Rehoboam *; as also the last of Pharaoch Necho was the fourth of Jehoiakim, and the first of Nebuchadnezzar. For mine own part, I like it better to allow six years only to these two kings, than to lose the witness of Herodotus, who, concurring herein with the scriptures, doth speak of Sennacherib's war, at which time Sethon was king of Egypt. I will not, therefore, add years unto these obscure names ; for by adding unto these men three years, we shall thrust the beginning of Sethon out of place, and make it later than the death of Sennacherib. In regard of this agreement of Herodotus with the scriptures, I am the more willing to hold with

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