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Over Land and Sea. one hundred and eighty feet. This im
mense arcade is lined with tempting By Edw. A. Gernant.
stores of every imaginable industry, and
here at all hours of the day and night XVII. AMBROSE AND BORROMEO.
the dark-eyed Milanese belles in their
bright veils and low-necked bodices enMilan is said to be the best-paved gage in the enjoyments of that univercity in Europe. This is saying a great sal feminine paradise - shopping. The deal, for it must be remembered that Galleria was begun in 1865 and named even in Ireland streets, such as one finds in honor of the late king. Always a among the best in our American cities, place of resort and more or less thronged; would not be tolerated in a town of or in the evening the sight is especially dinary size and importance. In Milan brilliant. Then upwards of two thouanything like mud is impossible. From sand gas jets illumine the spacious arside to side the smooth hard stones form cade, lighting up the decorated and a solid road-bed which has become frescoed walls, causing the numerous firmer and smoother, as the centuries memorial statues to glow with lifo and advance. The streets decline towards glinting across the richly-colored mosaic the centre, where there are narrow slit-flooring. like openings, through which the rain No matter from what direction you passes into the sewers below. Thus approach Milan, the spires and statues there are neither curb-stones nor gutters. of its great Cathedral confront the eye. Along the houses the streets are laid Of world-wide celebrity and unequalled with smooth granite blocks, forming a splendor it is perhaps the city's chief foot-path about six feet wide on either glory. But there is one other church side. Between these the balance of the of even greater interest to the student street is uniformly paved with very of ecclesiastical history. Although of small and regular round stones, hard no great size or beauty it is indeed a as a rock, but easy for horses. The city shrine where Romanist and Protestant being almost perfectly level, there is alike may feel a common possession and but little or no resistance to rapid tiavel- rejoice in the Catbolicity of their faith ing. Every night the streets are swept This is the church of St. Ambrose, and washed, and even during the day venerable as the good bishop himself men may be seen going up and down from whom it takes its name. It was the principal thoroughfares cleansing dedicated by that most irreproachable and sprinkling. The house drainage is of early Church fathers on the ninecarried into the sewers by means of teenth of June, A.,D. 387, and is accorunderground pipes. The Milanese may dingly one of the most satisfying speciperhaps not be less lazy than their mens of primitive Christian architeccountrymen, but they certainly are not ture. Although it has undergone redirty.
pairs several times since then, it has In round pumbers Milan has a popu- never been much altered. Built of lation of about 300,000. During the brick, it is dark and prison-like and last twenty years it has undergone great soberly impressive. Immediately in improvements, and is now one of the front an arcaded court-yard reminds leading commercial cities in Italy. In one of the time, when the candidates for the domain of art it has ever maintained baptism, still under instruction, were & front rank. To its position in this not yet admitted into the sanctuary regard we shall have occasion to refer proper on all occasions; their novitiate more in detail. The business of Milan or half-Christian status being thus excomes to a focus in, and clusters around, ternally indicated. The interior is unthe Galleria Vittorio Emanuele. This pretentious, and anything but grand. is a truly imposing structure on the Low, wide arches span the ceiling, and north side of the Cathedral, three hun- give the building à vault-like appeardred and twenty yards long and sixteen ance. There is nothing here akin to yards wide. It is built in the form of the gorgeous tinsel of modern Romanism. a Latin cross over the octagonal centre Curious worm-eaten paintings, ancient of which a cupola rices to the height of tombs, and half-defaced inscriptions relieve the solemn plainness. Erected never again to resort to such cruel on the ruins of a temple of Bacchus its i punishment, did he receive restoring general style is Romanesque, the result absolution and readmission into the enpartly, however, of a twelfth century joyment of Christian privileges. St. modification. To the heavy doors or Ambrose was perhaps not altogether gates of the main portal a remarkable without an admixture of ecclesiastical history attaches, which illustrates the pride, but he certainly maintained the stringency of discipline in those early cause of Christian gentleness and mercy days and exalts the piety of the good against the tyranny and rapacity of old saint. About the year 390 the military despotism. “Thus," says emperor Theodosius reigned over a large Hase, "did the church prove, in a time portion of the Roman Empire. Ortho- of unlimited arbitrary power, the refuge dox and God-fearing he was neverthe- of popular freedom, and saints assume less passionate and impetuous. A riot the part of tribunes of the people.” in Thessalonica had excited his anger. There are many objects of interest in In a momentary fit of uncontrollable this old basilica. Rare mosaics dating rage he had ruthlessly caused the mas as early as the fifth century, frescoes, sacre of seven thousand of the inhabi- paintings and statues of New Testament tants, irrespective of age, sex, or degree characters, of our blessed Lord, and of of guilt, and all this notwithstanding numerous primitive saints. In the crypt his promise of unconditional pardon rest the bones of St. Ambrose himself, given to St. Ambrose. Returning to before which we found a changing Milan he proceeded to the Church, in- throng of tourists and pious pilgrims, tending to partake of the Holy Com- a shrine, where Protestant and Romanmunion. And now ensued that most ist alike seemed awed into more or less notable encounter between the purity of respectful silence. Perhaps the most the church on the one hand and the curious relic in the church is a brazen majesty and influence of the state on serpent resting on the top of a detached the other. The good bishop met the column in the nave. Tradition affirms emperor at the doors, closing them in this to be none other than that which his face, refusing admittance, and was erected by Moses in the wilderness. saying: “Sir, let not the splendors of The belief is harmless, yet evidently a your purple robes hinder you from mere superstition, with no shadow of being acquainted with the infirmities of authentic testimony to sustain it. Judged the body which they cover. How will from its own standpoint it is one of the you stretch forth in prayer those bands interesting deceptions, fostered by an that are still reeking with the blood of infallible church. the innocent? How will you presume We made two visits to the great with such hands to receive the sacred Cathedral, and went away each time, Body of our Lord ? How will you lift feeling that we had only begun to appreup His precious Blood to those lipsciate its beauty and realize its extent. which lately uttered so savage a decree It is the third largest church in Europe; for the upjust shedding of so much St. Peter's and the Cathedral at Seville blood ? Depart, therefore, and seek not, alone surpassing it. But one might by a second offence, to aggravate your give dimensions and make specifications former fault.” The mighty Emperor of the cost of its erection, one might go retired, overwhelmed with mortification farther and describe its general style of and grief; not indignant, but conscious construction, and write learnedly of of the enormity of his crime and the nave and transept and apse, of its projustice of the pure-minded bishop's con- bable imitation of the Dom at Cologne demnation and rebuke. Deeply repent and of the later Renaissance modifiing, he put on sack-cloth and subjected cations, one might do all this and even himself to the severest discipline of true more, and yet in the end efford no sorrow for sin. After eight months he proper conception of the wonderful struconce more presented himself before St. ture itself. A vast forest of white Ambrose, and craved the right of fel- marble, with statues for foliage and lowship with the members of the church. mounting tiers of clustered monuments But not until he had faithfully promised, and airy spires for interlocking vines
and undergrowth, it is hard to conceive brace the opportunity. Although ready how any building reared by man could to revere the memory of the great and ever excel it in richness of ornamentation nuble of all ages, and especially of those and minuteness of detail. “This struc- who have fought the goou fight of faith ture,” says Baedeker, "which was found our interest never comprehended the ed by the splendor-loving Gian Gale- ghastly disclosure of robed and be-jewazzo Visconti in 1386, apparently after elled skeletons. Doubtless the early the model of the Cologne Cathedral, fathers and mediæval saints, with whose progressed but slowly owing to the dis- unquiet remains Rome now works her sensions and jealousies of Italian and miracles (?) and fills her coffers, had Northern architects." This last cir- they anticipated such violation of death's cumstance was also the cause of many repose, would have warned future ages, curious apachronisms and inconsisten- even as Shakespeare did, with the promcies, both in style and execution. In ise of a blessing and the menace of a the contemplation of the whole, how curse. ever, these sink away and leave only a The beauty and greatness of the symmetrical and glorious temple. Al Cathedral is perhaps no where so comthough in great part finished towards pletely and satisfactorily realized as the close of the fifteenth century, it is when standing on its roof with its woneven yet undergoing improvement and derful forest of turrets, pinnacles and ornamentation. At the beginning of statues around and beneath one. The the present century Napoleon gave the ascent is gradual and not at all fatiguing. work a mighty impulse, and himself Instead of turning and twisting up a added the tower surmounting the dome narrow circular staircase, you go up a over the High Altar. The interior is square tower, in flights of three or four 480 feet long and 180 feet broad. The straight steps at a time; these succeedground plan is cruciform, the nave and ing flights being separated by wide landtransept being also double-aisled. The ing places. Then to the roof itself isceiling rests upon fifty-two massive pil- like a series of low steps, thirty or forty lars, twelve feet in diameter, surmount- feet wide, and sloping gently towards ed not by the usual frieze and capital, the apex. We mounted at once to the but bearing statues enclosed in canopied upper gallery of the principal tower, niches.
five hundred steps above the mosaic Particulars such as these can easily flooring of the cathedral. A warm, be gathered and are probably not new slow and drizzling rain prevented our to the reader. The marvellous building seeing much of the surrounding landmust be seen to be rightly estimated. scape. On a clear day the Alps and
The lofty arches, lustrous walls and Apennines are plainly visible, not exmagnificently painted windows, shrines, cepting Mont Blanc and the peaks of the sarcophagi and royal tombs give to the Bernese Oberland. But for nearly interior an air of grandeur, which can- half an hour we walked to and fro not be described. The vaulted nave upon the great white roof. The wonrises to the height of 155 feet, and serves drous edifice alone was itself quite to enhance the general effect. Just in enough to detain us. The profusion of front of the choir a circular opening marble balustrades, buttresses, statues surrounded by an ornamental iron rail- and pinnacles is almost incredible. The ing, reveals a subterranean chapel. exterior of the Cathedral is one mass of Here rest the bones of San Carlo Bor- blooming stone. “The wilderness of romeo, Milan's greatest of archbishops. tracery, which surrounds the roof, deliLamps are kept burning before the cately marked against the sky, gives to richly decorated tomb which bears the the whole structure, large and massive celebrated prelate's favorite motto: - as it is, the appearance of being as “Umilitas” — inscribed in golden let-light and fragile as if the first gust of ters. A fee of five francs would have heavy wind might be expected to topple secured the blessed privilege of looking it over.” The exterior walls, though in through the grating upon the relics most elaborately carved, are themselves of good San Carlo, but to us such sights but the rich setting for thousands of have no attraction, and we did not eu-Istatues of every imaginable size and A sudden answer still'd my fear
For it was said to me:
Rejoice, He calleth thee."
subject, each one again in itself a perfect gem of the sculptor's art. Their number has been variously estimated. There are certainly no less than five thousand, and probably many more. Altogether, the Cathedral of Milan, ideally less satisfying than that of Cologne, is one of the most beautiful and remarkable structures ever reared by man. “Perhaps one of its greatest charms," says Sewell, “is, that every part which has yet been completed, has been done in the best way; no expense has been spared; and even in places, where, as the common saying is, no one would notice, it is as delicately carved and ornamented as in the front. The building was raised for the honor of God; and they who planned it knew that His Eye cap see everywhere."
. I felt, Lord, that Thou stoodest still,
Groping Thy feet I sought,
A change came o'er my thought.
“Lord, that I might have sight;
And words of Thine can never fail,
My fears are past and oʻer;
Is on my heart no more.
Free from my old disgrace,
Thy footsteps, Lord, I trace.
PROFESSOR Tait has translated into simple English Mr. Spencer's formula
Thomas Carlyle. of Evolution. It reads thus: “Evolution is a change from a nohowish
BY THE EDITOR. untalkaboutable allalikeness to a somehowish and in general talkaboutable,
A few months ago the sexton of Hadnot-all-a-likeness, by continuous some- dington cathedral (England) said: thing elseifications and stick-togethera “Mr. Carlyle comes here from London now lions."
and then to see this grave. He is a gaunt,
shaggy, weird kind of an old man, looking Receive Thy Sight.
very old the last time he was here-eighty
six--and comes here to this grave all the way My Saviour, what Thou didst of old
from London. Mr. Carlyle himself is to be When Thou wast dwelling here,
brought to be buried with his wife. He comes
here lonesome and alone when he visits his Thou dost yet for them, who bold In faith to Thee draw near.
wife's grave. His niece keeps him company As Thou hadst pity on the blind,
to the gate, but he leaves her there and she According to Thy word,
stays there for him. The last time he was here Thou sufferedst me, Thy grace to find,
I got a sight of him, and he was bowed down Thou Light hast on me pour'd
under his white hairs, and he took his way up by that ruined wall of the old cathedral, and
round there, and in here by the gateway, and Mourning I sat beside the way,
he tottered up here to this spot. Softly spake In sightless gloom apart, And sadness heavy on me lay,
the grave-digger, and paused. Softer still, in
the broad dialect of the Lothians, he proceedAnd longing gnawed my heart ; I heard the music of the psalms
ed: And he stood here awhile in the grass, Thy people sang to Thee,
then he bent over and I saw him kiss the I felt the waving of their palms,
ground,-aye, he kissed it again and again,And yet I could not see.
and he kept kneeling, and it was a long time
before he rose and tottered out of the catheMy pain grew more than I could bear,
dral and wandered through the graveyard to Too keen my grief became,
the gate, where his niece stood waiting for Then I took heart in my despair
him." To call upon Thy name :
It was old Thomas Carlyle, whose “O, Son of David, save and heal,
lonely heart was home-sick for the huAs Thou so ost hast done! 0, dearest Jesus let me feel
man sympathy of his wife, long since My load of darkness gone."
dead. On February 5th he, too, passed
away, at the age of eighty-six yeare. And ever weeping, as I spoke With bitter prayers and sighs,
His wife died in 1866. She was a lineal My stony heart grew soft and broke, descendant of Scotland's great reformer, More earnest yet my cries,
Jobn Knox. He was but thirty-one when he married Jane Welch. Their working farmer, well-booked in his catewedded life was cheerful but childless. chism and in the heroic history of the However his cold, rugged nature might Scotch Covenanters. Of him Carlyle repulse some and provoke bitter attacks says: from others, she always understood him, and could enter into cordial sympathy
“I think of all men I have ever known my
(father was quite the remarkablest. Quite a with him. One day she died suddenly I fart
suddenly farmer sort of person, using vigilant thrift and in a coach, as she was riding through careful husbandry ; abiding by veracity and one of the streets of London. Her death faith, and with an extraordinary insight into was like the setting of a sun in his heart the very heart of things and men. I can reand home, and left him dreary and de
member that from my childhood I was siir. solate. He buried her remains in Had
prised at his using many words of which I
knew not the meaning; and even as I grew to dington church-yard, and marked her manhood I was not a little puzzled by them, grave with a suitable monument. When and supposed that they must be of his own old and grey-headed he said, as he bowed coinage. But later, in my black-leiter readover the dust of his wife, that “the light
ing, I discovered that every one of them I
could recall was of the sound Saxon stock of his life is clean gone out of him.”
which had lain buried, yet fruitful withal and Our young readers may not have most significant in the quick memory of the heard or read much of this noted au- humbler sort of folk." thor. Twenty years ago, his works
“He was an elder of the kirk, and it was rere read more than they are now In very pleasant to see him in his daily and
weekly relations with the minister of the parstyle and views he differs from all other lish. They had been friends from their youth. English authors. His sentences, aside and had grown up together in the service of of Johnson's, are very uneven and jolt-their cominon Master. It was a pleasant thing ing. The reader sometimes moves over
to see the minister in cassock and bands come them like a frontier traveler on his team
forth on the Sabbath dav and stand up to lead
the devotions of his people-preaching to them over a corduroy-road, where the rails
the words of truth and soberness, which he had are laid crosswise. His pen reminds one gained by pains-taking study and devout of the great battle-axe of Richard the prayer to Almighty God to know what was Lion-hearted: and like him too. he ihe mind of the Spirit: not cutting fantastic hacks right and left with the power of a
capers before High Heaven, as is the wont and
use of many modern preachers, seeking to be. literary crusader, laying many an anta
come Thaumaturgists in gathering a crowd of gonist low, never to rise again. With gaping fools to behold-sad spectacle !--how what vivid pleasure we first read his much of a fool a man could be in the sight of “Hero Worship,” when a student, we God. There was only a simple and earnest still freshly remember. It was some
desire to feed the souls of his people and lead
them in the ways of life everlasting. I rememthing so different from the ordinary
ber the last time I ever saw my father. The kind of reading then,-só fearless, fresh other members of the family were engaged and stimulating. His style was stripped with their usual occupations, and we had the of every ornate embellishment. His
most of the time to ourselves. I laid me rugged, awkward sentences always aimed
down upon the floor and he was stretched
upon the sofa, and I plied him with all manto crack some bard put, and give the
ner of questions concerning the people he had reader the kernel. In person, habits, known and the affairs in which he had been style and faith-and alas, often in want an actor. How he looked into the very marof faith, too-Carlyle was an original row of things ; and how he set the truth forth character. His great works, while they
in quaint, queer sentences, such as I never may not be read by the masses, will re- | been in town many days when the heavy tid
heard from another man's lips. I had not main treasures of the most valuable ma-ings came that my father was dead. He had terial-mines and quarries out of which gone to bed at night as well as usual, it seemmany inferior minds will gather the ore ed, but they found in the morning that he had
passed from the realm of Sleep to that of Day. from which to build reputations that
It was a fit end for such a life as his had been. may for a season outshine that of Car
Ah, sir, he was a man, into the four corners of lyle. But we wish to speak of his char whose house there had shined, through the acter and habits, rather than of bis / years of his pilgrimage, by day and by night, writings.
the light of the glory of God. Like Enoch of He was born in a small village in the
old, he had walked with God, and at last he
was not, for God took him. If I could only Highlands of Scotland. His father was se
see such men now as were my father and his an elder in the village church-a hard- minister-men of such fearless truth and simple