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Ontario. It is the outlet through which from that of Niagara Falls. This beall the four great northern lakes flow calms tbe mind, and gives you a sense towards the gulf of St. Lawrence. The of great peace. That fills you with awe total descent in these 33 miles is 334 and shuddering dread. And standing feet. About 16 miles from lake Erie on the brink of it, a horrid feeling that the river begins to narrow, and the ve- you are irresistibly drawn towards the locity of the current increases. There great vortex grows upon you. the “ rapids” begin. Between this and On the mountain, just at the point the Falls, a distance of a mile, the de- from which you get your first view of scent is 52 feet. For some distance be- Wyoming Valley, the engineer runs the low the stream flows in whirlpools and train at its greatest speed. For more eddies. Two miles down the river, at than 15 miles down the mountain side, “Whirlpool Rapids," it becomes more you are swept around the curves and tumultuous than above the Falls. By over the uneven road-bed with shocking means of an elevator you here descend velocity; and the cars swing from side to the river bank, from where you wit- to side like the rapid ambling of one of ness a scene of terrific grandeur. the giant monsters of pre-historic ages.
After the swift R. R. train has Unfortunately it happens that this kind whirled you for hours along its winding of motion, whether on waves or rail. track, through wild mountain regions, ways, has always had the strange effect the noted Valley of Wyoming all of a of unfitting me to appreciate either sudden opens to your view. It has an scenery or the most savory dishes. average breadth of 3 miles, and a length Whew! How cruel vot to put down of 21 miles, and is bordered by rugged brakes at this place so as to put one in mountains 1000 feet high. Should you the proper frame of mind to fully enjoy have the good fortune to visit this histo- such a view. ric vale, be sure to approach it by way. This charming valley. has repeatedly of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and been the theatre of massacre and war. from the south. On the top of the More than a hundred years ago the first mountain an exclamation of joyful sur-settlers were massacred by the gavages. prise called the attention of the other The Pennsylvania proprietaries bought passengers to the sudden unfolding of it from the Indians. Then a Connectithe charming scene Far below us it cut colony tried to take possession of it. spread out before the view ; fields of ripe Both claimed to own it. For many harvests, of young corn and grass, and years the two claimants shed each numerous trees dotted the landscape, other's best blood in deadly feuds. At and blended their soft colors as seen length the two parties uvited to meet in the distance with singular effect. the fierce assaults of a common foe. Wilkesbarre, its largest town, lies in full The British, allied with the savages, view, and a busy thriving place it must perpetrated the great “Massacre of be, as its numerous stacks sending out Wyoming.” It was on the last day of black columns of smoke indicate. The June, 1778. Col. John Bitler with 400 reflected sunlight in the north branch | British provincials and 700 Indians enof the Susquehanna makes the river, intered the head of the valley. The its stately course, look like a gleaming sturdy settlers with their wives and stream of molten silver. The far off children, were put to death with all the busy reapers gathering their golden har- ferocious cruelty of which the Indians vests, seem like Dean Swift's puny Lilli- were capable. Queen Esther, a halfputians. The roads are mostly straight, breed Indian woman, tomahawked fourmany of which are lined with rows of teen with her own bands, to avenge the shade trees. The little clusters of farm death of her son. It happened near a buildings look prettier from afar than rock which still bears her name. When near at band. At this distance all the the fort in which the people bad sought inequalities of surface, and all disfigur- refuge surrendered, the surviving ining objects are hidden from sight, and habitants, mostly women and children, you behold only the enchantment Aed through the wilderness to seek safewhich distance lends to the view. Howty in some of the other settlements. very different is the effect of this view Less than 30 years later a countryman
of these British instruments of the different wharves along the coast, and “ Wyoming Massacre," wrote a poem makes the voyage in four hours. Both entitled “Gertrude of Wyoming," banks recede and rise in gentle slopes founded on this bloody tragedy. Tho. from the water's edge, and are covered mas Campbell had never seen Wyoming with thriving farms. As you approach Valley, in fact had never visited Amer- the southern end and around the town ica. He relied for his material on a of Watkius, the banks and hills become few books of travel, and on certain his more rugged and steep. Handreds torical works. This accounts, in part of acres of fourishing vineyards cover for the inaccuracies of his otherwise them, reminding one of the vine-clad meritorious work. Out of a moiety of hills of the Rhine. Indeed the scenery truth his fancy wove a story, in which as seen from the deck of the steamer is the sufferings of his heroine are pleas- not unlike that of the western bank of ingly depicted. Its local descriptions lake Leman, or of some parts of that of are weak. The reading of Scott's lake Zurich. “ Lady of the Lake” around Loch Watkins Glen, at the southern end of Katrine will help you greatly to enjoy the lake, has only of late years been and understand the scenery of this ro- brought to the view of the sight-seeing mantic region, but the reading of “Ger- and sight-seeking public. It is a sort of trude of Wyoming” in this valley Niagara on a small scale. You enter the would shed very little light on its bisto- mouth of a gorge scarcely 100 feet wide, ry, geography, or the customs of its bounded by perpeudicular rocks hunearly inhabitants. The work has its dreds of feet in height. As at Niagara merits, and helped to place its author Falls, the lower formation of rocks is among the poets of his country. Some softer than that towards the surface, things which he ascribes to its early where by disintegration the gorge settlers are true now, but were not widens, so that the base of the Glen is then.
wider than the top. Artificial foot“Thou wert once the loveliest land of all
bridges and stairways, steep and lofty, That see the Atlantic wave their morn re
assist the tourist in his adventurous store,
climbing. Along narrow footpaths cut Sweet land! May I thy lost delights recall out of the rock, right on the edge of And paint thy Gertrude in her bowers of precipices, you creep along with cau
yore, Whose beanty was the love of Pennsylva
va tious step, under the little falls of water nia's shore."
I percolating through the overbang
ing rock. Here and there a sudden What a grand theme this story of turn surprises you with a charming Wyoming would furnish for the genius cascade. Indeed these abrupt, startling of our own Whitrier!
surprises meet you on every hand. In In returning from Niagara Falls a picking your path through this wild, very pleasant route is the one by way of rugged split in the mountain, along the Seneca Lake and Watkins Glen, in brink of water-falls and precipices, you western New York. For beauty and wonder whether anybody had ever been picturesquenes - of scenery, this is one killed here, and whether such a fate of cur loveliest American lakes. It is might pot be in store for you. Only 37 miles in length, and from two to four let your foot slip a few inches, or your miles in breadth. It lies 441 feet above head reel at certain unprotected points the Atlantic, and 210 above lake Onta- of your path, and—well, you might be rio, into which its waters flow. Its hurt. How ever Nature managed to greatest depth is 630 feet. Until March split this narrow opening in the moun. 22, 1856, it was never known to be fro- tain here, I can not divine. All through zen over. Steamboats furnish the tourist the rocks on both sides are divided into with charming voyages between the ex- masses of from 20 to 30 feet wide, both treme ends. Geneva, at the north end, ends of which are as even as if they although not to be compared with its had been sawed off from top to bottom. great namesake in Switzerland, is quite Whilst the shapes of these rock-seca thriving town, surrounded by a fertile tions are different, the regularity of their country. Our steamer touches at the size and surface reminds one of the closely fitting columns of the Giant's preserve her purity. Socially, woman Causeway, in the north of Ireland. was not an independent being. She was How this little mountain stream strug. an inferior creation, dependent on her gles and toils to get out of this Glen, now husband; for except as a wife, her explaying about peacefully in a little pool, istence was scarcely recognized. Of this back of a high rock, then rushing aside theoretical position of woman, abundant round rock curves and over the water proof is given in all the early didactic falls, until it emerges into the beautiful literature of Russia, and especially in lake where it ends amid scenes of beauty the Domostroi, that curious manual of and peace. Thus after life's battles household economy written in the time comes the Christian's world of peace and of Ivan the Terrible. The wife should glory.
be blindly obedient in all things, and In sooth this two miles walk of two for her faults should be severely whiphours through the Glen was a novel ex- ped, but not in anger. Her duty is to perience. The sun shut out, the weird, keep the house, and look after the food wild scenery, with no sound around us and clothing, and to see to the comfort but that of our own steps and our sup- of her husband; to bear children, but pressed voices, without escort or guide, not to educate them. Severity was intwo weary climbers with trembling de- culcated, and to play with one's children light, toiled their way over the difficult was esteemed a sin,-a snare of the path. We reached the end at the top, devil. The wife was bound to stay at early twilight, although in some chiefly at home, and to be acquainted parts of the Glen it is twilight all day with nothing but her household work. long. A carriage in waiting took us To all questions on outside matters she down the steep road to the village, af- was to answer that she did not know. fording us an evening view of Seneca It was believed that an element of evil lake and its surroundings.
lurked in the female sex; and even the At the Glen Park Hotel we found most innocent sport between little boys good quarters and kind treatment, and and girls, or social intercourse between a fine view, not excelled, if equalled by young men and women, was severely any other hotel there. I assured the reprehended. The Domostroi, and even obligiog proprietor that I was pleased Pososhkof, as late as the eighteenth cenwith his house, but that the truth would tury, recommended a father to take his compel me to warn my friends against cudgel and break the ribs of his son, his lying agent, who met us and button- whom he found jesting with a girl. holed me on the steamer; which claim Traces of this feeling with regard to of veracity I hereby honestly meet. women are still found in current proWhether the proprietor is responsible verbs. “A woman's hair is long, her for the conduct of his agent, it is not understanding is short," runs one profor me to say. I have, however, been verb; “ The wits of women are like the reliably informed that the proprietors of wilderness of beasts," says another; the principal hotels at Niagara Falls while a third says, “ As a horse by the are pecuniarily in league with the bit, so must a woman be governed by swindling practices of the cabmen of threats.” The collections of popular that place.
stories and anecdotes are full of instances of the innate wickedness and
devilishness of the female sex, with Women in Russia in the Seventeenth references to all the weak or wicked Century.
women of sacred and profane history. In the “ Great Mirror," compiled in the
seventeenth century, we even find the The Muscovite idea of women, founded obstinacy of woman exemplified by the on the teachings and traditions of By- well-known anecdote of the drowning zaptine theology, was purely a monastic woman, still making with her fingers the one. The virtues of ihe cloister, faith, sign of "scissors." prayer, charity, obedience, and industry, Although this was the theoretical were the highest virtues of a woman. position of woman in Russian society, The life of the cloister was best suited to practically in small households, where women were important factors, there riers of Morpheus. A gentle trickle of were great divergencies from the strict talk, as the juice of poppies, concludes rules of the Domostroi. In the higher the course. It was Sydney Smith who ranks of life tbe women are more care- suggested that such sermons were framed fully guarded and restrained, and in on the theory that sin could be taken the family of the czar the seclusion in from men, like Eve from Adam, by putthe Terem, or women's apartment, was ting them into a deep sleep. almost complete. This was in part due Are there pot dull speakers in other to the superstitious belief in witchcraft, vocations ? Take the morning paper the evil eye, and charms that might af- and read how the florr and galleries fect the life, health, or fertility of the were emptied when the Honorable Humroyal race. Neither the czarina por drum arose. The lazy freedman, even, the princesses ever appeared openly in is driven from his snug roost by the public. They never went out except in tiresome platitudes of the dreary oraa closed litter or carriage. In church tion. But suppose the senator was exthey stood behind a veil,-made, it is plaining and enforcing a law that has true, sometimes of gauze; and they been expounded and pressed upon the usually timed their visits to the churches public for eighteen hundred years in and monasteries for the evening or the print and by the voice, times without early morning, and on these occasions number, we may be assured that the no one was admitted except the im- audience would thin down to the offimediate attendants of the court. Von cials of the chamber, and they would Meyerberg, Austrian embassador at protect themselves by wool in their ears Moscow in 1663, writes that out of a and the softest lounges within reach. thousand courtiers, there will hardly be And more, suppose he had been speakfound one who can boast that he has ing on the same subject three times a seen the czarina, or any of the sisters week for years, would not every servitor or daughters of the czar. Even their however well paid resign with a preferphysicians are not allowed to see them. Ience for grubbing sassafras bushes in a When it is necessary to call a doctor for lonesome field to the intolerable suffertbe czarina, the windows are all darken- ing of listening to that stale rehearsal. ed, and he is obliged to feel her pulse The wonder is not that sermons are through a piece of gauze, so as not to dull, but rather at the variety and grasp touch her bare hand! Even chance en- in such public addresses.-Richmond counters were severely punished. In Christian Advocate. 1674 two chamberlains, Dashkof and Buturlin, on suddenly turning a cor. Modes of Salutation. ner in one of the interior courts of the palace, met the carriage of the Czarina The German says, “How do you find Natalia, who was going to prayers at a yourself?" or, “How goes it?” The convent. Their colleagues succeeded Frenchman, “How do you càrry your. in getting out of the way. Dash of self?" The Turk, “How is your digesand Buturlin were arrested, examined, lion ?” The Englishman, “ How are and deprived of their offices, but as the you!” and the impulsive American, encounter was proved to be purely for- “How d’ye?” A bow is a courtly tuitous and unavoidable, they were in a practice; the lifting of the hand to the few days restored to their rank. And hat a military salutation; handshaking yet, this was during the reign of Alexis, prevails in the Uuited States and Engwho was far less strict than his prede- land, and kissing in France. In Africa cessors. - Eugene Schuyler, in Scribner. demonstrations of delight are made by
falling down on the back and kicking up the heels ; in America by clapping
hands. The Arab, to express his friendAbout Dull Sermons. sbip, hugs and kisses his adorer, if perWithout controversy or apology, cer- mitted, and then asks for backsheesh; in tain sermons are dull. The introduction some tribes they rub poses. The Yanis a tale that is told, very quieting to kee, when he is puzzled, scratches his the nerves. The divisions are the cou- head, the Chinaman his foot.—Ex.
The Sunday-School Department.
“ The Aunties."
of their own or of their kindred. Of
tbenu we can say, they loved their neighBY SIGMA.
bor as themselves. When they gave to
the poor or to some benevolent object, it Every one has an influence, either for was not of their abundance but wbat good or for evil. Without it, personal they earned with their own hands. It intercourse would be impossible. If is not necessary for them to work, yet if one would work for the good and true, you visit them to-day, you will find there is nothing which he ought to es- them busy quilting for some one. The teem so highly and guard so carefully money thus obtained is given to the and prayerfully as that influence which poor. In meeting the wants of the deshe conveys to his fellow.men. This titute, it is always done in an indirect, " the Aunties” did. I had the privi- modest way. Through me, they have lege to meet and live with them for ministered, more than once, to the wants nearly two years. They are the daugh- of the poor in my charge, though they ters of a clergyman, who went to his re- belong to a different branch of the ward many years ago. The one is a Christian Church. widow, and the other a maiden lady. Such self-sacrifice must be admired They are still living, and their ages are even by the ungodly; it wins the conrespectively seventy-five and seventy- fidence and affections of every one and four years. They live in the village of gains a popularity that is as high above,
a nd county of C in this that won by the influence of wealth or State. They are known and regarded worldly honor, as the infinite is above as “ Aunties” far and near. When I the finite-a popularity that will stand first met them, I could not help but ask the test of the day of Judgment. “Inmyself the question, why is it, that every asmuch as ye bave done it unto the one seems so much attached to them ? least of these my brethren ge have The problem was soon solved in my own done it unto me.” mind. They made it the rule of their These “Aunties” have many other lives, rather to speak of the good quali- traits, which I might speak of, if time ties of an individual, than of his defects. and space allowed. They are great What a noble rule, for both young and Sunday-school workers; especially the old; yet how few practice it. The na- older one. She will go into the streets tural tendency in man is to magnify the and lanes, the highways and hedges, and bad qualities in others. If a man's in- compel them to come in. Having passed fluence shall be for good, he must not, five years, beyond the allotted time of he cannot foster and satisfy this inclina- man, notbing could even now, save sicktion. He must crucify it bring it ness alone, keep her away from her class. under” and develop a purer principle; She makes the members of her class feel if he cannot speak well of an individual, that she is not only an “ Auntie” but a he can say nothing about him.
mother as well. Another element in the solution of Would that we had more such teachthe above problem is their earnest con- ers in our Sunday-schools. Too many sideration of the poor. To those in des- will not be Uncles and Aunties to the titution and want, they were at all times children of their classes ; they will stand real“ Aunties.” I have every reason to aloof from them as though they were too believe, that they are as much concerned insignificant to awaken their care, symabout the welfare of others, as they are pathy and love.