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quired of others about Dr. Hodge, they would say " How is Charlie?"
At the semi centennial of his connection with the Princeton Seminary a great crowd assembled to do him houor. By that time tiree thousand ministers had sat at his feet, and regarded him as their spiritual father. He was too infirm to sit up during the whole of the festive services. Oa a sofa in the pulpit he was lying down. When President Woolsey, of Yale College, told how be had loved this friend of his youth during fifty years, Dr. Hodge rose up and kissed him. "How do you stand all that?" asked one, when eloquent eulogies were spoken ; he said: "Why, it seems to me they are talking about some other man." Fearing that the excitement might overtax his feeble powers, he was asked towards the close of the services how he felt. Laughing, he said: " I never felt so mean in all my life."
Conflicts and hindrances manfully met and overcome help to give the hardness of a brave soldier to individual character. The history of Church and State show that a large portion of the brightest, best, and most useful men in promiuent and obscure places fought their way out of poverty up into grand characters. Many a youth performed day labor, taught school, or toiled at the mechanic's bench in order to procure the needed money to obtain an education. Many have walked hnndreds of miles in going to and returning from college and boarded themselves, the enduring of which trials formed not the least important part of their education. Such, too, Charles Hodge endured.
His fither died when he was six months old, leaving him and his brother, eighteen months older, to the care of their mother, with scanty means of support. That lone mother, by her own exertions, gave those two sons their academic, collegiate, and professional education. The older son became a great Doctor of Medicine; the younger became a great Doctor of Divinity— Charles Hodge. The struggles of childhood and youth through which, without help from church or friends, he was borne into the ministry were good for him. What she did for him, every mother may do: what he endured.every student would
be the better for enduring. And the church and the world would benefit by the experience. Such training the sons of the church in Scotland get. Would to God that every one of His ministers had it!
In the article of the last number of the Guardian entitled "The Funeral in Nain," on page 361, we erroneously credited Henry Kirk White with a few lines of poetry, which the reader wiU find in Wordsworth's Excursion. We confess that in this case we have been caught napping, and hasten to make the proper correction. And we furthermore thank a worthy clerical reader, who has kindly called our attention to it. He adds: "I fully agree with you that the sentiment of the verse is not in harmony with the teaching of God's Word. It is, however, in harmony with the teachings of not a few sermons preached at the funerals of infants." What the Guardian says of Kirk White's talents and character, and of the heresy of the poetry in question, is true, only he is not the author of it.
Over Land and Sea,
BY EDWIN A. GERNANT.
XV. Am Genfer See.
To the thousand and one attractions of a country like Switzerland, a country which never grows old, and of which no pen can ever hope to make a description in all respects faithful and satisfactory, distance serves only to contribute an ever-increasing enchantment. Like a beautiful panorama her lakes and mountains passed iu succession before us, leaving impressions that can never be wholly lost. Since our return we have experienced but one regret concerning our visit to this historic Alp-guarded republic, namely, that time did not permit a more intimate and continued acquaintance with her matchless wonders. Up to the last she maintained that same rare fascination with which her crags and peaks from the very beginning enl chained us Still, we cannot but acknowledge that the five days spent in Geneva, with its qu-eter beauty and warmer clime, prepared us in great measure for the Italian excursion immediately succeeding. The city of the great Reformer is neither Swiss, nor French,nor Italian, but combines, in greater or less degree, tome of the peculiar characteristics of these three nationalities.
It«was nearly noon when we left Lausanne. After a three hours' run across the most extensive, and in some respects the most charming of all the Swiss lakes our little steamer lay moored near
"— the blue rushing of the arrowy Rhone."
Directly in front of us rises the National Monument erected in memory of the union in 1814 of the little state of Geneva with the other cantons of the Confederation. A moment later, and from the beautiful grounds of the adjoining Jardin du Lac we look out upon the lovely expanse of Lake Leman's placid waters now silvering in the western sun.
There has been no limit to the enthusiasm of this celebrated inland sea's distinguished votaries. "Geneva," says Alexander Dumas, "sleeps like an Eastern queen above the banks of the lake, her head reposing on the base of Mount Saleve, her feet kissed by each advancing wave." With boasting pride Voltaire exclaims—" Mon Lac est le premier." Byron indulges in eome of his purest flights when descanting on its beauties. In the third canto of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage he tings as follows:
"Clear placid Leman! thy contrasted lake
And again, when he tells of "sweet Clarens, birthplace of deep love," who does not recall the passionate lines with which he celebrates Rousseau's kissrewarded retreat:
"He who hath loved not, here would learn that lore,
And make his heart a spirit; he who knows
* * * * *
* * Here the Rhone
Hath spread himself a couch, the Alps have reared a throne."
The waters of the lake are of a deep
blue color, reminding one of the Mediterranean. Sir Humphrey Davy supposed this to be owing to the prtseme of large quantities of iodine, a theory, however, not universally endorstd by Swiss scientists. The great sze of the lake, as compared with similar bodies in Switzerland, has induced more general navigation. Now and then one may discover the graceful lateen sails of the Archipelago, commonly known a9 "goose-wings." Along the banks, fertile and vine-clad, towns and villages enliven the scene. The mountains appear less rugged and threatening, notwithstanding the nearness of Mont Blanc and other celebrated peaks.
The Rhone is spanned by numerous bridges, beneath which the river rushes violently as though eager to be at restHere and there, alongside of the boiling blue waters, washerwomen in crowds of ten or twenty are to be seen, busy at work, rubbing, wringing, and rinsing; the muscles of their sturdy arrasswelling like whip-cords as they lean over the low wooden balustrade which edges the stream. These bridges, of which there are six, connect the old and new portions of the city and form one of its most attractive features. The Pont du Mont Blanc is the highest and handsomest of them all. From the Quai of the same name one may obtain a more or less complete view of that group of the Alps of which Mont Blanc is most famous. Indeed many travelers content themselves with this glimpse of the monarch of snow-clad peaks, and we did not feel disposed to furnish in ourselves an exception to the general rule. Only once or twice, however, were we certain that it was really the mountain which we beheld, and every day our landlady promised us a clearer and fuller view on "ze morrow." Still, at least one of the peaks of the Mont Blanc chain was nearly always visible, and since many of these are by no means inconsiderable in size, (the Aiguilles du Midi for example) our searching eyes were seldom disappointed.
Commercially, Geneva is celebrated for its watches and music boxes. It has been estimated that the city produces no less than one hundred thousand of each of these annually. Many of our readers will remember the time when to have a Swiss watch was tobavea treasure in valuable. Latterly, American watches have come to be generally regarded as the very best in the market, and even fashion, for once has yielded to fact Geneva watches are, however, still highly esteemed. Their size makes them the especial favorite, among ladies, and they are certainly one of the most de-irable memorials of a visit to Geneva. In the manufacture of musical boxes, on the contrary, the city acknowledges no such overshadowing rivalry. She continues to enjoy the deserved monopoly of the trade, and produces instruments of every grade of excellence, varying in price from five francJ to seven thousand francs. As might be expected the most expensive boxes are very elaborate in style and workmanship. A fourteen hundred dollar instrument will play about forty-five tunes, with volume sufficient to fill a large hall. Besides the regular " box," if such it may always he called (for some of them are in size and shape not unlike a square-grand piano,) there are all sorts of fanciful music-making surprises and curiosities. "There are musical chairs, which play when you tit down upon them, musical decanters, which strike up a merry air, such as " The Flowing Bowl," when you pour anything out of them, musical snuff-boxes, musical flower-pots, and musical toys of every description."
Our second day in Geneva was to us of unusual though painful interest. It is Sunday morning. Grossing the Rhone and ascending the Cour St. Pierre let us enter the Cathedral. Surely here in the very church where John Calvin once proclaimed the gospel of Christ, and in the city where he realized his dream of a church-state we may hope to hear the faith of the fathers preached in its purity. The Reformed is the established church of Switzerland, the pastors being appointted by the officers of the state delegated to such spiritual supervision. A blackrobed figure ascends the pulpit and, looking nervously about him, sits down in the very same chair once used by the great Reformer. Pastorand congregation unite in the prescribed liturgical service. Not until the former rises to preach do we discover the awful visitation which calls such a man the minister of God, revealing the present, crying curse of
Switzerland. His sermon is blasphemous from beginning to end, and as he Bcoffs at the Bible and ridicules the creed of the church his face grows dark with the fierceness of his hatred for the established order. In bold and ringing tones he exalts poor human reason and prophesies the speedy downfall of orthodoxy. The days of the Christian myth Ire numbered and faith in the Incarnate Sou of God, faith in that which science has proved an impossibility, will soou take its place among the follies of the past. A very Mephistopheles he seems, defiling the sanctuary of the most High and offering strange fires upon the altar of that God whom he affects to despise. Alas! scepticism preys upon the very vitals of this otherwise blessed people. Rousseau has indeed become the tutelary deity of beautiful Geneva, and a tidal wave of infidelity threatens to swamp the institutions of Switzerland. True, there are many who still adhere to the good old faith, but the rationalistic parly have proved themselves wiser than the children of light. Here in the glorious fastnesses of nature the devil wars mo3t successfully against nature's God.
Such a state of spiritual night among many of our own church people, was truly distressing, but through all the gloom the rising star of a triumphing church can alreadv be discerned. Since our return Geneva has, indeed, largely redeemed herself. Across the seas comes the most cheering news. Duringseveral years past a compromise between the opposing factions in the ecclesiastical board of the canton had prevailed, in virtue of which the rationalists held services alternately with the orthodox. party whenever a congregation was thus unfortunately divided. Lately, however, at the instance of the former who counted without their host, the general subject was submitted to the suffrages of the people. A large vote was polled. The peasantry flocked in on all sides. The whole canton was thoroughly alive to the importance of the trial, and the result showed a complete rout of the sceptics. A majority of twenty thousand has vindicated the fair fame of the canton of Geneva.
The afternoon service in the cathedral was in French—that of the morning-had been iu German—aud this we were told was conducted by another minister, and for the benefit of those of he congregation who adhered to the faith of the church. On our way back to the Place des Alpes we turned aside into the Rue de Chauvines and took a peep at No. 11, the house of Calvin, in which he lived from 1543 until his death in 1564. An unpretentious stone building, long since practically forgotten by theGenevete, it bad evidently been neglected and much changed. We were not a little disappointed to find the home of the great Reformer thus indifferent to the memory of him who, more than any other, had given it a claim to undving fame as the Protestant Rome of the X VJ. ct ntury. But men are not to be judged by such narrow considerations of time and place. Calvin belongs not to Geneva but to the world. The principles for which he contended will live forever, and are to-day the birthright of hundreds of thousands of pious souls. Though we may not be willing to endorse many of his peculiar views, though in some respects we may even regret that his disposition was so uncompromising and firm, still no fair mind can ever refuse to render him just praise for the good which he accomplished, for the great work which he performed. Theologically his services to Christanity can hardly be overestimated. He has frequently and deservedly been called " the Aristotle of Protestantism, the peer of Augustine and Thomas Aquinas." Lord Lytton refers to him as the loftiest of reformers, one whose influence has been the most wide and lasting. Wherever property is secure, wherever thought is free, you trace the inflexible, inquisitive, unconquerable soul of Calvin." The greatest minds of his own generation 'as well as of more recent times, have b >rne testimony to his transcendent ability, even his most bitter antagouists recognizing '• his prominence among the systematic divines and exegetes of all ages." Melanchtbon did not hesitate to call him the Theologian, ranking him with Gregory of Nazianzen. His personal character challenges the most searching inquiry. Renau feels himself constrained to acknowledge him as " the most Christian man of his generation." Says Dr. SchafF: "He lacked the good nature, the genial humor, the German Gemuethlicbkeit, the overflowing humanity of Luther, but he surpassed him
in culture, refinement, consistency and moral self-control. Both were headstrong and will-strong, but Calvin was more open to argument and less obstinate. He had no children to write to and to play with around the Christmas tree, like Luther, but he appears to better advantage in his relations with men and women He treated them, even the much younger Beza, as equals, overlooked minor differences, and in correcting their faults expected manly frankness from them in return; while Luther growing more irritable and overbearing with advancing years, made even Melanchtbon tremble and fear." A year before Luther's deatb, in 1545, Calvin sent him a letter in which we find these noble and touching words: "If I could only fly to you and enjoy your society, even for a few hours! But siuce this privilege is not granted to me on earth, I hope I may soon enjoy it in the kingdom above. Farewell, most illustrious man, most excellent minister of Christ, and father forever venerable to me. May the Lord continue to guide you by His Spirit to the end f >r the common good of His Church." One cannot but love the man who could write thus to his avowed and violent opponent, nor yet fail to regret that such was the fierce hatred of the latter that, as the historian relates, even Melanchtbon was afraid to hand this letter to the old lion on account of his excited state of feeling against the Swiss. Calvin died in the very prime of a useful and vigorous manhood, beloved and mourned by all who had known him. Though known to have been buried in the little cemetery on Plainpalnis, his grave remains unidentified, for he had forhidden the ert ction of any monument to his memory. But his work lives on. To the above brief reference to his life and labor we may yet be permitted to add in conclusinnaquotation from the Roman Catholic historian, Kampschulte's admirable eulogy on his world-celebiated Institutes. '• Sein Lehrbuch der christlichen Religion bringt die kirchliche Revolution in ein System, das durch logiache Schaerfe, Klarheitdes Gedankens, ruecksichtslose Consequenz, die vor nichts zurueckbebt, noch heute unser Staunen und unsere Bewunderung erregt. Es ist ohne Frage das hervorragendste und bedeutendste ErzeagnisB, welches die reformatorische Literatur des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts auf dem Gebiete der Dogmatik aufzuweisen hat"
No Room for Jesus.
O plodding life! crowded so full
Of earthly toil and care!
No room for Jesus there.
O busy brain! by night and day
Working, with patience rare, Problems of worldly loss or gain, Thinking till thought becomes a pain;
No room for Jesus there.
O throbbing heart! so quick to feel,
In other's woes to share,
No room for Jesus there.
O sinful soul! thus to debase
The being God doth spare! Blood-bought, thou art no more thine own: Heart, brain, life, are His alone;
Make room for Jesus there—
Lest soon the bitter day shall come
When vain will be thy prayer, To find in Jesus' heart a place; Forever closed the door of grace,
Thou'lt gain no entrance there.
Life in China.*
We have introduced the author of this work to our readers through an earlier volume on Life and Adventures in Japan." That volume was written after a residence of f.jur years among the people whom he describes. This work describes the result of an extended journey, from Hong Kong to the Himalayas, illustrated with more than 30 pictures. If not in all respects equal to the prece ling volume, we must bear in mind that in this book he writes as a tourist, whilst in the other he wrote as a resident among the natives* and an educator of their youth. Prof. Clark is a clear, graphic, sprightly writer, with
•Front Hong Kong to the Himalayas; Or, Three Thousand Miles through India. Illustrated from original photographs. By E. Warren Clark. American Tract Society. 1512 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, pp. 308. Price, 150.
an eye for the humorous side of life and a tender sympathizing heart for the lowly and unfortunate. He always gets over the rough places in his path with a light and a hopeful heart. In this respect he remind* one of Stephens.
At Canton he bought a few "birds' nests," at fifty cents apiece, of which the Chinese make a rare kind of soup. They were not composed of sticks and straws, but of <-a whiiish sort of gelatine, brittle to the touch, insipid in the taste, and about the size and shape of an ordinary clam-shell." These nests are found attached to the most inaccessible cliffs and rocks among the islands of the South Chinese Sea, and are obtained with greatdifficulty by suspending men and boys by ropes over the cliffs. The feathers and other rubbsh are picked out, and the gelatine is made into a soup, costing about $5 a dish.
Among other delicacies offered at Chinese restaurants, he mentions joints of roast dog and roast rats freshly caught, and snakes "nicely browned."
Chinese students reach their honors through severer tests than those of the United States. Triennial examinations are held in the city of Canton. Often as many as 10,000 students present themselves from different parts of the Empire. They are of all ages, young and old. They have passed the first test in their own province, and received the first degree. This examination is to get the second degree. "Each applicant is stripped, searched, and placed in a brick stall scarcely four feet square; two plain boards serve as a table and seat. Pen, ink and paper are furnished him, and a subject, or series of questions in Chinese claries assigned, upon which an e,-say must be prepared. One day and night are allowed for writing. During this time no communication is permitted with the outside world, and the diet is just sufficient to keep the candidate from starving. There are three sessions, with three days' interval between." The stalls are kept closely guarded. A mistake in a single character condemns the whole. Out of 10,000 students only seventy-five are able to pass the test and attain the degree. Their names are publicly announced, with great marks of honor. They are then sent to Pekin to pass another test