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ed this uproar with pleasing songs. But Aristomenes grew so bold, that he not only ranged over all the fields, but adventured upon the town, surprised and sacked Amyclae, and finally caused the enemies to increase and strengthen their companies, which done, there yet appeared no likelihood of taking Era.

In performing these and other services, thrice Aristomenes was taken prisoner, yet still he escaped. One escape of his deserves to be remembered, as a thing very strange and marvellous. He had with too much courage adventured to set upon both the kings of Sparta; and being in that fight wounded, and felled to the ground, was taken up senseless, and carried away prisoner, with fifty of his companions. There was a deep natural cave into which the Spartans used to cast headlong such as were condemned to die for the greatest offences. To this punishment were Aristomenes and his companions adjudged. All the rest of these poor men died with their falls; Aristomenes, (howsoever it came to pass,) took no harm. Yet was it harm enough to be imprisoned in a deep dungeon among dead carcases, where he was like to perish through hunger and stench. But after a while, he perceived, by some small glimmering of light, (which perhaps came in at the top,) a fox that was gnawing upon a dead body. Hereupon he bethought himself, that this beast must needs know some way to enter the place and get out. For which cause he made shift to lay hold upon it, and catching it by the tail with one hand, saved himself from biting with the other hand, by thrusting his coat into the mouth of it. So letting it creep whither it would, he followed, holding it as his guide, until the way was too strait for him, and then dismissed it. The fox being loose, ran through a hole, at which came in a little light; and there did Aristomenes delve so long with his nails, that at last he clawed out his passage. When some fugitives of Messene brought word to Sparta that Aristomenes was returned home, their tale sounded alike as if they ha4 paid that a dead man was revived. But when the Co* rinthian forces, that came to help the Lacedaemonians in the siege of Era, were cut in pieces, their captains slain, and their camp taken, then was it easily believed that Aristomenes was alive indeed.

Thus eleven years passed, while the enemies, hovering about Era, saw no likelihood of getting it) and Aristomenes, with small forces, did them greater hurt than they knew how to requite. But at the last, a slave, that had fled from Sparta, betrayed the place. This fellow had enticed to lewdness the wife of a Messenian, and was entertained by her when her husband went forth to watch. It happened in a rainy winter night, that the husband came home unlooked for, whilst the adulterer was within. The woman hid her paramour, and made good countenance to her husband, asking him, by what good fortune he was returned so soon. He told her, that the storm of foul weather was such as had made all their fellows leave their stations, and that himself had done as the lest did; as for Aristomenes, he was wounded of late in fight, and could not look abroad; neither was it to be feared that the enemies would stir in such a dark rainy night as this was. The slave, that heard these tidings, rose up secretly out of his lurking hole, and got him to the Lacedaemonian camp with the news. There he found Emperamus, his master, commanding in the king's absence. To him he uttered all; and, obtaining pardon for his running away, guided the army into the town. Little or nothing was done that night; for the alarm was, pre* sently taken; and the extreme darkness, together with the noise of wind and rain, hindered all directions. Al\ the next day was spent in most cruel fight; one part being incited, by mere hope of ending a long work; the other enraged by mere desperation. The great advantage that the Spartans had in numbers, was recompensed partly by the assistance which women and children, (to whom the hatred of servitude had taught contempt of death,) gave to their husbands and fathers; partly by the narrowness of the streets and other passages, which admitted not many hands to fight at once. But the Messenians were in continual toil; their enemies fought in course, refreshing themselves with meat and sleep, and then returning, supplied the place of their weary fellows with fresh companions. Aristomenes, therefore, perceiving that his men, for want of relief, were no longer able to hold out, (as having been three days and three nights, vexed with all miseries, of labour, watching, fighting, hunger and thirst, besides continual rain and cold,) gathered together all the weaker sort, whom he compassed round with armed men, and so attempted to break out through the midst of the enemies. Emperamus, general of the Lacedaemonians, was glad of this; and, to further their departure, caused his soldiers to give an open way, leaving a fair passage to these desperate madmen. So they issued forth, and arrived safe in Arcadia, where they were most lovingly entertained.

Upon the first bruit of the taking of Era, the Arcadians had prepared themselves to the rescue; but Aristocrates, their false-hearted king, said it Was too late, for that all was already lost. When Aristomenes had placed his followers in safety, he chose out five hundred, the lustiest of his men, with whom he re* solved to march in all secret haste to Sparta, hoping to find the town secure, and ill-manned, the people being run forth to the spoil of Messene. Jn this enterprise, if he sped well, it was not doubted that the Lacedaemonians would be glad to recover their own, by restitution of that which they had taken from others; if all failed, an honourable death was the worst that could happen. There were three hundred Arcadians that offered to join with him; but Aristocrates marred all, by sending speedy advertisement thereof to Anaxander king of Sparta. The epistle which Anaxander sent back to Aristocrates was intercepted, by some that mistrusted him to whom it was directed. Therein was found all his falsehood, which being published in open assembly, the Arcadians stoned him to death, and casting forth his body unburied, erected a monument of his treachery, with a note, that the perjurer cannot deceive God.

Of Aristomenes no more is remaining to be said, than that committing his people to the charge of his son Gorgus, and other sufficient governors, who should plant them in some new seat abroad, he resolved himself to make abode in those parts, hoping to find the Lacedaemonians work at home. His daughters he bestowed honourably in marriage. One of them, Demagetus, who reigned in the island of Rhodes, took to wife, being willed by an oracle to marry the daughter of the best man in Greece. Finally, Aristomenes went with his daughters to Rhodes, whence he purposed to have travelled to Ardys, the son of Gyges, king of Lydia, and to Phraortes king of Media; but death prevented him at Rhodes, where he was honourably buried.

The Messenian s were invited by Anaxilas, (whose great grandfather was a Messenian, and went into Italy after the former war,) being lord of the Rhegians in Italy, to take his part against the Zancleans in Sicily, on the other side of the straits. They did so, and winning the town of Zancle, called it Messene, which name it keeps to this day.

This second Messenian war ended in the first year of the twenty-eight Olympiad. Long after which time, the rest of that nation, who staying at home served the Lacedaemonians, found means to rebel; but were soon vanquished, and being driven to forsake Peloponnesus, they went into Acarnania; whence likewise, after few ages, they were expelled by the Lacedaemonians, and then followed their an. fient countrymen into Italy and Sicily: some of them went into Africa, where they chose unto themselves a seat.

It is very strange, that, during two hundred and eighty years, this banished nation retained their name, their ancient customs, language, hatred of Sparta, and love of their forsaken country, with a desire to return to it. In the third year of the hundred and second Olympiad, the great Epaminondas, having tamed the pride of the Lacedaemonians, revoked the Messenians home, who came nocking out of all quarters, where they dwelt abroad, into Peloponnesus. There did Epaminondas restore unto them their old possession, and help them in building a fair city ; which, by the name of the province, was called Messenia, and was held by them ever after, in despite of the Lacedaemonians, of whom they never from thenceforth stood in fear.

Sect. V.

Of the kings that were in Lydia and Media, while Manasseh reigned. Whether Deioces the Mede 'were that Arphaxad which is mentioned in the book of Judith. Of the history of Judith.

Ardys king of Lydia, and Phraortes of the Medes, are spoken of by Pausanias, as reigning shortly after the Messenian war. Ardys succeeding unto his father Gyges, began his reign of forty-nine years, in the second of the twenty-fifth Olympiad. He followed the steps of his iather, who encroaching upon the Ionians in Asia, had taken Colophon by force, and attempted Miletus and Smyrna. In like manner Ardys won Priene, and assailed Miletus; but went away without it. In his reign, the Cimmerians, being expelled out of their own country by the Scythians, over-ran a great part of Asia, which was not freed from them before the time of Alyattes this man's grandchild, by whom they were driven put. They had not only broken into Lydia, but

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