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rupted monks," we subjoin additional evidences, of Roman Catholics, which are incidentally quoted by Dr. Jamieson.

• Before proceeding to consider the proofs, yet extant, of the difference between the Culdees and the church of Rome, as to particular points of faith or practice, it may be observed, that George Con, although a bigotted adherent to the interests of this church, even since the Reformation, has given them a very honourable testimony. * Among the Culdees," he says, 'was seen that pure pattern of the Christian life, which, withdrawn from the noise of the world, and the society of men, was wholly employed in the contemplation of heavenly things; such as it appeared among the Egyprians, Greeks, and Assyrians, during that and the following ages, in the lives of those illustrious servants of God, who were called Anchorites and Ascetics,”

• The celebrated Alcuin, who Aourished in the eighth century, nearly at the same time with Bede, in his epistle addressed, To the very learned Men and Fathers in the Province of the Scots, appears as a witness that our countrymen did not acknowledge auricular confession." It is reported," he says, " that none of the laity make confession to the priests. But, although he argues against their sentiments, he gives the following character of the men. “ We hear many commendations of your wisdom and piety, both on account of the holy lives of the monks, who, free from the bustle of worldly cares, resign themselves to the service of God; and of the religious manners of the laity, who, in the midst of temporal occupations, continue to lead virtuous lives.”

• Although Bromtop complains that Colman would not renounce the sect of the Scots, yet he gives a very honourable testimony to him, and to his predecessors, Aidan and Finan, as men of wonderful sanctity, tempérance, humility, and spirituality,' pp. 203, 204.

Considering the part which Alcuin, himself an Englishman, and his renowned patron, Charlemagne, took in opposition to the growing idolatry of the Roman church, we shall hardly be thought to trace the influence of the Culdees too far, if we ascribe to. it the formidable resistance which the founder of the German empire made to the scandalous worship of images

While the Culdees were diffusing Christianity, and, with it, the seeds of its subsequent reformation, through so great a portion of Europe, the basis of their establishments in Scots land was sapped, by a cautious and protracted course of re refined and systematic oppression. No other method could apparently have succeeded to subvert their influence, deeply as its foundations were laid in the veneration and gratitude of the people.

Genuine civilization keeps pace with the advancement of Christianity; but luxury and ambition outstrip its progress. The Pictish monarchy had been consolidated and refined by its complete evangelization, and had risen in political importance, as the neighbouring kingdom of Northumberland declined. While the latter was sinking to a province of Enga land, that of Scotland acquired the extent, the consolidation, and the name, which it bas retained ever since, on the accession of Kenneth 3d, king of the Scots, A. D. 843; to the Pictish throne. The change of its title, and the foriner illiterate state of its population, afforded scope to a conceit of their extirpation by the Scots : but the report seems chiefly to have arisen from a sanguinary and successful conflict which Kenneth, before his accession to the Pictish sovereignty, had maintained with the independent Picts of Galloway, who alone, afterwards, retained their ancient name. The Northumbrians having, in 756, joined with the Picts in reducing the Britons, of Strathclyde to subjection, and, in 820, lost all their own territory beyond the Tweed, Kennetb found binself master, of all Scotland, at a crisis, when the several states of England had recently been reduced to submission, rather than subjection, by the West Saxon monarchs, and had already begun to suffer from the piratical ravages of the Danes. Kenneth shewed no other desire to change the ecclesiastical state of Scotland, than by contributing to the veneration of its founder and the respectability of his successors. Having, in 849, erected a new church at Dunkeld, he transferred thither the remains of Columba, which had been often, and anxiously, removed from impending dangers. . When, however, the unequalled talents and virtues of Alfred had restored the English state from its ruins, and its church from the most degrading ignorance, the emulation of the Scottish court, to assimilate its ecclesiastical establishment to that of England, began to shew itself. The primitive simplicity of the Culdee discipline seemed inseparable from its dependence on I-colm-kill; and that spot was not only distant from the seat of government and the main body of the population, but had so often been ruined by Norwegian corsairs, that a different centre of ccclesiastical government appeared to be desirable. Kenneth had probably this object in view, in the measures which he adopted; but it was not till near the close of the ninth cena tury, that the Culdee establishment at Kilrymont was trans, forned, by an aspiring regent (or usurper) of the kingdom, into a bishopric, denominated St. Andrew's. The adoption of that apostle to be the vice-deity of Scotland, though no less irrational, may more easily be accounted for, than that of St. George for England. The Irish Scots, on the ground merely of nominal resemblance, pretended to a descent from the ancient Scythæ ; and the only people, properly called Scythians, in the time of the apostles, were the inhabitants of the Roman province of Scythia, on the western shore of the Eusine sea. They are said to have been converted to Chris. VÔL: VIII.

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tianity by the ministry of the apostle Andrew; and he is rea ported to have died at Patros, in the Morea. A t'raditioń was discovered, or invented on this occasion, that his relics had been translated thence to Kilrymont, in the fourth century; but the circumstances which it involves, demonstrate its utter falsehood. So ridiculous à tale would be urworthy of our notice, but for the apparent purpose and consequences of its propagation. To detach the people of Scotland from the Culdees, it was requisite to lessen their veneration for CoJumba ; and to conciliate them to Roman superstitions, the dedication of their churches to saints, instead of the Holy Trinity, was indispensable. A less objectionable substitute, in either view, than an apostle, and the apostle of the ancient Scythians, could not have been imagined. The unwary Culdees seem to have acquiesced, thoughi probably with reluctance, in this innovation ; which was incomparably greater than that of denominating their former Prior, a Bishop. His authority apparently remained the saine ; and his election was entrusted to themselves. But the opening, thus made, for innovation, ensured its progress; although this was evidently tetarded by the hold which the Culdees retained on the respect and affections of the people. The power, dignity and splendour to which the English prelates attained under the inmediate successors of Alfred, are well known. The court of Scotland, which became intimately attached, and closely assi. milated, to that of England, by degréés adopted its ecclesiastical measures, Bishoprids were multiplied, to which though Coldees were at first promoted, foreigners were gradually, introduced. The Culdee priors were first allowed to hold the n'est rank to the bishops; then Roman monks were raised to an equality of privileges: the endowments of the Culdees were, on various pretences, diminished, and alienated to the iutruders; and at length the remaining pittance was curtailed to life 'estates of the possessors. The Jast measure of degradation, and consequently of extirpation, which these patient, but stedfast, nonconformists had to sustain, was a law, that if any of their weaker members should be reduced, for want of support, to seek admission among what were called the regular canons, they were to

be rejected.

Notwithstanding the power and policy by which this systématic oppression was promoted, through three or centuries, and notwithstanding the frequent desolation of 1-colm-kill, by the Norwegians, such was the 'attachment of the Culdees to that revered spot, that, in 1203, it was judged expedient to form a rival institution, on the popish model, in opposition to the learned men of the place." The neighbouring ecclesiastics of Ireland, although' they had before vos Juntarily atquiesced in 'njost of the Roman superstitions, and had been compelled by our Henry the second, to adopt the re. fuse, retained their veneration for I-colm-kill, and evinced it in a characteristic manner. They assembled in a body, crossed the sea, and forcibly demolished the upstart edifice. "The anciunt monastery was treated in a similar way, seven years after, by soine Norwegian pirates from the Hebrides, An elegant engraving of the ruins yet standing in the island, is prefixed to Dr. Jamieson's volume; and the seals of that and of another Culdee monastery, are atmexed.

The principal effort which the Culdees made, against incessani encroachments of the popish moriks and prelates, was at St. Andrew's: a church which they had been allowed to occupy there, so late as A. D. 1250, was then taken from them; and, as a forlorn hope, they appealed to the pope himself, on the palpable injustice of this outrage. He appointed, for arbiters between them and the regular canons, two of the the latter description from priories in England; who, as was to be expected, decided against the Culdees, and suspend : ed them from their office,' or, in other terms) from all cele bration of divine service,

"One thing is evident here. The adversaries of the Culdees, who well knew their spirit, laid a snare for them. The two priors appointed by the pope, suspended them, for no other reason, as far as we can discern, but for pertinaciously adhering to their ancient rights: and at the same time eppointed their persecution to watch theni, to see whether they would practically acknowledge the justice of this sentence by submitting to it ; that, if they did not, they might have a ground for furthet procedurë against them. When they obtained the proof which they so earnestly desired against the Culdces, they made a shew of forbearance ; not from any good-will to them, but because they judged it necessary, after having taken one strong step, not foo hastily 10 proceed to another. We have no accounts with respect to any subscquent procedure in this cause. Fear might at length so far operate on the Culdees, as to pro uce their submission. We learn, that, when William Wishart was postulated to the see of St. Andrews, Wat 'his

. election or postulation [A. 1272,] the ancient Culdees were not allowed to yote."


289. • Notwithstanding this exclusion, the Culdecs “ neglected to make any appeal, till the year 1297, and then they sent their provost or prior, William Cuming, to plead their cause at Rome, before Pope Boni. face VIII.; where they lost their plea, non utendo jure suo, because they had suffered two former elections to proceed without thein, and entered their appeal only against the third.”

• As it appears that these religious were ' by no means indifferent with respect to their rights, we can account for their listlessness, in this instance, in no other way, than by concluding, that, from the spirit which was manifesed in the management of their cause, as narrated

above, they had for a long time viewed it as hopeless. Either from the more sanguine temper of Cuming their prior, or from his supposed interest, as it was a powerful name in that age, or from some other circumstance now buried in oblivion, they had been induced, after a silence of twenty-five years, to try the effect of an appeal to Rome. But their cause, it would appear, had been finally determined there long before.

• It has been generally supposed that, from their defeat at Rome, we are to date their extinction. But, from certain articles in the Index to the Extracts from the Register of St. Andrew, Sir James Dalrymple concludes, that they continued in that city for some time after this. One article is Decisio contraversiæ inter Keledeos et Episcopum de jurisdictione agri per Thomam Ranulphum Guardionem citra mare Scottorum, An, 1309.« This,” he says, 66 behoved to be with William Lamberton." He mentions another, of which if the contents were known, it would throw much light on the whole matter. This is, Petitio Keldeorum, et subjectio eorum Episcopo Sancti Andreæ.

This last has evidently been their dirge. pp. 289, 290.

From what we have formely seen, " it is plain,” as Sir James Dal. rymple has observed, “ that the Culdees continued till the beginning of the fourteenth century." In this century, he adds, “ Renatus Lolardus appeared in France, and Wicklif in England. - The Lolards appeared in this kingdom under the government of R. D. of Albany ; and shortly thereafter James Resby and Paul Craw were burnt for maintaining these doctrines. In the reigns of James the Third and Fourth, great nuinbers of them appeared in Kyle and Cunningham: and the first beginning of the Reformation of religion was embraced in these districts."

• Here we have a singular proof of the providence of God in preserving the truth in our native country, even during the time that the Man of Sin was reigning with absolute authority over the other nations of Europe ; and in transmitting some of its most important articles at least, nearly to the time of its breaking forth with renewed lustre at the Reformation. It would be inconsistent with the design of this inquiry, to enter into any

discussion with respect to the scriptural warrant for the presbyterian form of government. But it cannot reasonably be supposed, that the memory of the Culdees had, even in the sixteenth century, coinpletely perished in a country, in which, only two centuries before, they had been contending for their ancient rights, not merely in opposition to the whole power of the primacy, but to the additional support of papal authority; and where they seem to have constituted the majority of the ordinary pastors, till within a short time of their overthrow. Although we have no written documents concerning them as a body, later than the beginning of the thirteenth century, it is by no means improbable, that individuals trained up by them, or ad. hering to their principles, continued to discharge the pastoral duties, especially in those places which were more remote from the episcopal seats.

•It is no inconsiderable confirmation of the accounts given of them by our later writers, before the Reformation, how much soever some affect to despise their testimony; and no contemptible proof of the strong bias that was in the mind of the nation in opposition to prelacy; that, as soon

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