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species of food it would, of course, be led to such soft and marshy spots as he appears to have inhabited. It does not, however, appear to have been at all formed for swimming, or for living much in the waters, like the liippopotamus, but rather seems to have been entirely a terrestrial animal.' pp. 361, 362.
Fossil remains of the rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and tapir, have also been discovered; and Cuvier has detected, in the neighbourhood of Paris, two new genera of the same family, (pachydermata) which he designates by the names of Paleotherium and anoplotherium, discriminating four species of each ; the largest, Palæotherium magnum, being about the size of a cow. Thus nineteen species of this family have been ascertained. The inferences which Cuvier draws from the circumstances under which they are found, are so interesting as to render any apology for inserting them unnecessary.
“ These different bones are buried almost every where, in nearly similar beds : they are often blended with some other animals resembling those of the present day
These beds are generally loose, either sandy or marly; and always neighbouring, more or less, to the surface.
“ It is then probable, that these bones have been enveloped by the last, or by one of the last catastrophes of this globe.
"In a great number of places they are accompanied by the accumulated remains of marine animals; but in some places, which are less numerous, there are none of these remains : sometimes the sand or marl, which covers. them, contains only fresh-water shells.
“ No well authenticated account proves that they have been covered by regular beds of stone, filled with sea shells : and, consequently, that the sea has remained on them, undisturbed, for a long period.
“ The catastrophe which covered them was, therefore, a great, but transient inundation of the sea. “ This inundation did not rise above the high mountains; for we
find analogous deposits covering the bones, nor are the bones themselves there met with, not even in the high vallies, unless in some in the warmer parts of America.
“These bones are neither rolled nor joined in a skeleton, but scattered, and in part fractured. They have pot then been brought from afar by inundation, but found by it in the places where it has covered them, as might be expected, if the animals to which they belonged had dwelt in these places, and had there successively died.
“ Before this catastrophe, these animals lived, therefore, in the climates in which we now dig up their bones: it was this catastrophe which destroyed them there; and, as we no longer find them, it is evident that it has annihilated those species. The northern parts of the globe, therefore, nourished formerly species belonging to the genus elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, and tupir, as well as to mastodon, genera of which the four first have no longer any species existing, except in the torrid zone ; and of the last, none in any part.” pp. 401, 402.
The Megatherium of Paraguay, and the Megalonix of Vir,
ginia, are referred to the family of tardigradi, though far exceeding the existing species of sloths in size.
Of one of the natural sepulchres in which the remains of thousands of carnivorous aniinals are most unaccountably immured, Mr. P. gives the following account from Esper.
Among the most remarkable of these caverns are those of Gaylen reuth, on the confines of Bayreuth. The opening to these, which is about seven feet and a half high, is at the foot of a rock of limestone of considerable magnitude, and in its eastern side. Immediately beyond the opening is a magnificent grotto, of about three hundred feet in circumference, which has been naturally divided by the form of the roof into four caves.
The first is about twenty-five feet long and wide, and varies in height from nine to eighteen feet, the roof being formed into irregular arches. Beyond this is the second cave, about twenty-eight feet long, and of nearly the same width and height with the former. In this cave the stalactitic crust begins to appear, and in considerable quantity; but rot in such quantity as in the third cave, which is beautifully hung, as it were, with this sparry tapestry. The roof now begins to slope dowowards; iso that in the next, the last, of these caves, it is not above four or five feet in height. In the caves forming this first grotto, fragments of bones are found ; and it is said that they were as plentiful here as they now are in the interior grottoes.
The passage into the second grotto is about six feet high and fourteen feet wide. This grotto, which extends straight forwards sixty feet from the opening, and is about forty feet wide, and at its commencement about eighteen feet high, would commodiously hold two hundred men. Its appearance is rendered remarkably interesting from the darkness of its recesses, and from the various brilliant reflexions of the light from the stalactites with which its roofs and sides are covered. The constant drip of water from the roof, and the stalagmatic pillars on the floor, assist in perfecting the wonders of the scene. In this grotto no search was made for, bones, on account of the thickness of the sparry crust.
• A low and very rugged passage, the roof of which is formed of projecting pieces of rock, leads to the third grotto; the opening into which is a hole three feet high and four feet wide. This grotto iş more regular in its form, and is about thirty feet in diameter, and nearly round: its height is from five to six feet. This grotto is very richly and fantastically adorned by the varying forms of its stalactitic hangingx. The floor is also covered with a wet and slippery glazing, in which several teeth and jaws appear to have been fixed.
• From this grotto commences the descent to the inferior caverns. Within only about five or six feet an opening in the floor is seen, which is partly vaulted over by a projecting piece of rock. The descent is about twenty feet; and occasioned to Ñ. Esper and his companions some little fear lest they should never return, but remain to augment the zoolithes contained in these terrific mansions. This cavern was found to be about thirty feet in height, about fifteen feet in width, and nearly circular : the sides, roof, and floor, displaying the remains of animals. The rock itself is thickly beset with teeth and bones, and the floor is covered with a loose
earth, the evident result of animal decomposition, and in which numerous bones are imbedded. • A gradual descent leads to another grotto, which, with its passage,
is forty feet' in length, and twenty feet in height. Its sides and top are beautifully adorned with stalactites. Nearly twenty feet further is a frightful gulf, the opening of which is about fifteen feet in diameter ; and upon descending about twenty feet, another grotto, about the same diameter with the former, but forty feet in height, is seen. Here the bones are dispersed about; and the floor, which is formed of animal earth, has great numbers of them imbedded in it. The bones which are here found seem to be of different animals; but in this, as well as in the former caveros, perfect and unbroken bones are very seldom found. Sometimes a tooth is seen projecting from the solid rock, through the stalactitic cover. ing, showing that many of these wonderful remains may here be concealed. A specimen of this kind, which I possess, from Gaylenreuth, is rendered particularly interesting, by the first molar tooth of the lower jaw, with its enamel quite perfect, rising through the stalactitic mass which invests the bone. In this cavern the stalactites begin to be of a larger size, and of a more columnar form.
Passing on, through a small opening in the rock, a small cave, seven feet long and five feet high, is discovered: another small opening out of which leads to another small cave; from which a sloping descent leads to a cave twenty-five feet in height, and about half as much in its diameter, in which is a truncated columnar stalactite, eight feet in circumference.
• A narrow and most difficult passage, twenty feet in length, leads from this cavern to another, five and twenty feet in height, which is every where beset with teeth, bones, and stalactitic projections. This cavern is suddenly contracted, so as to form a vestibule' of six feet wide, ten long, and nine high, terminating in an opening close to the floor, only three feet wide and two high, through which it is necessary to writhe with the body on the ground. This leads into a small cave, eight feet high and wide, which is the passage into a grotto twenty-eight feet high, and about three and forty feet long and wide. Here the prodigious quantity of animal earth, the vast number of teeth, jaws, and other bones, and the heavy grouping of the stalactites, produced so dismal an appearance, as to lead Esper to speak of it as a perfect model for a temple for'a god of the dead." Here hundreds of cart-loads of bony remains might be removed, pockets might be filled with fossil teeth, and ania mal earth was found to reach to the utmost depth to which they dug. A piece of stalactite being here broken down, was found to contain pieces of bones within it, the remnants of which were left imbedded in the rock.
• From this principal cave is a very narrow passage, terminating in the last cave, which is about six feet in width, fifteen in height, and the same in length. In this cave were no animal remains, and the door was the naked rock.
• Thus far only could these natural sepulchres be traced; but there is every reason to suppose that these animal remains were disposed through a greater part of this rock.'*
415-418. Descriptiou des Zoolithes nouvellement decouvertes d'animaux quadrupedes inconnus, et des cavernes qui les renferment, &c. par J. F. Esper. 1774.
Among these relics, Cuvier distinguishes the bones of twe distinct species of bears, Ursus speleus and U. arctoideus, nei. ther existing at present. His researches have also made us acquainted with an hyena, a felis approaching to the jaguar of South America, a mustela, a canis, and several others, found in similar situations. In the plaister quarries of Paris he has also detected three other carnivorous animals.
Mr, P. concludes his work with a consideration of fossils in connection with the strata in which they are contained.' This is unavoidably very imperfect. Mr. P. thinks he discovers therein a confirmation of the Mosaic account of the formation of the world. The situation in which the remains of qua-, drupeds are found, may, we believe, be adduced, with perfect propriety, as proving that there must have been a deluge, resembling that described in holy writ, and probably the very
But by endeavouring to accommodate the phenomena of the other fossil remains to the Mosaic history of creation ; we are likely to do harm to science, and can do no service to revelation. It rather appears from our present knowledge of them, that their formation was anterior to the formless and void state of the earth whence our present habitation was summoned into existence, though certainly subsequent to the creation " in the beginning."
With respect to the plates, they are in general neat and elegant, but we must regret the errors and inaccuracies with which they abound. Thus in pl. V. fig. 15. the opening of the shell, if correct, would refer it to a different genus. Pl. IX. fig. 7, appears to be a flat surface, nor is the tracing by any means accurate. The absurdities in pl. XXII, fig. 1. which represents an animal with thirteen ribs on one side, to two of which the right fore-leg is articulated, and ten on the other; as also a pelvis beyond the power of anatomical description; we are willing to pass over, as it is only a copy: but Mr. P. ought to have advertised the reader that these wonders are not to be attributed to nature. He ought likewise to have corrected the ludicrous cranium supporting the Irish fossil horns, Pl. XX. fig. 1.; which appears to have been designed and executed by some Hibernian carpenter, in merry mood, but which should not be suffered to disgrace a work of science.
Mr. P. must excuse us if we notice these defects with a degree of severity. Had his work been less valuable in other respects, we should probably have passed them' over without remark.
Art. V. Discourses and Dissertations on the Scriptural Doctrines of
Atonement and Sacrifice: 2 vols. 8vo. pp. xxx. 443, and 482. Price 11.48. Cadell and Davies. 1809.
(Concluded from page 269.) HAVING considered the scope of the Mosaic system, we
shall proceed to notice what Dr. Magee has advanced, on the import of prophetic testimony. This topic is not formally discussed, in any of the dissertations ; but there is one,
on the death of Christ as a true propitiatory sacrifice,” (Vol. II. No. xliii. p.185), which includes an elaborate and minute investigation of some parts of the 53d. chapter of Isaiah. As this is the most important passage among the ancient prophecies, referring to the sacrifice of Christ, he enters profoundly into its meaning and application. After producing the last nine verses of the chapter as rendered by Bishop Lowth, he brings forward the readings of ancient versions, and some occasional explanations by Vitringa, Dathe and others. It would be impossible to do justice to the critical inquiry that follows, unless we were to transcribe the whole of it; but as it discusses a very important objection to the doctrine of atonement, and in our opinion completely obviates the difficulty, we shall attempt a brief abstract of the argument, referring our readers to the dissertation itself, as a mașterly display of philological skill in the defence of Christian truth. It is contended by the opponents of sacrifice,
that to bear sins, signifies merely to bear thein away or remove them; that consequently nothing more
is meant in use of such an expression, than 6 removing away our sins by forgiveness ;" and that the medium of reconciliation is not intimateu by such phraseology. In support of this position, it is said that " the words in the 4th verse (of 53rd. of Isaiah). our infirmilies he hath borne, and our sorrows, he hath carried then, are expressly interpreted by St. Matthew (ch. viii. 17) of the miraculous cures performed by our Saviour on the sick: and as the taking our infirmities, and bearing our sicknesses, cannot mean the suffering them, but only the bearing them away or removing them, so the bearing of our iniquities is likewise to be understood, as removing them away from us by forgiveness.
Dr. Magee confesses that this passage in Matthew has occasioned great difficulty to commentators. But in answer to the objection which, it is imagined, is involved in it, he remarks, that the quotation in Matthew is often supposed to refer to the ilth and 12th verses of the chapter in Isaiah, and is confounded with the reference in the first