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of Jesus" by Loyola, was contemporary with the Reformation, and its zealous missionaries, enduring every toil with an enthusiasm that enkindled with danger, raised the standard of faith in all parts of the world. Mr. Bancroft gives us a very interesting narrative of the labours of these men in Canada, who are connected with the origin of every town in French America, “not a cape was turned, nor a river entered, but a Jesuit led the way.” Brebeuf and Daniel, and the “gentler Lallemand,” were amongst the first who encountered the horrors of the wilderness. Their journey by the Ottowa river was one of constant fatigue. Continually encountering waterfalls, where they were obliged to carry their canoe on their shoulders, and often dragging it by hand over shallows and rapids and the sharpest stones, they slowly advanced with their bruised and mangled feet; yet not in any degree fainting by the way, but with the breviary hung around the neck, and their courage supported by their undying faith, they resolutely advanced from Quebec to the heart of the Huron wilderness. It was to the north-west of Lake Toronto, near the shore of Lake Iroquois, that they erected the first chapel, “ the cradle of His church which dwelt at Bethlehem in a cottage;" and here did they begin to chaunt the matins and vespers, and to consecrate the sacred bread by solemn mass before multitudes of the Huron warriors, who gazed with awe and admiration upon their rites. The hunter listened to the tale of our Saviour's death, and soon a feeling was raised in his breast to mingle his prayers with the holy fathers. Not very long after, two Christian villages, St. Louis and St. Ignatius, rose'up in the Huron forest. The life of the missionary was calm and uniform.
“The earliest hours, from four to eight, were absorbed in private prayer; the day was given to schools, visits, instructions in the catechism and a service for proselytes. Sometimes, after the manner of St. Francis Xavier, Brebeuf would walk through the village and its environs, ringing a little bell, and inviting the Huron braves and councillors to a conference. There, under the shady forest, the most solemn mysteries of the Catholic faith were subjected to discussion. It was by such means that the sentiment of piety was unfolded in the breast of the great Warrior of Ahasistari ; nature had planted in his mind the seeds of religious faith. Before you came to this country,' he would say, 6 when I have incurred the greatest perils and have alone escaped, I have said to myself, • Some powerful spirit has the guardianship over my days;' and he professed bis belief in Jesus, as the good genius and protector whom he had before unconsciously adored. After the trials of his sincerity, he was baptised, and enlisting a troop of converts, savages like himself, 'Let us strive,' he exclaimed, ' to make the whole world embrace the faith in Jesus.'"--Vol. 3, p. 125.
The news of the successful labours of the pious fathers awakened the liveliest interest and enthusiasm in France. Measures were taken for the establishment of a college in New France. The Duchesse d’Aiguillon, aided by her uncle, Richelieu, endowed a public hospital, and the nuns of the hospital of Dieppe were selected (the eldest only twenty-nine) to exercise their patient benevolence in attending to the wants of the sick and afflicted, and the doors of the hospital were thrown open, not only to the emigrants, but to the numerous tribes who might require assistance. We are compelled to pass over the interesting account of the various missions which were undertaken in the service of God. The adventures of La Salle and the fate of his companions will reward the reader who should peruse them. The history of the tribes of America and their character and natural endowments is too well known to need our dwelling upon them; to this, however, Mr. Bancroft has added a slight account of their language and dialects. We merely glance at the war between the French and Natchez in 1729. Loubois completed the destruction of this unhappy nation, and the Great Sun, with about four hundred prisoners, were sent to Hispaniola, and sold as slaves. In 1738 the progress of the Anglo-American colonies was very perceptible. During that year were built at Boston forty-one topsail vessels, their burden altogether amounting to about six thousand three hundred and twenty-four tons. The increase of the colonies caused great astonishment in England. At the peace of Utrecht, the Anglo-Americans amounted to about four hundred thousand, and before it was again broken, their numbers were doubled. Free schools and colleges were established, and to the excellent and liberal-hearted Berkeley was Rhode Island indebted for the endowment of a library, and New York for a college. The press began to put forth its mighty powers; on the fourth day of April, 1704, was published the first newspaper in the new world, entitled “ The Boston NewsLetter.” In 1740 the number had increased to eleven. The subject of newspapers leads Mr. Bancroft to expatiate upon the character of Franklin, upon whom he pronounces a just encomium, and whose writings and life are now exhibited in a complete form by the biographer of Washington, Mr. Jared Sparks. Not long after this period, the abrogation of the charters was menaced, but the bill was dropped, chiefly through the eloquent tongue of Jeremiah Dummer, a native of New England. No attempt was made by England to tax America, although urged at one time by Sir William Keith, formerly governor of Pennsylvania. He suggested to the king, that the duties on stamps and
ister. In 1740 the heads Mr. Bauchet pronounces a un
parchments should be extended to America, but the commissioners of trade gave no heed to it. Sir Robert Walpole's policy was of a different nature.
“I will leave," said he," the taxing of the British colonies for some of my successors, who may have more courage than I have, and be less a friend to commerce than I am. It has been a maxim with me, during my administration, to encourage the trade of the American colonies to the utmost latitude. Nay, it has been necessary to pass over some irregularities in their trade with Europe ; for, by encouraging them in an extensive, growing foreign commerce, if they gain five hundred thousand pounds, I am convinced that in two years afterwards, full two hundred and fifty thousand pounds of this gain will be in bis majesty's exchequer by the labour and produce of this kingdom, as immense quantities of every kind of our manufactures go thither; and as they increase in the foreign American trade, more of our produce will be wanted. This is taxing them more agreeably to their own constitution and laws.”-vol. iii. p. 383.
The result was that a tax was levied on America through its consumption. The law was exercised in the extreme point, and every form of competition in industry was discouraged. In 1719 the House of Commons declared “that erecting of manufactories in the colonies tended to lessen their dependance on Great Britain.” Then succeeded the favouritism shown by England to the sugar colonies, which was followed by the tax on consumption. The consequence of this commercial dependence was that the colonies contracted a debt with the mother country, which increased in proportion to the rigour with which the law was enforced.
The colonial credit-system is well treated by the author, and it led to the collisions between the colonies and England which, our readers will remember, took place in the reign of Queen Anne; but the chief subject of dispute was in the mercantile system and its consequences.
The latter portion of the third volume again takes up the subject of the slave trade, in which England so earnestly sought a monopoly in the same reign. Our limits will only permit us to notice the interesting foundation of Georgia, the thirteenth colony. In the days of George the Second the crime of poverty yearly sent about four thousand unhappy men to prison. The subject earnestly engaged the attention of the philanthropic James Oglethorpe, a member of parliament, and a man whose energy of mind and nobleness of disposition enabled him to carry out his benevolent design. His plans were that a colony should be formed of the multitudes he rescued from the horrors of gaol, together with the persecuted Protestants of England. Many sought to have a share in this excellent enterprise A charter was obtained, dated the ninth day of June, 1732, placing the country between the Savannah and the Alatamaha under the guardianship of a corporation for twenty-one years.' Their common seal, with a group of silk-worms on one side, and on the reverse the motto, “ Non sibi, sed aliis,” shows their disinterested purposes. They also expressly refused any grants of lands or emolument. i Oglethorpe devoted himself entirely to the fulfilment of his design, and in November, 1732, embarked with one hundred and fifty emigrants. Their voyage was favourable and they arrived in safety, and thus began the commonwealth of Georgia. The description of the emigration of the gentle Moravians for the Savannah is so agreeably written that we will give one more extract. 's Instansu i . .. 1 ! pos!!!!! 4. " On the last day of October, 1733, "the evangelical community,' well supplied with Bibles and hymn-books, catechism's and books of devotion--conveying in one 'waggon their few chattels, in two other covered ones their feebler companions, and especially their little onesafter a discourse, and prayers, and benedictions, cheerfully, and in the name of God, began their pilgrimage, History need not stop to tell what cbarities cheered them on their journey, what towns were closed against them by Roman Catholic magistrates, or how they entered Frankfort on the Maine, two by two in solemn procession, and singing spiritual songs. As they floated down the Maine and between the castled crags, the vineyards and the white-walled towns that adorn the båuks of the Rhine, their conversation, amidst hymns and prayers, was of justification and of sanctification and of standing fast in the Lord. At Rotterdam they were joined by two preachers, Bolzius and Gronau, both disciplined in charity at the Orphan House in Halle. A passage of six days carried them from Rotterdam to Dover, where several of the trustees visited them and provided considerably for their wants. In January, 1734, they set sail for their new homes. The majesty of the ocean quickened their sense of God's omnipotence; and, as they lost sight of land, they broke out into a hymn to bis glory. The setting sun, after a calm, so kindled the sea and sky, that words could not express their rapture, and they cried out How lovely the creation ! how infinitely lovely the Creator !' When the wind was adverse they prayed, and as it changed one opened his mind to the other on the power of prayer, even the prayer of a man subject to like passions as we are.' As the voyage excited weariness, a devout listener confessed himself to be an unconverted man; and they reminded bim of the promise to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit and trembleth at the word. As they sailed pleasantly with a favouring breeze, at the hour of evening prayer they made a covenant with each other, like Jacob of old, and resolved, by the grace of Christ, to cast all the strange gods which were in their
hearts into the depths of the sea. A storm grew so high that not a sail could be set; and they raised their voices in prayer and song amidst the tempest: for to love the Lord Jesus as a brother gave consolation. At Charleston, Oglethorpe bade tbem welcome, and in five days more the wayfaring men, whose home was beyond the skies, pitched their tents near Savannab."-Pol. iii. pp. 423, 424.
The remaining portion of the third volume is occupied with the invasion of Florida by Oglethorpe, and that of Georgia by the Spaniards. The expedition against Louisburg by New England and the ill-success of the French fleets conclude the history of the colonization of the United States brought up to the period of the congress held at Aix-la-Chapelle, which was to restore tranquillity to the civilized world after the long war between England and France and the other powers of Europe. The tide of human events was to be changed by a youth at that time unknown and unheard of. George Washington, the son of a widow, born at Potomac, whose early life was passed in the forests, was destined to be the means of raising up a dependent people into a vation which, casting aside all the dignified position of a monarchy, took a firm hold upon it's soil with democracy as it's basis. At this point Mr. Bancroft pauses in his labours, and will recommence the subject with the Independence of the Colonies and the History of the American Revolution. We look forward with pleasure to the continuation of the work, which, if prosecuted with the same research and attention he has already evinced, will meet with general approbation, and form a valuable addition to Transatlantic history.