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audible part in public worship, save in chanting ihe words: "Kyrie Eleison, Christe Eleison," (Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy). These words were sometimes repeated two and three hundred times iu one service. Then began the period of writing and singing of hymns. In 1221 St. Francis said to his monks: "There is a certain country called Germany, wherein dwell Christians, and of a truth very pious ones, who, as you know, often came as pilgrims into our land, with their long staves and great boots; and amid the most sultry heat and bathed in sweat, yet visit all the thresholds of the holy shrines and sing hymns of praise to God and all His saints."
Then came a class of popular poets and poetry called the Minne-Singers, chief among whom were Walther von der Vogelweide (or Bird-meadow) who triumphed over Heinrich von Ofterdingen iu a poetic contest at the Wartburg Castle, known as the "War of the Wartburg." Of him Longfellow says:
Vogelweid the Minne-singer,
Laid his body in the cloister
And he gave the monks his treasures,
They should feed the birds at noon-tide
Saying—" From these wandering minstrels
I have learned the art of song;
They have taught so well and long."
Thus the bard of love departed—
And fulfilling his desire,
By the children of the choir.
Day by day o'er tower and turret,
In foul weather and in fair,
Time has long effaced the inscription
And tradition only tells us
Where repose the poet's bones.
But around the vast cathedral,
By sweet echoes multiplied, S'.ill the birds repeat the legend,
And the name of Vogelweid.
Frauenlob was another famous Minne-singer and a great favorite. He received his name (Praise-the-ladies) from
his praising the women so much. At his burial women bore him to his grave and. literally bathed his tomb iu wine. Later came the so-called master singer*, eminent among whom was Hans Sachs, the " cobbler-bard " of Nuremberg.
Mr. Wackernagel, the best authority we have on this subject, has nearly 1,500 hymns or pieces in his collection, that were written before the Reformation. Not a few of these are on secular subjects and popular songs. Some of the best German hymns were written by "Reformers before the Reformation." Salt, the most prolific German hymn writer, came with and after the sixteenth century. Luther, himself a poet of no mean order, was passionately fbud of music. Whether at home or abroad it was his custom after dinner to take a lute and sing and play for half an hour or more with his friends. Long before Shakespeare wrote his famous anathema against the man who hath no music in his soul, Luther said: "He who despises music, as all fanatics do, will never be my friend." He knew full well how the leaders of the Arian heresy put their doctrines into the form of simple hymns or religious ballads by the sin ging of which their tenets were more effectively preached and impressed than by all other methods combined. He said: "For I would fain see all arts, especially music, in the service of Him who has given and created them." He invited choir-masters to live with him in his family and help him arrange and adapt suitable church music. He himself composed several chorals, among others the one to his own hymn: "Etn feate Burg ist unser Gott." Many of the old German chorals are derived from those of the Latin hymns. He wrote to Spalatin: "It is my intention, after the example of the prophets and the ancient fathers, to make German psalms for the people; that is, spiritual songs, whereby the word of God may be kept alive among them by singing. We seek, therefore, everywhere for poets. Now, as you are such a master of the German tongue, and are so mighty and eloquent therein, I entreat you to join hands with us in this work, and to turn one of the psalms into a hymn, according to the pattern (i. e., an attempt of my own) that I here send you. But I desire that all new-fangled words from the court should be left out, that the words may be all quite plain and common, such as the common people may understand, yet pure and skillfully handled; and next, that the meaning should be given clearly and graciously, according to the sense of the psalm itself."
It is said that Luther himself wrote 37 hymns. Of these 21 were original and the others were translations. It took four or five years after Luther began this part of his work before he could introduce the singing of hymns among the people of his own congregation. At first he placed a copy of the printed hymn into the hands of the people, so that (hey could read the lines astlie choir sang them. Gradually they were trained to help in the singing and were greatly edified and pleased with the privilege. It was not long until this hymn singing became quite general, not only in the public service of God's house, but around ihe firesides of German homes. A Roman Catholic author of that day writes: "The whole people is singing itself into this Lutheran doctrine."
Some of Luther's hymns were composed under the trying pressure of special occasions. It is generally supposed that on his way to the Diet of Worms, whither, to save his life, many of his friends entreated him not to go, he wrote his noted battle song: "A sure stronghold our God is He."
Recovering froma fainting fit brought ou by iuteDse soul conflict, he wrote:
"Aus tiefer Noth schrei ich zu Dir.'1
And his countrymen sang the same amid
was a great popular favorite. Every body knew and loved to sing it. In 1557 a number of princes belonging to the Reformed Religion spent a certain day in Frankfort-on-the-Main. They wished to attend a religious service according to their own faith in the Church of St. Bartholomew. A large congre
gation assembled but the evangelical ministers present were kept out of the pulpit by a Roman Catholic priest, who preached his own creed. After listening for awhile the whole impatient congregation rose and sang this hymn until the discomfited priest was well nigh sung out of church. Tradition says that Luther learned the tune usually sung to this hymn from a traveling mechanic. Indeed he sought to utilize every possible talent in this department, and men like Spalatin, Justus JoDas, Eber and others enriched the Church with their contributions.
During the period of the Reformation we have about twenty hymn writers which group themselves around Luther. A similar centre Paul Gerhart forms among the hymn writers of the following century; especially the period including the Thirty Years War. Thus this prince of German song became the centre of more than one hundred hymnwriters. As a sacred poet he excelled Luther. He wrote 123 hymns, of which more than 30 have become German classics, ai d hymnological models for all time. He ranks as the most eminent hymn-writer of the Church. No other human compositions are sung and played by so large a number of people as Gerhart's hymns.
He was of humble birth, his father being the burgomaster of a small village in Saxony. His childhood and youth were spent amid the horrid scenes of war. Thtse gave a peculiar schooling to his impressible, poetic mind. They stirred his youthful heart to its depths, and cultivated in him a sense of dependence upon God. After finishing his studies, he labored as a private tutor until he was forty years of age; waiting peacefully from year to year to be appointed to the pastorate of a congregation. Meanwhile he wrote many hymns, and fell in love with Anna Maria Berthold, the daughter of his employer, an advocate in Berlin. At length be was called to a congregation, whither he took his Berlin affianced as his wife. He later became a famous Berlin preacher, a popular favorite whom great crowds flocked to hear. He was a man of medium height; cheerful in his bearing, kind to the poor, receiving poor widows and orphans into his own house for support
In Theology he was a strict Lutheran. Although his sermons were free from controversy, on certain occasions he set forth his distinctive views in a form offensive to the Government, which caused him to lose his position. He called this "but a small Berlin sort of martyrdom." Doubtless his afflictions, bereavements, and persecutions helped to stimulate his Muse, and added tenderness to his writings. While Archdeacon of Liibben, in Saxony, during the last seven years of his life, he passed through a period of great sorrow. His wife had died, his only child was repeatedly seriously ill; the villagers were rough, ignorant people, who annoyed the good man in various ways. Here he wrote hymns " under circumstances which would have made most men cry rather than sing." After passing through a certain night of great anxiety and conflict, he knelt at the altar of his Church and wrote the beautiful hymn:
"Wach auf mein Herz und singe
He died in his seventieth year, in 1676, and breathed out his soul through a line of one of his hymns:
"As no death has power to kill." *
A certain godly matron I have heard of happened to have an uugodly husband. Given to daily drunkenness, through his coarse and profane conduct, be greatly vexed the righteous soul of the good woman. Although a man of means, with horses and carriages at his command, his wife had to shift without help as best she could, and on Sunday, after rising before day in order to get through with her work in time, she, with her German hymn-book in hand would walk three miles to Church, whatever might be the condition of the roads or the weather. Not a horse or carriage would be given her to go there. Leaving and arriving at borne she was greeted by him with oaths and coarse ribaldry. The pious neighbors sympathized with her. One of these asked her one day: "How can you bear such treatment with such a cheerful, uncom
*For some of the material in these articles we are indebted to an excellent volume entitled, "Christian Singers of Germany," by Catherine Winkworth.
plaining spirit?" Shereplied: "Well, in the poor man's wicked outbursts I simply sing: 'Jesu meine Freude,' then let the devil roar."
An aged father in my parish suffered with .a lingering and loathsome cancerous disease. During one of my first visits he asked me to read this hymn to him. And at nearly every succeeding visit the reading of it formed a part of my ministration to the sufferer. He had been taught to say and pray this hymn in his youth ; it had often proven a solace in sadness and a means of joy in praise.
The author of this hymn was John Frank, a pious lawyer of Saxony. He lost his father early, and was cared for by relatives, who hadl him educated at the University of Konigsberg. He died as Burgomaster of his native village, in 1677, in his sixtieth year. We have eleven hymns from him, some of which rank among the best in the language. The following are a few stanzas from the above hymn: »
"Jesus, priceless treasure,
Truest friend to me!
Thirsting after Thee!
Ask for nought beside Thee.
In Thine arms I rest me,
Cannot reach me here:
Jesus calms my fear;
The Relation of the Aesthetic to Divine Worship.
BY PROF. ANDREW T. O. APPLE.
(Pro/, of Natural Science in Palatinate College.)
It is a significant fact that at the recent meeting of the Pan-Presbyterian Alliance, one of the topics that enlisted the deepest interest was the subject of Christian worship. Some of the finest efforts were called forth by this, and concerning it some of the most animated discussions were held. Nor is it alone in such ecclesiastical bodies that attention is being turned in this direction, but the minds of men all over the Christian world seem to be turning toward the question of what true Christian worship shall be—how far the outward aesthetic forms shall enter into it—and to what extent these must, for safety, be excluded.
As was the case at the Alliance, the whole Chiistian Church resolves itself with more or less distinctness into two main parties, the one clinging to what they regard the great boon of the Reformation—simplicity of worship, while the other characterizes this as baldness and wickedness, and their desires are for a greater predominance of the outward form of beauty.
The great question that underlies this whole discussion is the relation which art bears to Christian worship. And as in every question of importance that is submitted to humanity for solution, we generally find the position which each man takes determined largely by some predominant trait in his character or temperament, so here it is often the case that those who are deficient in aesthetic feelings are the ones that take their stand with the Iconoclasts, while those to whom art appeals strongly, advocate her claims and favor her admittance into the House of God.
What now shall be the position in which we hold art as relating to Christian worship? For our part, we cannot sympathize with those who would rule it out altogether as something tending only to evil. The festhetic side of man's nature is legitimate. It is a necessary part of his spiritual constitution. And it seeks for and finds in the external universe that which answers to it. This idea of the beautiful which is the nourishment of the aesthetic in man, going hand in hand with the ideas of the Good and True is a part of the original impress of the Creator when He called all things out of chaos. "And God saw everything that He had made, and, behold, it was very good.'' There is implied in this also that it was both True and Beautiful. The Beautiful, therefore, neither as it meets us in nature, nor as we find it in man and ex
ternalized by him in works of art, cannot be wrong; nor can it, unless it be abused and perverted to wrong end9, exert an influence for evil, and when it does this—when men wrest from its proper end one of our most precious gifts, turning it into an abuse, the remedy is not altogether the negative one of destroying that which leads into temptation. Selfdenial may be well enough for a time, but the proper and lasting cure is positive and consists in eradicating from the heart the evil tendencies which would prompt men to turn not only art but ever other blessing into an abuse.
The worship of the Church before the Reformation was largely rathetic. The beautiful appeared in grand churches and cathedrals and in the pomp and splendor of their ritual and worship. This in time became an abuse; not because art in the church had become corrupt—grand cathedrals and impressive oeremonies were not in themselves wrong—but the abuse consisted in its false position which art came to occupy in its relation to that worship. The spiritual condition of the church became barren ; the spiritual eye of men became darkened, while their aesthetic eye was yet strong; so that while they still felt strongly all that was beautiful and sublime in the existing ritual they failed in giving a response in the religious fervor which this beauty and sublimity was intended to call forth.
And the Reformation aimed, when it did strike its blow, not at the beautiful itself as it ministered to the worship of God, so much as at the worldly spirit which had come to possess men's hearts, and which then converted what should have been edifying services into empty pageantry. The exclusion of the beautiful from the house of God, which was attendant on the Reformation, was right only so far as it was in the spirit of selfdenial—a refraining from a blessing that had become abused, until the hearts and consciences of men could become purified and strengthened so that the church could use fine art as not abusing it.
This separation was necessary and right. Fine art previous to the Reformation had come, unconsciously to many, to usurp the place of devotion, hence its relation to worship ceased to
be a true one. For no union is a true Drawing from the infinite fullness of one in which the eomponents do not j Scripture we have as a basis and model stand in a right relation to one another. The dividing sword of the Reformation must therefore sever this false union be
for Psalmody, the external beauty of the Psalms, tha Bencdiclus, the Nunc Dimittis, and many other passages of
fore there can be any coming together j inimitable beauty. We have the Lord's
in a true sense. The general advance toward a more liturgical worship, which we see everywhere, is not necessarily retrograde, then, as some would have it— not a going back again to the false worship of the mediaeval church. It is rather the spirit of devotion as it has become renewed and invigorated from its baptism in inquisitorial fires, seeking to find a form in which to express itself— seeking a new and true union with art in which the latter will occupy her proper position as the handmaid of Religion.
While it is true that such an union in its perfection is impossible so long as sin and its temptations exist, yet a striving for and approximation to that perfect state is not absolutely impossible. It is not only not impossible but also fit and right. We have our church govornmenta, in which the ethical forces minister to the work of carrying on the work of Christ's kingdom in the world. We have the forces of the intellect framing confessions and building up systems of theology and laying them on the altar as their offering toward the contruction of this tabernacle—why then must art, which is the expression of the Beautiful, be debarred a place in the house of God, when the forms in which
the Good and True embody themselves J we can offer it as an acceptable sacrifice
Prayer as a pattern and guide for all prayers. But we are not confined to this. Our Lord intended that our powers and all of these powers should be put in exercise to praise Him, and with the examples above mentioned as a guide, the artist, imbued with the true spirit of worship continues to fashion into fit offerings for the Lord's house, the forms of beauty which he see* and feels about him, and which he has made to he a part of this very evil.
But in thus giving the aesthetic a place in the worship of the church, whether it come in the form of architecture, poetry, music, or refined ritual, we incur perils, as we do in fact whenever we accept and use any blessing. We meet the deteriorating tendency that would set art up as the chief end. But we have seen the whirlpool into whose seductive eddies the Mediaeval church was drawn, and also the rock upon which many in the Protestant Church have rushed in their impetuous zeal to avoid the first evil. We can, then, keeping in our hearts the command to "Watch and pray," go on our way gathering in everything, not only the Good and True, but also Beautiful, and with the blessing upon it of our Lord,
are accepted? These latter are just as liable to abuse as art is. We scarcely need refer to the gigantic ecclesiastical tyranny of the Middle Ages—the papacy and prelacy, to illustrate how the good
upon the great altar of HU Holy Temple.
The Rev. Sheldon Jackson, addressing the students of Allegheny Theolocan be abused and the barren waste, so far j gical Seminary, urged them to enter the
as red religious life was concerned, which we find in the Greek Caurches during the long Monophysite controversy bears witness of how intellectual formulas can stand in a wrong relation to Religion and become destructive to true devotion.
Assuredly, then, we cannot, without wrong to ourselves and to others, continue for any length of time in an exclusion of the aesthetic from our worship. Not only in one part should beauty appear, but in all that pertains to worship the spirit of highest beauty should make itself felt.
service as Home Missionaries. He said a missionary was urgently needed at Fort Yuma, which he described "as the hottest place this side of Tophet." Soon thereafter four students volunteered to go to Fort Yuma. How such a heroic willingness to sacrifice all the comforts of civilized life for Christ and for souls commends itself to all rightthinking people! Tdus the first missionaries to heathen lands did. What they lose.for Christ's sake in this life they shall find again an hundred-fold i in the life to come.