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For in this sort Xerxes, in the seventh of Herodotus, deriveth himself:—


Of the Achaemenidae there were two races; of the first was Cyrus the Great, whose issue-male failed in his two sons, Cambyses and Smerdis. This royal family is thus set down by the learned Reineccius :—

Achaemenes, the son of Perseus, first king of Persia. Darius.

Cyrus, the first of that name, had Cambyses and Atossa, who, married to Pharnaces, king of ; Cappadocia, had Artystona and other daughters. Cambyses bad • Cyrus the Great; Cyrus had

Cambyses, who succeeded him, and Smerdis, slain by his brother Cambyses.

Of the second, were those seven great princes of Persia, who, having overthrown the usurped royalty of the Magi, chose from among themselves Darius, the son of Hystaspes, king.

This kingdom of Persia was first known by the name of Elam, so called after Elam, the son of Shem, and the people therein inhabiting Elamita?; by Elianus, Elymae; by Josephus, Elymi.

Suidas derives this nation sometimes from Assur, sometimes from Magog, of whom they are called Magusaei; which Magusaei, according to Eusebius are not to be taken for the nation in general, but for those who were afterward called the Magi, or wise men. So do the Greeks, among many other their sayings of them, affirm, that the Persians were anciently called Art»i» and that they called themselves

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Cephenes; but that they were Elamitae *, Moses, and the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and Esdras, in many places confirm; which also St.

lliel the eighth, and in his Hebrew questions, approveth; saying, 'Elam a quo Elamitae principes Persi• disElam, of whom were the Elamites, princes of Persia.

And that city, which the author of the second book of the Maccabees calleth Persepolis3, is by the author of the first called Elimais 4, but is now called Siras, being the same which Antiochus, for the great riches thereof, twice attempted in vain, and to his great dishonour. And yet this city, now called Siras, was not the old Persepolis; for Alexander, at the request of Thais the harlot, burnt it.

The first king of Persia to us known, if we follow the current of authors interpreting the 14th chapter of Genesis, was Chedorlaomer, who lived with Amraphel, or Ninias, and joined with him in the war against those Arabians, who were afterwards extinguished by the forces of Abraham.

1 Euseb. 1. vi. c. 1. <3e Pisep. Evang. 2 Gen. z. fa. xi. 21, 22, Jet. xxv. iaBtxix. J 2 Mac. ix. Eaak. 32. Dan. viii. Eld. It. t t Mk. n.


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Sect. I.
Of Cyrus's name andfirst actions.

AS touching the name of Cyrus', Strabo saith that the same was taken from a river which watereth Persia; this great prince having Agradatus for his proper name. But the great Cyrus was not 'the first of that name. Herodotus otherwise; and that Cyrus signifieth a father in the Persian tongue, and therefore so intitled by the people. It is true, that, for his justice and other excellent virtues, he was indeed called a father; but that the name of Cyrus had any such signification, I think it to be mistaken. Plutarch hath a third opinion *, affirming, that Cyrus is as much as to say the sun, in the same language. Howsoever it be, yet the prophet Isaiah, almost two hundred years before Cyrus was born, gives him that name, * Thus saith the Lord unto Cy4 rus,' &c.

Before the conquest of Babylon, the victories which Cyrus obtained were many and great; among which the conquest of Lydia, and other province* thereto subject, together with the taking of Croesus himself, are not recounted byEusebius, Orosius, and

1 Strab. L XT. 3 Plut. in fit. Art*.

others, but placed among his later achievements, whose opinion for this difference of time is founded upon two reasons; namely, that of the Median there is no mention in that last war against Croesus; and that the obtaining of Sardis is referred to the fiftyeighth Olympiad, and the glorious victory which Cyrus had over Babylon to the fifty-fifth Olympiad. The former of which might have been used, (and was by the Greeks,) to exclude the Medes from the honour of having won Babylon itself, which in due .place I have answered. The latter seems to have reference to the second war which Cyrus made upon Lydia, when it rebelled; at which time he so established his former conquest, as after that time these nations never offered to revolt. Wherefore I like better in this particular to believe with Herodotus, whom the most of chronologers follow, and find the enterprise of Sardis to precede that of Babylon.

Sect. II.

Of Croesus the king of Lydia, 'who made "war upon Cyrus.

I Have in the last book spoken somewhat of Croesus, of his race and predecessors, as also of those kings which governed Lydia in more ancient times; (of which the first, to profane authors known, was Lydus, the son of Atys; which family extinguished, the kingdom was by an oracle conferred upon Argon, descended from Hercules;) whereof there were twenty-two generations, Candaules being the last, who, by shewing his fair wife naked to Gyges his favourite, was by the same Gyges, (thereto urged upon peril of his own life by the queen,) the next day slain. Which done, Gyges enjoyed both the queen and kingdom of Lydia, and left the same to Atys his son, who was father to Sadyattes, the father of Ilalyattes, (who thrust the Cimmerians out of Asia,')

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and Halyattes begat Croesus': which five kings, of a third race, enjoyed that kingdom a hundred and seventy years. Halyattes the father of Croesus was an undertaking prince; and after he had continued a war against Cyaxares the Median, a prince very powerful, and maintained it six years, a peace was concluded upon equal conditions between them.

Astyages, the son of Cyaxares, and grandfather to Cyrus, thought himself greatly honoured by obtaining Aryenes, Croesus's sister, whom he married.

But Croesus so far enlarged his dominions after his father's death, as he, was nothing inferior in territory to any king or monarch of that age; of which, about that time, there were four in effect of equal strength, to wit, the Median, the Babylonian, the Egyptian, and the Lydian; only Nabuchodonosor, after he had joined Phoenicia, Palaestina, and Egypt to his empire, had thenceforward no competitor during his own life.

But Croesus, notwithstanding the men and treasure spent in the quarrel of the Babylonians, yet mastered iEolis, Doris, and Ionia, provinces possessed by the Greeks in Asia the less, adjoining to Lydia; gave law to the Phrygians, Bithynians, Carians,' Mysians, Paphlagonians, and other nations. And that he also inforced the Ephesians to acknowledge him, notwithstanding they compassed their city with Diana's girdle, Herodotus witnesseth*. Moreover, Athenaeus out ofBerosus3, (which also Strabo confirmeth,) makes report of a signal victory which Croesus obtained against the Sacueans, a nation of the Scythians, in memory whereof the Babylonian's allies did yearly celebrate a feast, which they called Sacaea; all which he performed in fourteen years.

And being now confident in the continuance of bis good fortune, and envious of Cyrus's fame, doubting also that his prosperous undertakings might in,

2 Herod. 1. 5. 3 Athtn. 1.14. c. IT.

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