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popular applause, and a recurrence to mean and criminal arts in order to secure it. To guard against this evil, pastors should consider, that the approbation of men is desirable only so far as it is connected with their edification, and should abstain from whatever might prove injurious to those who are intrusted to their care. To avoid bigotry, to which their office has likewise been supposed to tempt, they should pay particular attention to the spirit of religion, endeavouring to promote it in others by argument and persuasion. And to prevent the ascendency of indolent babits, they should addict themselves to composition, as well as to a regular distribution, and diligent employment, of their time.

Such are the topics which Dr. Campbell bas, in these lectures, handled with the same acuteness of discrimination, independent tone of judgment, shrewd and often solid reflection, and unadorned but lucid and energetic style, that appeared in his former publications. While they bear these marks of the author's character, they are likewise pervaded by a

strong seasoning of very serious moral and religious feeling. It will, perhaps, be regretted that the grand motives of the gospel make not a more conspicuous figure in the hortatory parts;

-while it will be impossible not to admire the mild and liberal, yet firm and dignified style, in which many branches of Christian morals are treated..

It is with pleasure we lay before our readers the following extract; both because it is so much in the spirit of the gospel, and because it inculcates practice too much neglected by the pastors and people of all sects.

• If we recur to the dictates of our holy religion, it is evident, that the Christian law requires of us all,--not of pastors only, but even of all the disciples of Jesus, and that upon the most solid grounds,--that “

we bear with, and forbear one another in love ;' that such of us.“ as are strong," and have more enlarged views of things, " ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves.' It requires, by consequence, that we abstain from such things as are in themselves innocent, when we know that they are accounted by others unlawful: and when we have reason to conclude, that, by our acting in a different manper, and indulging ourselves in such things, they would be shocked at our boldness; and that thus our example and admonitions, however edifying in other respects, would be rendered unprofitable, and even offensive to them.

This injunction, however, has not entirely escaped censure. It has been deemed, by some, unreasonably rigid, in the self.denial it imposes ; nay, which is worse, as tending to nourish prejudices, and foster superstition among the people. But that the precept, in the

proper construction and suitable application, gives no ground for this imputation, will appear, ... am persuaded, on the most cursory review. A moderate share of ex


perience may convince us, that it is not a violent opposition to popular er-
rors,which is the way to remove them; that this, on the contrary, proves
often the surest way to rivet them in their minds. " In order effectually
to extirpate superstitious notions, the people must be managed,” said a late
ingenious divine, “ as infants are managed in regard to their rattles and
other play-things. These, if ye attempt to wrest out of their hands, they

grasp them more tenaciously than before But if you do noz mind them, they come naturally to forget these things, and will soon drop them of their own accord.” Now, the bare abstaining from any gratification can never be made to imply that one deems it sinful, and so cannot be construed by the people into an approbation of any popular mistake. But let us hear the apostle Paul's opinion on this subject, which, I am hopeful, to every impartial person, will


decisive. “ I know," says he, (Rom. xiv. 14.) “and am persuaded by the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself.” “Meat, again commendeth us not to God; neither, if We eat, are we the better; nor if we forbear, are we the worse.” Such things, then, are quite indifferent in themselves, when we abstract from the opinions of mankind; but if once these are taken into the account, the case, according to the Apostle, is altered; what before was harmless, becomes instantly pernicious. “ Nevertheless,” says he, “ if thy brother be grieved with thy meat, now walkest thou not charitably: destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ died.” And in regard to himself, he adds, « 'If meat make my brother offend, I will not eat flesh whilst the world Standeth, lest I make my brother to offend.” Nothing can be more explicit than these words, wherein, at the same time, is conveyed the reason of the precept. Acting otherwise, he tells us, opposeth charity: “ Now walkest thou not charitably.” By your example, you either embolden your brother to do what is contrary to his conscience, and therefore sinful in him; “ for to him that esteemeth any thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean:" and, whatsoever is not of faith, is sin.” Or, if he be not emboldened, by your example, to transgress the dictates of his own conscience, you make him look upon you as, in some degree at least, daring and impious ; you so far mar the union which ought to subsist among Christians; and render your conversation unedifying to him, though ever so exemplary in other instances; you do what you can to destroy your brother.' To abstain, in such cases, is therefore a duty incumbent on every Christian, if charity itself is so. But that there is, resulting from their station, a peculiar obligation on the teachers of religion, must appear, from considering the nature and the end of their office, as well as of the means by which the end must be attained.'

We were particularly gratified with the whole lecture on the meeknese requisite in the pastoral character, as well as with that on temperance. We must, however, forbear detach. iug any extracts from them in order to make


for the directions that our author gives for securing popularity. We think he carries matters rather too far; yet the whole deserves to be studied by preachers, that they may learn not to covet popu. lar favour but as the instrument of being useful.

• One of the first engines that is commonly and successfully set at work

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pp. 45–49.


by those idolaters of popular applause, is, to be very liberal in praising themselves. The multitude is everywhere credulous'; they rarely fail to be the dupes of the most shameless pretenders; they seem to proceed on a very simple, and, one would think, a very honest principle, that nobody should know a person's character so well as he does himself, and that therew fore what they have from his own mouth, on this topic, they have from the best authority imaginable :- hence the success of quacks and mountebanks of every (lenomination. Would ye then be blindly followed and admired by the crowd, make loud pretensions to an uncommon pitch of purity and zeal ; assure them, boldly, that your indignation is moved, in the highest degree, at the prevailing evils, which others seem to be totally unaffected with, and unconcerned about. They will swallow with grees diness every word you utter; and you will hardly find it possible to stretch your asseverations and assurance beyond the measure of their credulity.

Another common and powerful engine of the policy of these deman, gogues, is, detraction. Be sure, as much as possible, to depreciate other teachers. Tell them of the danger they run in hearing them. Every thing is judged of by comparison; be not therefore sparing, rather be profuse, in bestowing the worst and most opprobrious epithets the language can furnish you with. This you will find another excellent expedient of self-praise. They will give you full credit that you must be perfectly free from faults which you exclaim against in others; and the lower you make other teachers sink in the people's estimation, the higher, by consequence, you raise yourself.

A third engine is, be sure to declaim with the greatest vehemence against those vices with which your congregation is least chargeable. A preacher of this stamp will be careful, in haranguing the multitude, to in- ! veigh with bitterness against the sins of the great, the rich, and the powerfül; all the tropes and figures of his eloquence will be exhausted in expatiating on their chambering and wantonness, rioting and luxury, levity/ and profane diversions.' pp.

187-190. • But lest I should be thought too severe on this shameful common device of securing the adulation, not to say, the adoration, of the rabble, I would desire you only impartially to consider, whether you ever knew a popular leader, who took the contrary method, and chose particularly to insist, in. his sermons, on those vices of which the generality of his hearers had, by their practice, most exposed themselves to be accused,

did you know such a one declaim to his people against the detestable crimes, but too : common among the lower ranks, of theft and lying, of fraud and circumvention of their dealings, of calumny and detraction in their conversation? Did you ever hear him inveighing against their uncharitableness in judging of their neighbour, and their self-sufficiency in judging of themselves? Topics of this kind would be branded, by many, with the odious name of dry and heathen morality. But how it has come to pass that invectives against the vices of the great come to be considered as a more Evangelical topic, nothing would be more difficult than to assign a good reason, though nothing can be more easy than to discover the cause.

I might mention several other inferior arts, which, though not so considerable as the preceding, are not without effect. Among the rest, 1 would say, be very loud, and very long, in your religious exercises. With


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the ignorant, in which class the bulk of the people, I am afraid, every where, are to be comprehended, there are two measures by which they always estimate the value of what is said. The meaning is none of their measures, for of that they are no judges; but the only two are, the quan: tity of what the speaker says, and the noise he makes in saying it. However much, in those respects, you exceed others, the hearers will put the whole surplus to the credit of your greater zeal and greater abilities. " Every preacher should endeavour to speak so as to be heard, otherwise he speaks to no purpose ; but if he would be idolized by the multitude; he must stun them with his din. . They are not nice in the powers of distinguishing; and therefore readily conclude, that it must be strong sense, that makes a strong impression on their organs.' pp. 192—194.,

We cannot too earnestly recommend these lectures to the attention of those of every party, who are just beginning to, exercise the pastoral office, or who ‘inay be preparing for it. Some things in them, indeed, are more particularly applicable to ministers of the Scottish Kirk; but they contain so much judicious and scriptural counsel, so many wise and useful observations, together with salutary rules and maxims, respecting the behaviour of the Christian teacher, that it must be of signal advantage for persons, entering into that order, to peruse them with seriousness and self-application. Their respectability, and comfort, and usefulness, will all depend in a. great measure upon their behaviour ;-and as they cannot expect in a college or academy to derive from observation lessons for the conduct of life, we would advise them, by all means, to study these lectures. Art. X. The Lives of John Selden, Esq. and Archbishop Usher ; with

Notices of the Principal English Men of Letters with whom they were
connected. " By John Aikin, M. D. 8vo. pp. 443. Price 10s. 60.

Matthews and Leigh. 1812.
AS mental exertion is the kind of toil regarded with the

most dread and aversion by mankind, while it is, nevertheless, indispensable to their welfare that a proj, stion of men be induced to undergo it; and as, also, there is among the generality of even tolerably.cultivated persons, a very low estimate of both what may and what should be effected in this department; there cannot be a too frequent exhibition of the most memorable examples of successful mental industry. The vexation with which we should confidently hope that, in some hundreds of instances, a book like this will be read, (and really we are afraid, as to those who can read such a book without vexation, that, to the greater number of them, it will not be of much use to read at all, either this or other books, this vexation will be a proof of the utility of such works. The quiescence and self-complacency of lazy spirits, yet pretend-.. ing perhaps to somewhat of faculty and of attainment, have



some little chance of being beneficially disturbed by such an exhibition : while mien of some real exertion and acquirement are taught by force, that a great deal is yet to be done to bring them to even the middle point between the perfectly vulgar state of the human mind, with respect to exertion and intellectual wealth, and the state exemplified at the upper extreme of mental cultivation. And therefore, though Selden and Usher had not, by their studies and writings, done one particle of good directly, they would have conferred indirectly an inestimable beneñt on society, by practically furnishing such an admonitory and stimulating illustration, of what can be accomplished within the short space of human life. ! It is still better when, from the circumstances of the period and place in which the distinguished persons lived, the record of their lives must necessarily bring again into view, and in some degree into discussion, subjects of very great importance to the present aud to all times :-it is so much the better, provided, we mean, that the writer of this record is a person of such extensive information, sound sense, and candour, and such a temperate lover of liberty, and yet zeaJous enemy to tyranny of all sorts, as the author of this vou Jume. The times of Selden and Usher, and the transactions in which they were, to a considerable extent, 'actively or passively concerned, should often be brought back to the view of Englishmen, as supplying a grand practical commentary on both the slavish principles at present' so prevalent, and those violently extreme ones into which the ardent friends of freedom are always in danger of being carried, by the recoil of antipathy.

The undertaking of this performance was a very natural consequence of a previous employment of the Author.

• The composition of this volume has been the result of a work in which I was some time ago engaged-a translation of the Memoirs of the learned Huet. Having thought it expedient to elucidate that piece with an introductory view of the general state of literature at the period whence his career commenced, I was necessarily led to cast an eye upon that of our own country; and the cursory survey I took of it gave me an interest in the subject which urged me to further enquiry. On tracing backwards the history of English erudition, I coop' came to two names which seemed to form an era, previously to which our contributions to the stock of criti. cal literature were comparatively inconsiderable; whilst those names themselves were annexed to writings quoted and applauded by the most eminent conteniporary scholars in Europe." These were Selden and Usher, men whose celebrity (that of the former, especially,) was not confined to mere authorship; but who acted important parts in the church and state at a period of extraordinary interest in English history. I was therefore induced carefully to examine the extant narratives of their lives, together with the biographical documents afforded by their own writings; and VOL. VIII


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