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a plan devised as that of the Methodists. But what is this ? James Drew says that you received £10 and a guinea, towards building the house at Waterford, and carried it away."

I am,

“Dear Tommy, “Your very affectionate Friend and Brother,


Some people are filled with indignation at the conduct of men like Wesley, in supporting such injurious superstitions; these have to learn that it was totally impossible for men like Wesley, or any other man, to have thought, felt, or acted, otherwise than they have; philosophy is the best preventative of wrath.

"The third class of the excitements of knowledge I have said is constituted of our original notions, these consist of imaginary or conceptive suggestions of which sufficient has been said in a former portion of the essay.

Before leaving the subject of individual consciousness, it is proper that some slight reference should be made to the peculiar modification or state that ensues just prior to death. In old age, we find that memory of the circumstances of early youth, is often more vivid than the memory of recent occurrences; elderly people often have vivid dreams of their fathers and mothers, and the friends of their youth, and in their waking state often find the thoughts of such suggested to them. Besides this, there is a general similarity of the notions and feelings of old age and childhood, and hence old people are often said to be in their second childhood. This state may be induced at any age by the approach of death ; the breaking up of the organization, whether it arise from old age, disease, or any other gradual source, has a very similar aspect. Thus at the approach of death, the thoughts and feelings of early days come into excitement, and I have known instances where persons, having been separated from their native place for years, have at the approach of dissolution, spoken in the language and accent of the locality of their youth. The

excitement of infantile conciousness at this period, has always been taken advantage of by the priests, for, the theologic notions and feelings of youth, are of course excited among others.

The Mahometan who has lived among the infidel Christians, during a period of his life, and who has conformed to infidel worship, when the decrepitude of old age or disease comes stealing on, has thoughts of God and the prophet suggested to him, and the feelings of awe which actuated his youth are aroused, and he owns his delinquency and prays for pardon, for having forgotten the truth, and dwelt with the infidel. How often do we hear of persons who have swerved from the Catholic faith during life, sending for the priest just prior to death, and acknowledging their heresy. This is now and then the case in all sects, for an infantile consciousness being restored, of course such action and expression may take place. It is referred to triumphantly by the priests as proof of their peculiar dogmas.


Application of the foregoing Principles to the Philosophy of Society.

Having detailed the various phenomena of individual consciousness, and demonstrated the power of circumstances in the production of knowledge and feeling, in the government of thought, will, and action, it now devolves on me to consider the subject in a more general manner, and to illustrate the moral causation that is exhibited among masses of men. This branch of the subject is exceedingly simplified by the knowledge of the principles already considered, and a few pages will now be found sufficient to explain the actions of society, and the circumstances from which those actions emanate. Human nature is such, that we are actuated by desires for various things. In proportion to the desire we have for an object, is the value we set upon it, and the amount of labour which we are willing to expend for its procurance. The most immediately essential com


modity to the support of human existence is the atmos. phere we breathe ; our desire for it is incessant; but this fluid, on which vitality depends, flows abundantly about our globe, and men live on it almost unconsciously to themselves; when, however, they are placed in circumstances where a privation of this fluid takes place, they, feeling the horrors of suffocation, and gasping for a breath of air, would willingly sell themselves to a dungeon life of slavery for the mere privilege of drinking in the delicious fluid, so really valuable is the common air.

Water is an article that is abundant in most places, and we daily desire a quantity of it, to make our drinks, to moisten our food, or for cleaning purposes; but we seldom think of its value and usefulness, till our means of procuring it, at desire, are removed or limited. These, together with food, raiment, shelter, conveniences, amusements, luxuries, and all objects of our desires, are requirements for human gratification; and they are useful and valuable in proportion to their ability to please. Those things which are pleasureable we call good, and those which are unpleasureable or painful, bad. The former our nature impels us to seize; the latter it causes us to shun. Health, peace, plenty, security, pleasing associates, and a prolific soil, and delightful climate, are among the blessings of life; while disease, war, famine, insecurity of life or property, unpleasant associates, barren soil, and destructive climates, are considered evils.

Feelings of the pleasant and the unpleasant are excited in man, and all other animals, the first day of animate being; and the crying for food, and grasping the mother's mammæ, demonstrate the existence, at this early period, of the knowledge of good and evil; without the excitement of this knowledge, animal existence would be impossible.

But few of the things which are objects of human desire are produced spontaneously by the earth or elements, and so made ready for our use, independently of the motions or changes produced by consciousness. Almost all the substances around us have been modified by knowledge and impulse. Our domestic furniture has been formed from the tree; the walls of our habitation are made from the common clay, moulded and baked into bricks, and cemented together by a preparation, from the earth called lime; our window glass is prepared from the earth of flint or sand, and potash. Our food, raiment, and most of our requirements, are prepared from raw materials, which in some parts of the globe are produced spontaneously by the earth; in other places, however, the production of these requires considerable expenditure of labour. In England the farmer plants the trees, and takes care of them for ages during their growth, before the raw material wood is produced; he breeds and tends the sheep, provides them with proper food, and takes care of their enclosures, before the mutton, lamb, and wool can be brought to market. The gardener also has much trouble in producing his garden produce. In some places the earth pours forth the raw materials in such abundance, that all man has to do is to take them; this, however, often proves a troublesome task. In America, the forests supply timber abundantly, and the prairies feed innumerable herds of wild cattle. The seas in almost every part of the globe teem with shoals of fish; and some portions of the earth are stored with minerals; the coal, limestone, and ironstone, are abundant in places; but these are generally deep in the earth, and require the exhaustion of much labour for their procurance.

When the raw material is procured, it is often deemed fit for use; the cocoa-nut is taken by the Indians raw, as are also several kinds of meat and vegetables ;

the wild fruit, and that of the garden, is also consumed at times without the trouble of cookery. In the majority of instances, however, the knowledge and feeling of man compel him to modify considerably the raw materials before he consumes them. His various kinds of food require cooking and preparing; his clothing must be woven, and then fashioned to suit him; and his various conveniencies and luxuries generally demand a considerable outlay of labour upon the raw materials.

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The motions which his consciousness impels man to, for the procurance or modification of raw materials, for the purpose of gratifying desires, are called productive labour, or production. This is essential to a society, and forms a prominent feature, the circumstances of which should be understood, as they necessitate a vast quantity of action which is continually taking place.

If a man were thrown upon a desert island, he of course would be obliged to produce all the things he consumed, he must procure water and food and modify them if he thought proper. But if several individuals were thrown together in this way, in course of time one would become an adept at one kind of operation, say fishing, another would make a good hunter, another a good general mechanic, &c. This would result from the different desires of the parties, the man who liked fishing, would be impelled to pursue a course of operation by which he would gain experience in catching fish; in the same way the hunter would gain that boldness and knowledge which his pursuit required, and the mechanic would daily become more dexterous in his operations. But, if one of these individuals had to perform all these operations, of course he could not become so expert at all three, as he would be at one, supposing his whole time to be devoted to that one; and if he devotes his whole time to one operation, he cannot be very expert in others. Hence operations are soon distributed in young societies among the different individuals, and these actions of individuals, taking to themselves those kinds of work they like best, or which they can from their peculiar expertness perform with greater ease to themselves, are found beneficial to the whole society, (whatever is convenient to the individuals in a society, is convenient to the society, the latter being merely a name for the former taken unitedly), for, when each of the individuals are accustomed to a particular branch of labour, and in consequence rendered exceedingly expert at it, the power of production of each individual becomes much increased, and the articles of a superior quality. But as each individual, if

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