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of supremacy in the petty domains of Maurice, to which a far less ambitious and able prince would not have submitted. How far these inroads were agreeable lo Maurice, as furnishing him with a pretext for extending his dominions, we are unable at this length of time to decide. His letters and documents, several of which are now for the first time published, breathe a spirit of peace and a desire for reconciliation ; but we must not forget that Maurice's powers of dissimulation even imposed upon that great master of the art, Charles the Fifth himself. When the emperor had resolved upon dethroning the elector, Maurice's repeated refusal to assume the title, although decorous, was certainly not very sincere. The commencement of the difference must certainly be attributed to Jobn Frederic, and not to Maurice.

Nor was the manner in which these two princes, both worthy of admiration, viewed the Reformation, less diametrically opposite. John Frederic was devoted heart and soul to the new doctrines, and considered any temporizing measures, although dictated by necessity, almost as a sin against providence; Maurice, whose distinguished genius displayed itself at an early age, was brought up at no less than five differeut courts, and it is by no means improbable that the marks of esteem and affection which be received in his youth from both the religious parties, may have inspired him with toleration. Less of a zealot than his kinsman, and conscious of bis superiority to the emperor in the arts of policy and dissimulation, it is not to be wondered at tbat be preferred and proposed to consider the questions in dispute more by means of diplomacy than of theology. Nor must we forget that at a later period of his life, when the Protestants were most virulent against him, the opinions of Melancthon coincided with those of Maurice. His refusal to continue in the league of Smalcalden, may likewise be rationally explained. He united in his own person rapidity of execution with prudence of resolve, and bad the league elected him for their commander, a happier result might have been anticipated. But what likelihood was there that his kinsman, who had proved so jealous of his own prerogatives that he bad exceeded his just rights, would wave his pretensions in favour of a mere youth, and that youtb his rival ? · These and the other features in the life of Maurice are treated with ability and impartiality by Dr. von Langenn, who had previously established his claim to the character of a patriotic investigator of Saxon history in his life of Duke Albert. Dr. von Langenn is tutor to Prince Albert of Saxony (who is probably destined one day to ascend the throne of that country), and the liberal and enlightened views which he displays in the work before us afford the best guarantee of success in his honourable office. If he has not succeeded in clearing the memory of Maurice from all the clouds which overshadowed it, he has placed before us in a clear and striking manner, the difficulties by which that prince was surrounded-difficulties internal and external, which it was perhaps impossible to surmount, without adopting a line of conduct, wbich, in less complicated and less troubled times, might justly demand a much severer judgment.

Arr. XI.—Neapel und die Neapolitaner, oder Briefe aus Neapel in die

Heimath von Dr. Karl August Mayer. (Naples and the Neapolitans, in a Series of Letters by Dr. C. X. Mayer.) Erster Band. Olden

burg. 1840. This agreeable volume, from the pen of one who is thoroughly master of bis subject, bas refreshed our recollections of Italy. On foot, on horseback, or in carriage, we have traversed no inconsiderable portion of the southern part of the peninsula, and we can recommend the author as a trust-worthy guide on subjects on which Mrs. Starke," the Queen of Sorrento,” as sbe was called in our day, is naturally silent. On the bigh road and in the beaten track frequented by the swarm of annuals, the national character does not appear to advantage. The love of gain bas called forth the weaknesses, or if you will, the vices of the inhabitants, whilst their good qualities only show themselves on a longer acquaintance. Added to this, the difficulty of understanding the dialects of the country, even to those who have made themselves masters of pure Tuscan, is very great. After some study of the language and a diligent attendance at the little Teatro San Carlino, where we promise our unfastidious readers much amusement, unless our old favourites, Pulcinello, Colombina, Trivella, and Arlecchino, have changed their nature, we buckled on our knapsack and trudged through the Abruzzi, although our good friends, the artists in Rome, represented the tour as dangerous. We cannot say we found it so, we were unmolested, and found the people friendly and hospitable.

We were amply indemnified, by the beauty of the scenery, for the many inconveniences which a pedestrian must expect to encounter in districts where a horse is still called a vettura, carriages being still unknown there. Our pompous title of eccellenza, more frequently cut down to lenza, which had so often been bawled in our ears by coachmen, shoeblacks, lazzaroni, and id genus omne, on the Toledo and elsewhere, dwindled down into the simple appellation of galantuomo, the lowest term of aclress wbicb tbat polite people adopt. The hospitality of the people was sometimes painful. We frequently found, on having taken our meals with respectable inhabitants who were travelling in the same direction, that, on rising, our bill had been paid, nor could we ever on such occasions prevail upon the host or hostess to accept even of a buona mano. On conversing with an agreeable family, with whom we travelled for some time, on their road to a fête in honour of St. Justus, we were informed that according to the customs of the country, a stranger had the right of entering any house he liked, and was welcome as long as be chose to stay, but that the suspicions of the government, by rendering every one responsible for the political opinions of his guests, were gradually operating a change in national manners. We once had a warm dispute with a Neapolitan officer, who insisted on doing the honours, to wbich we submitted on a promise that be and his party would be our guests at a parting supper. They readily consented, when lo and behold, after a merry meal, they pulled out their purses. This was going too far, but we were reduced to a reluctant submission by the observa

tion, “Don Enrico, we doubt not that you mean it kindly, but you must allow me to tell you, that according to the custom of tbe country, if you say a word more, I must consider it as a personal offence." Let those blame the Neapolitans who like, we should be ungrateful if we did not acknowledge the many good offices we have received from them and from their antipodes, the Sicilians. In such excursions, a knowledge of the language, a cheerful disposition, and a disregard of numerous little inconveniences, are indispensable ; he who remains on the high road sees little more of the real character of the people than if he had remained in London.

With respect to the danger attendant on such excursions, we do not consider it as very great ; much will depend on the state of the country, and much on the prudence of the traveller. The introduction or improvement of roads will do much in this respect, although in 1834 the carriage of the King of Naples was plundered on the high road near that nest of infernal looking fellow's, Itri. A knowledge of the value of money is requisite, nor would we recommend the traveller to display large sums of it in a country wbere absolution may be obtained for a few crowns. Carelessness on the part of a foreigner in this respect caused the murder of a poor muledriver during our trip through Sicily. It is right to observe, that this foreigner was not an Englisbman, and that he bebaved with the greatest liberality to the widow of the murdered mao.

With respect to cleanliness, matters are much improved of late years in some hotels in the principal cities; yet those who wish to pass through the world without being intimate with “man's familiars," would do better to remain in more northern climates. Yet we can hardly even now refrain from a laugh at the woeful address of our fellow traveller to our portly hostess at Arpino, Cicero's birthplace. “Mamma mia, quanti pulci arete ?" "Eh! figlio mio," was the unexpected reply, “anche in paradiso sono le pulci." We do not know whether we may venture upon a translation to prudish English ears;, they will prove a mere fleabite to those accustomed to Italian freedom.

On the Neapolitan Apennines, the climate is very various. On returning from Sicily, through Calabria, we came to the lofty hamlet of Terioli, some thousand feet above the sea. It was in June, and on complaining of the cold to a sturdy mountaineer, who with his peaked hat and musket might almost bave passed for a Tyrolese, he said, “ Avimmo undici misi di friddo, ed uno di frisco"-(We bave eleven months cold weather and one month fresh.) La bella Italia thought we, and whilst we were quietly eating our luncheon, we received the agreeable intelligence that a band of robbers had made their appearance. Sono gente nel puese-(There are people in the country), was the pithy information, the purport of which was rendered more important by the gestures which accompanied it. As there were ladies of the party, and the robbers had but two days before carried off four women, we thought it best to present our letter of recommendation to the governadore, who assured us that the report was not true, and that be bad received orders to punish the authors of it. Alas ! for the trustworthiness of official information in this country; the very place was pointed out to us in the VOL. XXVII. NO. LIV.

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course of the day, and we were heartily glad when we arrived at our night's quarters, for, although it is very agreeable to talk of past escapes, yet until you are quite certain that there will be an escape, the subject is not quite so inviting. We afterwards learned that the government, in order to encourage travellers to frequent the tben recently finished road through Calabria and Basilicata to Naples, made a point of discrediting all reports of the kind, and a friend of ours who made the journey two years before we did, heard a shot and found the rifled traveller still warm.

Yet although we willingly do justice to the air of Naples, the deep blue of her seas, the varied tints which play in magic light upon the mountains at the enchanting hour of sunset, it is only with sorrow that we look upon the condition of the people. Like their own fertile land, good qualities, and many of them, lie in ricb profusion on the surface, rendering a short and transient acquaintance delightful. But to the deeper observer there is much to give pain. It would seem that the people had never recovered the shock wbich the moral degradation of the last centuries of the Roman empire communicated from its corrupt source. Many of the vices of that period are known otberwise than by tradition, and although the exceptions may be numerous, would seem to have struck deep root in this beautiful country. We should not despair of their regeneration under a better government, or rather if the vital principle did not slumber, such government could not so long bare existed. The same energy which defeated the different attempts to introduce the inquisition has not shown itself in other matters. The papal rule presses like a nightmare in the southern ecclesiastical dominions, and the Neapolitans, with the present king at their head, bave, with all their better qualities, but too much resemblance with their pational hero Pulcinello. And yet, when we read, in Colletta, the tragedies of which fair Naples has in tbe present century so often been a witness, his affectionate regret for the good and virtuous who perished in their visionary schemes of regeneration, which must ever be hopeless until a moral interest is taken by the government in the improvement of the lower classes, let us not envy the careless child of the south his dolce far niente.

Art. XII.-1. Archivio Storico Italiano, ossia Raccolta di Opere e Docu

menti finora inediti u divenuti rarissimi riguardante la Storia d'Italia ; compilata da una Società di Amici e Cultori della medesima. (Italian Historical Archives, or Collection of Works and Documents at present unpublished or scarce, in relation to Italian History; compiled

by a Society of Friends and Students of the same.) Florence, 1841. 2. Le Storie di Jacopo Petti. Florence. 1841. 3. Tarole Sinottiche e Sincrone della Storia Fiorentina, compilati da Alfredo

Reumont. (Synoptic and Synchronous Tables of Florentine History.) 4. Italy. General Views of its History and Literature, in reference to

its Present State, by L. Mariotti. 2 vols. London. Tue first of the works before us will be found to contain both interesting and original information on many obscure Italian subjects. It is nie

1041.

lancholy to trace that since the days of Manzoni and Pellico, Italy bas scarce produced one original work, but confines herself to those branches of archæological research, which at least indicate what her feelings are as to the past sources of her glory. It is our intention, provided Italian inertness will pernit us, to investigate shortly what is doing in all her universities, and to see whether the fearful palsy that pervades the literary mind of Italy be in all respects co-extensive there with other parts. The remaining works at the head of this article are devoted to the illustration of Florentine History, and the second contains genealogical trees of the Medici, and the other illustrious families of that city. The last work is by an Italian gentleman resident in this country, bit contains more information on the subject on which it treats, and more references to the modern position of Italy, than we have seen in any recent production. It is written by him in Englisli, in which lauguage he has attained an astonishing proficiency, even to composition in verse, and his own pure Italian freedom of speech and pained sentiments at the lumiliation of his country, bursting forth with vative eloquence and singular English expressions, rather enhance the beauty of the work, in our notions, than deteriorate from it. He has divided his work into five periods. Ist. The middle ages. 2nd. The age of liberty, embracing the glory of the Italian republics, from the first sanctioning of the independence of the Lombard cities at the peace of Constance in 1183, down to the last agony of liberty at Florence under the repeated assaults of papal perfidy and imperial violence in 1530, the period Sismondi has illustrated. 3rd. The age of domestic tyranny of the Este and Medici, which he calls the “ age of splendor," commencing with the first Cosmo and his grandson, Lorenzo dei Medici, embracing the period of Leo X. ; of the first and second Alphonso of Ferrara, down to the last patronage granted to literature by the Dukes of Savoy, by the patrician aristocracy at Venice, and at Rome in the days of Christina of Sweden. 4th. The age of foreign dominion or decline, commencing with the invasion of Charles VIII. and ending with the French revolution. 5th. Revival of Italy from the days of Ferdinand and Leopold of Tuscany, of Francis I. and Joseph II. of Austria, through the convulsions of the French Revolution to the present tinie. We shall proceed to notice a few points in our author's narrative. His observations at the cominencement of his work on the Italian cities are extremely beautiful. Thus on Venice:

“ Venice owing, as we have seen, her origin to the barbaric invasions, was perhaps the only spot in all Italy pure from barbaric mixture. The Venetian aristocracy, the noblest of all aristocracies, hardened by the constant exertions demanded by their situation, inflamed by a sincere, though perhaps selfish patriotism, displayed for a long time a valour worthy of a better fate. The dark and bloody policy which stained the last period of that ill-fated republic, has been, we think, too long exposed and execrated, even to exaggeration; and it is full time that peace should be granted at least to the memory of Venice, since little more than her memory remains. Her native element, the sea, is now receding from her lagoons, like a faithless friend in the hour of adversity, and she lies down lifeless and mute, a spectre city, insensible of her rapid decay,--dead almost to the fondest hopes and to the revengeful wrath univer

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