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a second time on the loss of his wife, and unlawful also for any woman to marry again on the loss of her husband. These ridiculous opinions owe their birth to the before-mentioned cause, of taking words by the sound, instead of the sense—the usual consequence of detaching scripture from scripture, not comparing it with itself, by taking the whole together. By this, men may prove—quidlibet ex quolibet—(t ivhat they please from what they "please-"—and this is the sheet-anchor of error, as well as of many monstrous practices, and so has been in all ages; they can be maintained no other way. The whole doctrine of transubftantiation, absurd as it is in all its parts, is held together by the found of Hoc est corpus meum —This is my body.—The found of hareticum devita, in a Latin version of Tit. iii. 10. has authorized the most barbarous murders of thousands, who have been burned alive by the inquisition, under the denomination of heretics. It has been made to signify heereticum de vita—an heretic from life; that is—put him from life—kill him.—Thus, by separating the word devita, and turning the last two syllables into the substantive vita, the preposition de just answered the purpose. A less tragical consequence of this method
of interpretation is related by Erasmus. He tells of a friar preaching from those words of Christ, Luke xvii. 17. which stand in some Latin versions— Nonne decem faSli funt * mundi—who began to prove there are ten worlds. An arch fellow standing by, stopped his mouth with the following words—Sed ubifunt novem f—but where are the nine f
Dr. Hammond, in his note on 1 Tim. iii. 2. fays—" What is the meaning of
'|U./ac yvvxiKos dvyp—the husband of one
'wife—both here and ver. 12, and Tit.
1 i. 6. and of evoc dv<$pc; ywvj—the wife of
* one husband, chap. v. 9. will not easily 'be resolved." But surely all difficulty
vanishes, when the whole is taken together; and it is observed from the original in what different tenses the verbs yivoficu and Etfxi are used. This shews that the apojlle, 1 Tim. iii. 2, and Tit. i. 6. was describing the situation of the men he was then speaking of, as what // then was —and in 1 Tim. v. 9. that of the widows, as to what /'/ had been. 1 Tim. iii. 2. A*V Kv, Tfiv 'E7ricsK07rov *£INAI nx.u? yvvcaxo; ''Av<!px—A Bi/hop ought to Be (not to Have
* I would just acquaint the unlearned reader, that the substantive mundus signifies a world—the adjective mundus signifies clean.
O 4 Been)
Been) the husband of one wife; and Tit. 1. 6. 'E/ T/f ESTIN fju#? ywoLMo;—if any BE (is) the husband of one wife. ''Fciv being of the present tense, can signify only what a man is at the time spoken of: whereas the expression concerning the women, I Tim. v. 9. is widely different. The woman is called Xvfpx, a widow; and it is observable, that the verb is not expressed as before, either in the infinitive or indicative mood of ''Etfii, to he, but by the participle of the prœteritam, or paji time, of the verb yivofixi, to be or become. —It is ysyovvix—which we have rightly rendered—having been—that is—in time fajl having been or become the wife of one man—a widow, who never had been but once married; not—that had not had two husbands at a time; such a thing was hardly ever heard of, as lawful, even amongst the heathens * themselves. I
* Never among "Jews, or even Turks, was it permitted that the woman should have more than one husband at once. Only among the barbarians there is mention of the UoKvttvJpot, a people so called, because the wife among them them had many hujbands. So among the Medes, that dwelt in the mountains, it is said a woman was married to five husbands at once,. See Hammond on i Tim. iii. 2. Montesquieu mentions the tribe of the Naires, on the coast of Malabar, where the women have
would therefore harmonize and paraphrase the whole as follows :—" Foras"much as all things are to be done decently "and in order, (i Cor. xiv. 40.) but this "cannot be, unless some proper form of "government be established; it is ne"cessary that proper officers be api* pointed to administer that government. "Some who are to be—'et/o-koto*— f* overseers of the whole; others kiccKcvoi, "Deacons, or inferior serving ministers '* under them. The first order of men ■' are to overlook the clergy, as well as "the laity—to preach the word—admi*' nister the sacraments, and to have '.* power to censure evil doers, even as far *' as excommunication, the church agreeing "thereto, 1 Cor. v. 4, 5. Such an *' office should, doubtless, be filled with *' men of irreproachable characters, and "of such conduct and dispositions as *■■' to be in all respects blameless, not only "for the better maintenance of their "authority, but also for the influence of "their example. As such an office must
many husbands. Sp. of Laws, vol. i. p. 374, octavo. But all this is as contrary to nature itself, as the custom of some of the Indian women's drowning their children in the Ganges, or exposing them to wild beasts to be devoured.
c "moreover '* moreover require great attention, those "mould be chosen, who are entangled "as little as possible in the affairs of "this life, 2 Tim. ii. 4. Therefore, *' though for this reason Jingle men ** might in general answer the purpose "best, (1 Cor. vii. 33.) yet it may be "expedient, in some instances, to chuse "married men into the offices of Bi/hops "and Deacons. Where this is the cafe, "the election should not be made of ** such of the Christians as have more ** than one wife, as such a situation must "necessarily involve the person in more «« -worldly care, than can be consistent "with a due attention to that care, "which must come upon them daily, re"specting the church. Therefore, the "having more than sne wife mould al"ways be considered as a bar to a man's ** election, either to the office of a Bi*' Jhop or of a Deacon, (1 Tim. iii. 12.); *' for though these last may not have so *' extensive a jurisdiction, yet, what with "preaching the word—assisting the Bi~ "Jhops and elders—visiting the lick—and *■* distributing the church's alms to the *' poor—one wife and family is as much "as can be at all considered consistent "with any tolerable diligence in the du« "ties of a Deacons office.