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audible part in public worship, save in his praising the women so much. At cbanting the words : “ Kyrie Eleison, bis burial women bore him to his grave Christe Eleison," (Lord have mercy, and literally bathed his tomb in wine. Christ have mercy). These words were Later came the so-called master singers, sometimes repeated two and three hun- eminent among whom was Hans Sachs, dred tiines in one service. Then began the “cobbler-bard” of Nuremberg. the period of writing and singing of Mr. Wackernagel, the best authority hymns. In 1221 St. Francis said to we have on this subject, has nearly his monks: “ There is a certain country 1,500 hymns or pieces in his collection, called Germany, wherein dwell Chris- that were written before the Reformation. lians, and of a truth very pious ones, Not a few of these are on secular subwho, as you knuw, often came as pil- Ljects and popular songs. Some of the grims into our land, with their long best German hymns were written by staves and great boots; and amid the “Reformers before the Reformation.” most sultry heat and bathed in sweat, Salt, the most prolific German hymn yet visit all the thresholds of the holy writer, came with and after the sixteenth shrines and sing hymns of praise to God century. Luther, himself a poet of no and all His saints."
mean order, was passionately fond of muThen came a class of popular poets sic. Whether at home or abroad it was and poetry called the Minne-Singers, his custom after dinner to take a lute and chief among whom were Walther von sing and play for half an hour or more der Vogelweide (or Bird-meadow) who with his friends. Long before Shaketriumphed over Heinrich von Ofterdin- speare wrote his famous anathema gen in a poetic contest at the Wartburg against the man who hath no music in Castle, known as the “War of the his soul, Luther said: “He who deWartburg." Of him Longfellow says: spises music, as all fanatics do, will
never be my friend." He knew full Vogelweid the Minne-singer, When he left this world of ours,
well how the leaders of the Arian heresy Laid his body in the cloister
put their doctrines into the form of simple Under Würtzburg-Münster towers. hymns or religious ballads by the sin g
ing of which their tenets were more efAnd he gave the monks his treasures, Gave them all with this behest :
fectively preached and impressed than They should feed the birds at noon-tide by all other methods combined. He Daily on his place of rest,
said: “For I would fain see all arte, Saying_"From these wandering minstrels
especially music, in the service of Him I have learned the art of song;
who has given and created them." He Let me now repay the lessons
invited choir-masters to live with him They have taught so well and long." in his family and help him arrange Thus the bard of love departed
and adapt suitable church music. He And fulfilling his desire,
himself composed several chorals, among On bis tomb the birds were feasted
others the one to his own hymn: “Ein By the children of the choir.
feste Burg ist unser Gott.” Many of Day by day o'er tower and turret,
the old German chorals are derived In foul weather and in fair,
from those of the Latin hymns. He Day by day, in vaster numbers,
wrote to Spalatin : “It is my intention, Flocked the poets of the air..
after the example of the prophets and * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
the ancient faihers, to make German Time has long effaced the inscription psalms for the people; that is, spiritual On the cloister's funeral stones;
songs, whereby the word of God may And tradition only tells us
be kept alive among them by singing. Where repose the poet's bones.
Weseek, therefore, everywhere for poets. But around the vast cathedral,
Now, as you are such a master of the By sweet echoes multiplied,
German tongue, and are so mighty and Still the birds repeat the legend,
eloquent therein, I entreat you to join And the name of Vogelweid.
hands with us in this work, and to turn Frauenlob was another famous Min-one of the psalms into a hymn, accordne-singer and a great favorite. He re- ing to the pattern (i. e., an attempt of ceived his name (Praise-the-ladies) from my own) that I here send you. But I
desire that all new-fangled words from gation assembled but the evangelical the court should be left out, that the ininisters present were kept out of the words may be all quite plain and com. pulpit by a Roman Catholic priest, who mon, such as the common people may preached his own creed. After listenunderstand, yet pure and skillfully ing for awhile the whole impatient conhandled; and next, that the meaning gregation rose and sang this bymp until should be given clearly and graciously, the discomfited priest was well nigh according to the sense of the psalm it- sung out of church. Tradition says self."
that Luther learned the tune usually It is said that Luther himself wrote sung to this hymn from a traveling me37 hymos. Of these 21 were original chanic. Indeed he sought to utilize and the others were translations. It every possible talent in this department, took four or five years after Luther and men like Spalatin, Justus Jopas, began this part of his work before he Eber and others enriched the Church could introduce the singing of bymns with their contributions. among the people of his own congrega-| During the period of the Reforma. tion. At first he placed a copy of the tion we have about twenty hymn writers printed bymn into the hands of the which group themselves around Luther. people, so that they could read the lines A similar centre Paul Gerhart forms as the choir sang them. Gradually they among the hymn writers of the followwere trained to help in the singing and ing century; especially the period inwere greatly edified and pleased with cluding the Thirty Years War. Thus the privilege. It was not long until this prince of German song became the this hymn singing became quite general, centre of more than one hundred hymn. not only in the public service of God's writers. As a sacred poet he excelled house, but around ihe firesides of Ger- Luther. He wrote 123 hymns, of man homes. A Roman Catholic author which more than 30 have become Gerof that day writes: “ The whole people man classics, and hymnological models is singing itself into this Lutheran doc for all time. He ranks as the most trine.
eminent hymo-writer of the Church. Some of Luther's hymns were com- | No other human compositions are sung posed under the trying pressure of and played by so large a number of special occasions. It is generally sup- people as Gerbart's hymns. posed that on his way to the Diet of He was of bumble birth, his father Worms, whither, to save his life, many being the burgomaster of a small village of his friends entreated him not to go, in Saxony. His childhood and youth he wrote his noted battle song:
were spent amid the horrid scenes of “A sure stronghold our God is He.” war. These gave a peculiar schooling to
his impressible, poetic mind. They Recovering from a fainting fit brought
stirred his youthful heart to its depths, ou by intense soul conflict, he wrote:
and cultivated in him a sense of de“Aus tiefer Noth schrei ich zu Dir.” pendence upon God. After finishing (“Out of the depth I cry to 'Thee, his studies, he labored as a private tutor
Lord God! oh hear my prayer.'') until he was forty years of age; waiting And his countrymen sang the same amid peacefully from year to year to be apsobs and tears at Luther's burial. pointed to the pastorate of a congregaHis hymn :
tion. Meanwhile be wrote many hymns, “ Nun freut euch liebe, Christen G'mein.” and fell in love with Appa Maria Ber(Dear Christian people now rejoice ! thold, the daughter of his employer, an . Our hearts within us leap,)
advocate in Berlin. At length he was was a great popular favorite. Every called to a congregation, whither be body knew and loved to sing it. Io took bis Berlin affianced as his wife. 1557 a number of princes belonging to He later became a famous Berlin the Reformed Religion spent a certain preacher, å popular favorite whom great day in Frankfort-on-the-Main. They crowds flocked to hear. He was a man wished to attend a religious service ac- of medium height; cheerful in his bearing, cording to their own faith in the Church kind to the poor, receiving poor widows of St. Bartholomew. A large congre- and orphansinto his own house for support
In Theology he was a strict Lutheran. plaining spirit?” She replied: "Well, Although his sermons were free from in the poor man's wicked outbursts I controversy, on certain occasions he set simply sing: ‘Jesu meine Freude,' then forth his listinctive views in a form of- let the devil roar.” fensive to the Government, which caused An aged father in my parish suffered him to lose his position. He called this with a lingering and loathsome cancer“ but a small Berlin sort of martyrdom." ous disease. During one of my first Doubtless his afflictions, bereavements, visits he asked me to read this hymn to and persecutions helped to stimulate bis him. And at nearly every succeeding Muse, and added tenderness to his writo visit the reading of it formed a part of ings. While Archdeacon of Lübben, my ministration to the sufferer. He in Saxony, during the last seven years had been taught to say and pray this of his life, he passed through a period hymn in his youth; it had often proven of great sorrow. His wife had died, his a solace in sadness and a means of joy only child was repeatedly seriously ill; in praise. the villagers were rough, ignorant peo- The author of this hymn was John ple, who annoyed the good man in vari Frank, a pious lawyer of Saxony. He ous ways. Here he wrote hymns“under lost his father early, and was cared for circumstances which would have made by relatives, who had him educated at most men cry rather than sing." After the University of Konigsberg. He died passing through a certain night of great as Bürgomaster of his native village, in anxiety and conflict, he knelt at the 1677, in his sixtieth year. We have altar of bis Church and wrote the beau eleven hymns from him, some of which tiful hymn:
rank among the best in the language. " Wach auf mein Herz und singe
The following are a few stadzas from Dem Schöpfer aller Dinge."
the above hymn: He died in his seventieth year, in « Jesus, priceless treasure, 1676, and breathed out his soul through
Source of purest pleasure, a line of one of his hymns:
Truest friend to me!
Long my heart hath panted, "As no death has power to kill." *
Till it well nigh fainied
Thirsting after Thee ! A certain godly matron I have heard Thine I am, o spotiess Lamb! of happened to have an uugodly hus I will suffer nought to hide Thee, baud. Given to daily drunkenness,
Ask for nought beside Thee. through his coarse and profane conduct,
In Thine arms I rest me, he greatly vexed the righteous soul of
Foes who would molest me the good woman. Although a man of
Cannot reach me here: means, with horses and carriages at his Though the earth be shaking, command, his wife had to shift without
Every heart be quaking, help as best she could, and on
Jesus calms my fear;
Sin and hell in conflict fell Sunday, after rising before day in order
With their heaviest storms assail me, to get through with her work in time,
Jesus will not fail me." she, with her German hymn-book io hand would walk three miles to Church, whatever might be the condition of the The Relation of the Aesthetic to Diroads or the weather. Not a horse or
vine Worship. carriage would be given her to go there. Leaving and arriving at home she was BY PROF. ANDREW T. G. APPLE. greeted by him with oaths and coarse ribaldry. The pious neighbors sympa-|(Prof. of Natural Science in Palatinate thized with her. One of these asked
College.) ber one day: “How can you bear such
It is a significant fact that at the recent treatment with such a cheerful, uncom
meeting of the Pan-Presbyterian Alli
ance, one of the topics that enlisted the * For some of the material in these articles
deepest interest was the subject of Chriswe are indebted to an excellent volume entitled, I “ Christian Singers of Germany,” by Catherine
tian worship. Some of the finest efforts Winkworth.
were called forth by this, and concern
ing it some of the most animated dis- ternalized by bim in works of art, cancussions were held. Nor is it alone in not be wrong; nor can it, unless it be such ecclesiastical bodies that atten- abused aud perverted to wrong ends, tion is being turned in this direction, exert an influence for evil, and when it but the minds of men all over the Chris does this—when men wrest from its protian world seem to be turning toward per end one of our most precious gifts, the question of what true Christian turning it into an abuse, the remedy is not worship shall be--how far the outward altogether the negative one of destroy. aesthetic forms shall enter into it-and ing that which leads into temptation. Selfto what extent these must, for safety, be denial may be well enough for a time, excluded.
but the proper and lasting cure is posiAs was the case at the Alliance, the tive and consists in eradicating from the whole Christian Church resolves itself heart the evil tendencies which would with more or less distinctness into two prompt men to turn not only art but main parties, the one clinging to what ever other blessing into an abuse. they regard the great boon of the Re- The worship of the Church before the furmation-simplicity of worship, while Reformation was largely esthetic. The the other characterizes this as baldness beautiful appeared in grand churches and wickedness, and their desires are and cathedrals and in the pomp and for a greater predominance of the out- splendor of their ritual and worship. ward form of beauty.
This in time became an abuse; not beThe great question that underlies this cause art in the church had become whole discussion is the relation which corrupt-grand cathedrals and impresart bears to Christian worship. And as sive ceremonies were not in themselves in every question of importance that is wrong—but the abuse consisted in its submitted to humanity for solution, we false position which art came to occupy generally find the position which each in its relation to that worship. The man takes determined largely by some spiritual condition of the church became predominant trait in his character or barren; the spiritual eye of men became temperament, so here it is often the case darkened, while their aesthetic eye was that those who are deficient in æsthetic yet strong; so that while they still felt feelings are the ones that take their stand strongly all tbat was beautiful and subwith the iconoclasts, while those to lime in the existing ritual they failed in whom art appeals strongly, advocate giving a response in the religious fervor her claims and favor her admittance which this beauty and sublimity was ininto the House of God.
tended to call forth. What now shall be the position in And the Reformation aimed, when it which we hold art as relating to Chris- did strike its blow, not at the beautiful tian worship? For our part, we can- itself as it ministered to the worship of pot sympathize with those who would God, so much as at the worldly spirit rule it out altogether as something tend- which bad come to possess men's hearts, ing only to evil. The æsthetic side of and which then converted what should man's nature is legitimate. It is a ne- have been edifying services into empty cessary part of his spiritual constitution. pageantry. The exclusion of the beauAnd it seeks for and finds in the ex- tiful from the house of God, which was ternal universe that which answers to it. attendant on the Reformation, was right This idea of the beautiful which is the only so far as it was in the spirit of selfnourishment of the æsthetic in man, denial-a refraining from a blessing going hand in hand with the ideas of that had become abused, until the the Good and True is a part of the hearts and consciences of men could original impress of the Creator when He become purified and strengthened so that called all things out of chaos. “And the church could use fine art as not God saw everything that He had made, abusing it. and, behold, it was very good." There This separation was necessary and is implied in this also that it was both right. Fine art previous to the ReforTrue and Beautiful. The Beautiful, mation had come, unconsciously to therefore, neither as it meets us in many, to usurp the place of devotion, nature, nor as we find it in man and ex. hence its relation to worship ceased to
be a true one. For do union is a true Drawing from the infinite fullness of one in which the components do not Scripture we have as a basis and model stand in a right relation to one another for Psalmody, the external beauty of
The dividing sword of the Reformation the Psalms, ih; Benedictus, the Nunc must therefore sever this false union be- Diniittis, and many other passages of fure there can be any coming together inimitable beauty. We have the Lord's in a true sense. The general advance Prayer as a pattern and guide for all toward a more liturgical worship, which prayers. But we are not confined to this. we see everywhere, is not necessarily re- Our Lord intended that our powers trograde, then, as some would have it, and all of these powers should be pot a going back again to the false wor- put in exercise to praise Him, and ship of the mediæval church. It is with the examples above mentioned rather the spirit of devotion as it has be- as a guide, the artist, imbued with the come reneved and invigorated from its true spirit of worship continues to fashion baptism in inquisitorial fires, seeking to into fit offerings for the Lord's house, fiod a form in which to express itself, the forms of beauty which he sees and seeking a new and true union with art feels about him, and which he has mada jo which the latter will occupy her pro- to he a part of this very evil. per position as the handmaid of Religion. But in thus giving the ästhetic a place
While it is true that such an union in in the worship of the church, whether its perfection is impossible so long as it come in the form of architecture, sin and its temptations exist, yet a striv. poetrs, music, or refined ritual, we incur ing for and approximation to that per- perils, as we do in fact whenever we acfect state is not absolutely impossible. cept and use any blessing. We meet It is not only not impossible but also fit the deteriorating tendency that would and right. We have our church gov- set art up as the chief end. But we ernments, in which the ethical forces have seen the whirlpool into whose seminister to the work of carrying on the ductive eddies the Mediæval church work of Christ's kingdom in the world. was drawn, and also the rock upon We have the forces of the intellect which many in the Protestant Church framing confessions and building up have rushed in their impetuous zeal to systems of theology and laying them on avoid the first evil. We can, then, the altar as their offering toward the keeping in our hearts the command to contruction of this tabernacle-why then“ Watch and pray," go on our way must art, which is the expression of the gathering in everything, not only the Beautiful, be debarred a place in the Good and True, but also Beautiful, and house of God, when the forms in which with the blessing upon it of our Lord, the Good and True embody themselves we can offer it as an acceptable sacrifice are accepted? These latter are just as upon the great altar of His Holy Temple. liable to abuse as art is. We scarcely need refer to the gigantic ecclesiastical tyranny of the Middle Ages—the papa-l The Rev. Sheldon Jackson, addresscy and prelacy, to illustrate how the good ing the students of Allegheny Theolocan be abused and the barren waste, so far gical Seminary, urged them to enter the as real religious life was concerned, which service as Home Missionaries. He said we find in the Greek Courches during the a missionary was urgently needed at long Monophysite controversy bears Fort Yuma, which he described “as Witness of how intellectual formulas can the hottest place this side of Tophet." stand in a wrong relation to Religion and Soon thereafter four students volunbecome destructive to true devotion. teered to go to Fort Yuma. How such
Assuredly, then, we cannot, without a heroic willingness to sacrifice all the wrong to ourselves and to others, con- comforts of civilized life for Christ and tinue for any length of time in an ex- for souls commends itself to all rightclusion of the æsthetic from our wor- thinking people! Thus the first mischip. Not only in one part should sionaries to heathen lands did. What beauty appear, but in all that per- they lose for Christ's sake in this life tains to worship the spirit of higbest they shall find again an hundred-fuld beauty should make itself felt.
in the life to come.