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ank of the Housatonic, about a mile above the main village. The first stack on this site was built by the Kent Furnace Company about one hundred years ago, this company being succeeded in 1868 by the Kent Iron Company. Besides Kent ore, this furnace smelted also ores from Ore Hill and Richmond. The furnace went out of blast early in 1892, and the oven pipes were sold to the establishment at Copake. In the summer of 1898 the buildings, which were all in good repair, were in use as tobacco sheds. The second furnace, which stands at Bull's Bridge about four miles southwest of the village of Kent, was built about 1826. It has been abandoned for thirty years and is now in ruins. The third furnace, at Macedonia, about two miles northwest of Kent, was abandoned long ago. All these establishments smelted both Kent and New York


State ores.

It is impossible to give a detailed ac- made later by the Bronson Brothers. It count of all the furnaces of the Housa- would seem that the German goldsmith tonic region, but there is one plant that who superintended the work deceived should not go unmentioned, that is the them for a long time by a pretence of displant at Roxbury for smelting the so-called covering the precious metal. But it is " steel ore" of Mine Hill. Mention has also said that he produced steel for his been made in a previous paper of the lo- tools from the spathic ore of the mine. cation and nature of this deposit of sider- Later an attempt, unsuccessful through ite, and of the great hopes which were lack of skill, was made by a Mr. Bacon based upon it. The mine was opened to produce steel from the ore direct, about 1750 by Hurlbut & Hawley, but, Finally, at a later date, D. J. Styles sucstrange to say, it was in the endeavor to ceeded in making good steel from the obtain silver. A second attempt was



The works which are now standing were Though it is quite possible to obtain a not begun until 1865, and at the very out- fairly complete list of the blast-furnaces set the company imported from Germany which have been built in the state, it is six of Krupp's skilled workmen to take quite a different maiter to obtain the data charge of the smelting. This furnace, of the forges and refineries. The former which was of the cold-blast type, pro- were the more primitive devices which, duced successfully about ten tons of ex- at great loss of ore and fuel, obtained cellent pig-iron daily, but the Germans wrought-iron directly from the ore. Since failed to accomplish that for which the they came earlier and were more numerworks were primarily built, the conversion ous than the furnaces, the data concernof this iron into steel. A refining or ing them are more difficult to obtain. I “puddling" furnace was therefore built, have mentioned a number of them, but the pig was converted into wrought iron, beside these there seems to have been a and this having been sent to the com- great many scattered through all the pany's works at Bridgeport, was subse- region of western Connecticut. Before quently converted into good steel. The 1800 the town of New Milford alone had German workmen for their failure to pro- seven furges, and at one time Litchfield duce steel from the pig-iron direct, were County contained as many as fifty. By discharged. The next superintendent, refineries are meant establishments for against the wishes of all concerned, con- making wrought-iron from the pig-iron of verted the furnace into a hot-blast furnace the furnaces. Shepard, in his report, with disastrous results. The amount of states that most of the iron from the furiron produced fell to two or three tons a naces of the town of Salisbury was sent to day, and this fact, combined with the Winsted and Canaan to be refined into great drop in the price of iron, induced bar-iron for musket and rifle barrels, and the company to shut down the furnaces. for innumerable commercial purposes. The steel works have been abandoned for There were refineries at Mount Riga, and about twenty years, and are fast falling unquestionably at other places. Certain into decay.

it is that from the Salisbury region for In the first article of this series suffi- years the government arsenals at Spring, cient mention was made of the lesser field and Harper's Ferry were supplied efforts in the way of iron mining and with metal suitable for gun barrels, in fact, smelting which were made in different this has been one of the chief uses for the parts of the state, such as the handling of iron of western Connecticut. bog-ore at Stafford and Hebron, and of "The old order changeth, yielding place magnetic sand at Killingworth and Volun

to new." town. These enterprises, though very in- The great Pennsylvania plants turn out teresting historically, were of small com

in a day more iron than the best Connecmercial importance when compared with ticut furnace ever put out in a month. those of the western part of the state, and Yet the cold and crumbling stacks along even from the historical standpoint they the Housatonic have done their work and occupy a minor position. The works at have earned their rest. They saw the Stafford were the only ones of importance, youth of the nation; they forged for its where was made a large amount of hollow hand the implements of war and peace, ware which was sent all over the state.

and its glorious history is theirs. And These furnaces long ago went out of blast. perhaps it is fitting that with the passing

of the wooden frigate should pass the ancient industry that gave her her anchor and her guns. Honor alike to the mouldering hull of the “Constitution " and to the crumbling stack of Mount Riga furnace, comrades of war who entered into their rest.

of Connecticut;” Bishop's “History of American Industries; “Salisbury Iron,” reprinted from the Railway Gazette of New York, 1883; “Salisbury,” by Ellen Strong Bartlett, Connecticut Quarterly, Vol. IV., No. 4. Also to the kindness of Judge Donald J. Warner, of Salisbury; Mr. James E. Barker, of Chapinville; Mr. J. T. Fuller, founder at East Canaan; Mr. George R. Bull, of Kent Furnace; Mr. Elisha Potter, of Bull's Bridge; Col. A. L. Hodge, of Roxbury Station; the Barnum, Richardson Company, of Lime Rock, and many others.


In the preparation of these papers I am indebted for valuable information to Shepard's “ Report on the Geological Survey

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boy life.

has travelled extensively in this country Mr. Dick had camped in his boyhood and abroad, making a special study of in the west, and had also cruised much

on the Hudson River, and he determined Eight years ago while a professional to organize a summer camp to meet the student in Yale University he became need that he felt existed. This camp he greatly impressed with the need of pro- located on Manhannock Island, in Lake viding a place where the sons of the well- Winnepesaukee, N. H., and named it to-do class of people, between 10 and 18 “Camp Idlewild." years of age, could spend their summer The camp had a small beginning, the vacation months free from the evil asso- first year there being but a few boys in

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camp with Mr. Dick; the second year fish, row, swim, and do all other reasonable there was almost double the number, and things that to a boy's mind constitutes each succeeding year the number has in- “camping out," and are taught by such creased, until last summer it was impos- associations to recognize Nature's Creasible to provide for all who desired to tor and Ruler. To this there is added attend.

the companionship of other boys of good Connecticut is specially interested in tendencies under the christian supervision Camp Idlewild because its originator and of men of broad culture and liberal eduowner is located in Hartford and is so cation. Camp Idlewild is not a camp for well known throughout the state, and also unruly boys No boy is accepted who is because of the fact that of the thirteen not a gentleman, and immoral conduct of states represented during the past eight any kind is not tolerated. A number of

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years, Connecticut has stood ai the head gentlemen of means recognizing the value in point of numbers. In the accompany- of this sort of life for boys have shown ing picture of last summer's group of their interest by providing money for new boys Connecticut is more largely repre- buildings and for proper facilities for athsented than any other state.

letics, so that now the boys have an elaboThe object of the camp is to afford a rately equipped encampment. The aim pleasant and profitable place for the boys has been to charge the boys who attend to spend their summer vacation, and at sufficient to pay all running expenses, the same time to teach practically that it making possible all the comforts of camp is not necessary to forget the Sabbath and life. Boys may attend for one month, religious habits, nor break out of whole- two, or three months, as they may elect. some restraint. Here they live in tents, For cne month a boy pays sixty dollars,

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