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The action of this principle is often observable in the domestic circle; when a youthful member of a family evinces a petulancy of disposition, the incident suggests to the parent the amiableness of some other child, and the example of the latter is held up to the former.

Throughout poetic writings, or the declamations of the orator, this principle of suggestion is continually exemplified in the use of the rhetorical figure called antitheses; thus, we find the word “light” followed by that of “darkness," "heaven" by "earth,” or “hell," "reward” by “punishment,” “angel” by "devil,” &c.

The five facts that have been stated, explain the order in which the thoughts are excited; but no train of thought occupies much time, and at the termination

it often happens that a state of mere consciousness of existence is left. How then is it that fresh thoughts are excited ? The sensations, which circumstances are continually producing in us, excite immediately a succession of thought in order according with the facts stated,--as when, in the middle of a street, a coach suddenly turns a corner, and our safety is endangered by its approach, immediately the effects of the coach passing over us, and the contrast of present danger with the safety to be experienced on the causeway, and other thoughts, are instantaneously suggested, and guide us from the danger; but when these successive states of consciousness have expired, and a temporary state of what is called absence of thought succeeded, suddenly a thought of the danger experienced is excited, and after it follows a number of other states of the consciousness suggested by it. Hence it is obvious that, besides that of suggestion, there is another mode by which circumstances excite thought. The thoughts produced after a state of absence cannot be said to be suggested by a state of consciousness just previous, and hence the name of suggestion is not appropriate; but, as these thoughts suggest a number of others, and are thus leaders in the trains of thought, they may

be aptly called leading thoughts; they are produced in accordance with the following facts.

Circumstances exciting a vivid state of consciousness, in which exist strong feelings, such as love, hatred, terror, anger, pity, attention, &c., as well as thoughts, produce a tendency, in the nervous masses, to the reexcitement, at irregular intervals, of a state similar except in intensity. When a man has met with an exciting circumstance, such as a narrow escape from a violent accident, or in other ways, such as a bitter insult, or a pleasing song or tune, thought respecting the occurrence will be excited, not only without the aid of suggestion, but often in a manner abruptly interrupting a train of suggestions with which it is by no means associated either by time, place, causation, resemblance, or contrast: a strain of music that we have heard, and been pleased with, will often burst in on our trains of thought, leading on a succession of states of consciousness, which it suggests, and removing the previous state of consciousness altogether.

Some years ago I saw a very magnificent painting of Bonaparte, in which he was represented standing on a rock at St. Helena, gazing towards the ocean; the thought of it often returns, but, for some time after the circumstance, it was excited more as a leading thought than a suggestion : now the case is reversed, it generally being suggested. From this it appears that thoughts of recent circumstances are more likely to be leading thoughts, and those of remote, suggestions.

Some things instantaneously excite a vivid consciousness, as a flash of lightning, sudden danger, &c.; but there are others that require length of time or repetition to do so.

The consciousness excited by looking at a picture for a few instants, is not so vivid as when we have gazed at it for a length of time sufficient to enable its various perfections or defects to be made known.

The repetition of anything tends to increase our knowledge or acquaintanceship with it, and thus leads to the formation of a more vivid consciousness. It is on this principle that we commonly act in making children repeat their lessons, and also in the delivery of an order to a messenger, when suspecting a thoughtless tendency, we state the direction again, instigated by the hope that such frequent occurrence of the same thing will excite a better understanding, and cause the future recurrence of the same state of consciousness.

Besides the nervous tendency to the reproduction of these strong excitements, as leading thoughts, they are found to be more frequently suggested, than thoughts of a less vivid nature, hence the same circumstances that produce leading thoughts also modify considerably the suggestions; if an accident occurs to a person, and

produces a vivid state of excitement, it will not only re-produce leading thoughts of the event, but also, if a consciousness of anything associated by nearness in time or place, &c. with the occurrence be produced, it will generally be found to suggest the accident.

Another circumstance that modifies the suggestions is the particularity or generalness of the association of any one thing; if it be associated with one thing in particular, that thing will suggest it; but, if it be associated with a number of things, besides that one, it is no longer so likely to suggest it. A person who has been accustomed to sing a certain song, tell a peculiar tale, or use a particular maxim or saying, will become associated with these; and if thought of any of them be excited, it will be found to suggest that of the individual; but, if the same maxim, song, or anecdote were told by a number of others, in as exciting a manner, and just as common to them as to him, it would no longer suggest the thought of him more than the rest.

The state of feeling has much influence in predisposing to that species of thought most in harmony with it, either as leading thought or as suggestion. States of feeling are of a temporary, or a more permanent character, according to the nature of the causes which produce them. Some feelings exist only with the thought which produce them, others continue during a succession of thoughts, and modify them considerably; as the feeling of desire for victory continues in permanent excitement in the commander of an army, during the progress of a battle, and modifies considerably his leading or suggested thought. Other states of feeling are of a more permanent nature still, as habitual melancholy, gloominess, moroseness, kindness, joyousness, &c.

The detail that has been given is sufficiently extensive to shew the phenomena of the re-production of thought, and to point out the circumstances by which that reproduction takes place. In considering the guiding principle, the observations more particularly refer to man; but, at the same time it will be found, on examination, that the same principles hold good with reference to the re-production of thought in all animals, the general facts of consciousness are the same, however animals may differ in the amount of their experience, just the same as the fact of gravitation holds good with the atom and the mass. A slight examination of the movements of the lower animals is sufficient to shew that the association of time, place, and causation are continually being exhibited as guiding principles in their action. A dog, if beaten with a whip, will, after the occurrence, when it sees its master take the whip again in hand, have the thought of pain suggested by previous association in time, of similar circumstances with a painful operation ; then the danger, by contrast, suggests the security of some other place, and the secure locality suggests the causal operation by which it may be effected. The indications of similar mutations of the consciousness are palpable in all animals, and the circumstances that govern these changes, have also been found of a similar nature: so that the facts of sensation and reproduction that have been stated, may be applied to the whole animal kingdom: when facts serve to explain phenomena, speculative suppositions are by no means requisite.

CHAP. III. Of the impelling excitements—Material impulses-Spiritual impulses

Instinct-Experience, &c. The animal system, from its own action, has a continual tendency to self-destruction, by waste of substance, and unless fresh nutriment be supplied continually, the machinery, on which depend the motions of life, and the phenomena of consciousness, ceases its usual action, and undergoes the chemical change called decomposition; hence the necessity of principles to impel the supply of the peculiar matter demanded for the support of the body : without such, animal existence would be impossible.

The most essential class of impulses to the animate being, is excited by the material states of the system. The state of want of any essential kind of substance, produces an excitement which impels the animal to take it: the want of solids excites hunger—the want of fluids begets thirst—and, if the breath be stopped for a short time, the want of oxygen for the blood causes a feeling of suffocation in the lungs, which impels the action of inhaling atmospheric air.

The excess of any particular kind of matter in the system is a state that produces an excitement impelling the process by which it is to be thrown out. The uneasiness for exercise which a boy feels on being compelled to sit in one position for some time, would, if he were not restrained by more powerful impulses, impel him to actions, which would promote his circulation, and cast off the unhealthy and superfluous particles from his system in perspiration. Sensations, such as hunger, thirst, the sexual sensations, sensations of the lungs, bowels, and bladder, &c., are impulses resulting from certain states, and cause the removal of themselves, and those states, by the animal action they impel.

The ordinary state of the consciousness, during its period of impulse, is called uneasiness, and many of these uneasinesses may co-exist, and constitute a complex state of the consciousness. When an impulse coexists with others of an opposite and more powerful nature, it is unable to impel its own removal ; its cause gradually increasing, the excitement is increased to the states called disagreeableness, painfulness, torture, &c. As soon as the impulse becomes stronger than its opponents, it removes itself by action. Thus it is that when we are eagerly employed by some strong impulses,

in this case,

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